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Gen. Buell soon afterward reached the Rebels had left some hours beNashville, and established there his fore, after burning 18,000 bushels of headquarters, while his army was corn, 5,000 tons of hay, their cavalry quartered around the city. Col. stables, and much other property; Stanley Matthews, 51st Ohio, was while many of their heavy guns, appointed Provost-Marshal, and soon which they were unable to take restored the city to order; discover- away, had been rolled off the bluff, ing and reclaiming a considerable here 150 feet high, into the river. amount of Rebel stores which had The 2d Illinois cavalry, Col. Hogg, been appropriated to private use. from Paducah, had entered and The bridges and roads northward taken possession the evening before. were speedily repaired, and railroad A massive chain, intended to bar the connection with Louisville rëopened. descent of the Mississippi, had here The wealthier classes had in great been stretched across the great river, part left, or remained sullenly dis- but to no purpose; the Missouri end loyal; but among the mechanics and being loose, and buried in the mud laboring poor a good degree of Union of the river-bed. feeling was soon developed.
Island No. 10 lies in a sharp bend
in the Mississippi, 45 miles below By the Union successes recorded Columbus, and a few miles above in this chapter, the Rebel stronghold New Madrid on the Missouri bank. at Columbus, Ky., commanding the This island had been strongly fornavigation of the Mississippi, had tified, its works. well supplied with been rendered untenable. It was powerful guns and ammunition,
amorenses, Wharly di- 40,000 The Missotesting
Bishop of Louisiana, who had ex- regard, so that it was confidently pended a vast amount of labor in counted on to stop the progress of strengthening its defenses, while the the Union armies down the river. adjacent country had been nearly di- Gen. Pope with a land force of nearly vested of food and forage to replenish 40,000 men, had previously marched its stores. Its garrison had been re down the Missouri shore of the river, ported at 20,000 men; but had been reaching and investing New Madrid, reduced by successive detachments to March 3. Finding it defended by 2,000 or 3,000. Com. Foote, on re- stout earthworks, mounting 20 heavy turning from Clarksville to Cairo, guns, with six strongly armed gunspeedily collected a flotilla of six boats anchored along the shore to aid gunboats, apparently for service at in holding it, he sent back to Cairo Nashville; but, when all was ready, for siege-guns; while he intrenched dropped down the Mississippi, fol- three regiments and a battery under lowed by three transports, conveying Col. Plụmmer, 11th Missouri, at some 2,000 or 3,000 soldiers, under | Point Pleasant, ten miles below, so Gen. W. T. Sherman, while a sup- as to command the passage of the porting force moved overland from river directly in the rear of No. 10. Paducah. Arriving opposite Co- The Rebel gunboats attempted to lumbus, he learned that the last of dislodge Col. Plummer, but without
38 March 4
success. Pope's siege-guns arrived from
A violent thunder-storm raged
| PEPLEASANT AL slop
MAP SHOWING THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF ISLAND
NO. 10, NEW MADRID, TIPTONVILLE, ETC.
and at daylight it was discovered that the Rebels had left, taking Brig.-Gen. Makall, who assumed it very little with them. Thirty-three in a bombastic proclamation. Mean
with ammunition, tents, cartridges, quietly engaged in cutting a canal, wagons, &c., were abandoned by the 12 miles long, across the Missouri fugitives, with scarcely an attempt peninsula, opposite No. 10, through even to destroy them. Our loss which steamboats and barges were during the siege was barely 51 killed safely transferred to the river below and wounded.
the Rebel stronghold; while two of Com. Foote, with his gunboats, had our heavier gunboats succeeded in moved down from Columbus early passing the island “l in a heavy fog. in March, opening on the Rebel Gen. Pope, thus relieved from all works at No. 10 on the 15th. Two peril from the Rebel flotilla, pushed days later, a general attack was made, a division 42 across the river toward with five gunboats and four mortar- the rear of the remaining Rebel boats; but, though maintained for stronghold, and was preparing to nine hours, it did very little damage. follow with the rest of his army, Beauregard telegraphed to Rich- when the Rebels under McCown, mond *' that our vessels had thrown sinking their gunboat Grampus, and 3,000 shells, expended 50 tons of six transports, abandoned No. 10 to powder, and had killed but one of its fate, and escaped eastward, leavhis men, without damaging his bat- ing Makall to be driven back upon teries. He soon left for Corinth, 40 the swamps, and forced to surrender ceding the command at No. 10 to some thousands of men, several gun
41 The Carondelet, April 4, and the Pittsburg, | April 6.
49 April 7.
boats, and more than a hundred | fight, and was run upon a shoal, cannon.43
where she sank; while the Mallory, Com. Foote, having refitted, moved which had attempted to crush her, down of the river in order of battle, was herself caught by the St. Louis, followed by transports conveying cut into and sunk, most of her crew part of Gen. Pope's army; finding going down with her. One of the his way first impeded at Fort Pillow, Confederate gunboats had ere this or Wright, situated on the first been burnt; another had her boiler Chickasaw Bluffs, near the Islands exploded by a shot; while the rest Nos. 33 and 34, about 70 miles above were so crippled as to render them Memphis. Landing his mortars on nearly ineffective; so they gave up the Arkansas bank, he commenced as the fight and drifted down the river, a bombardment of the fort at a dis- under cover of the smoke, to the protance of three-fourths of a mile, and tection of their batteries. The Cinwas replied to with energy and ac- cinnati was our only vessel that had curacy. The high stage of the river suffered, and she had but 4 wounded. prevented cooperation by our army; A month later,47 Fort Pillow was so the cannonade was kept up for evacuated, as was Fort Randolph, two weeks with spirit on both sides, twelve miles below. Some damaged but with little effect.
guns were left in them, but nothing A powerful ram having been re- of much value. Com. Davis dropped ceived by the Rebels from below, they down next day to within gun-shot of resolved to test its efficiency; and Memphis, where he came to anchor; accordingly made an attack on our and next morning, with five gunboats fleet, the ram leading, backed by and four rams, slowly approached three gunboats, and making a rush the city. Soon, a Rebel fleet of eight at the Cincinnati, whose rapid broad-gunboats was seen approaching in sides at short range made no impres- order of battle, opening fire when sion on her assailant's iron mail. within three-fourths of a mile. The The boats collided with a fearful Union ram, Queen of the West, soon crash, instantly followed by a broad-struck the Rebel gunboat, Gen. side from the Cincinnati and a vol- Price, crushing in her wheel-house, ley of musketry; directly after which, and causing her to leak so badly Commander Stembel fired his pistol that she was headed at once for the at the head of the Confederate pilot, Arkansas shore. The Rebel gunkilling him instantly. The pilot's boat, Beauregard, now made at the mate thereupon shot the Commander Queen, which attempted to strike through his shoulder and neck, dis- her; but the shock was skillfully abling but not killing him. The evaded by the Beauregard's pilot, Cincinnati, though crippled and sink who struck the Queen aft so heavily ing, was able to withdraw from the as to disable her.
as to disable her.
48 Gen. Pope, in his official report, says: mense quantity of ammunition of all kinds, many
"Three Generals, 273 field and company hundred horses and mules, with wagons and officers, 6,700 prisoners, 123 pieces of heavy harness, &c., are among the spoils." artillery--all of the very best character, and of the latest patterns--7,000 stand of small arms,
44 April 12.
45 April 17. several wharf-boat loads of provisions, an im- / 16 May 4.
47 June 4
Monarch thereupon made at the and replied, while our troops were Beauregard, and struck her heavily landed below to take those batteries on the bow, causing her to fill rapidly in the rear. A ball, from a siegeand sink, while the Monarch took gun on the bluff, pierced the side of the Queen in tow and drew her out the Mound City, and passed through of peril. Com. Davis's flag-boat, her steam-drum, filling the vessel inthe Benton, threw a 50-pound ball stantly with the scalding vapor. Of from a rifled Parrott into the Rebel the 175 persons on board, barely 23 gunboat Gen. Lovell, striking her escaped injury. Many jumped overaft, just above the water-line, and board, frantic with pain, and were tearing a great hole, into which the drowned; while the boats sent from water rushed in a torrent. In four the Conestoga to their relief, were minutes, she had sunk in 75 feet fired on by the Rebels with grape of water, carrying down a part and canister, killing most of our of her crew. There remained but scalded and frantic fugitives. In a four of the Rebel boats; and few minutes, Col. Fitch had carried these, which had been for some time the works by a charge, capturing 9 drifting, though firing, now turned guns and about 30 prisoners, inclutheir bows toward the Arkansas ding Col. Frye, the commandant. shore, which the Jeff. Thompson The expedition failed to effect its soon reached, when her officers and purpose... crew leaped off and ran into the The triumphant Union fleet soon woods, while a shell exploding on proceeded down the river, encounher deck, set her on fire, and she was tering no serious obstacle till near burned down to the water. The Vicksburg, 48 where it communicated crew of the Gen. Bragg and the with Com. Farragut, whose fleet Sumter escaped in like manner; from the Gulf lay below this natural while the swifter Gen. Van Dorn stronghold, accompanied by Gen. fled down the river. The battle had Williams, with four regiments of lasted a little over an hour, and its infantry. The Rebel fortifications result was most decisive. No man were bombarded “for several hours, was killed on board our fleet. Mem- without result; but Lt.-Col. Ellet, phis, whose population had all been with two rams, went that day up the interested spectators of the combat, Yazoo river, to capture three Rebel surrendered immediately.
gunboats, which, on his approach, An expedition, comprising four were set on fire and impelled down gunboats and a steam transport, the current, with intent to envelop conveying the 46th Indiana, Col. our vessels in the flames. The Rebel Fitch, was soon dispatched up the boats were destroyed. Arkansas and White rivers, to open The siege of Vicksburg was concommunication with Gen. Curtis, tinued by our fleet, and a determined known to be approaching from the attack made on it July 1, but deWest. Reaching St. Charles, the feated. The Rebel ram Arkansas Mound City, then in advance, was came down the Yazoo, ran through fired on from two concealed batteries, the astonished Union fleet, and took 48 June 24. 49 June 26.
50 July 15.
refuge under the batteries of Vicks- i wooded. Two or three miles southburg, unharmed. Repeated attempts ward is Shiloh Church, and some ten to destroy or sink her 5 were defeated miles farther is the road-crossing by the shore batteries; and, on the known as Monterey, where there 24th, the siege was raised; Com. were half-a-dozen houses. The reFarragut, with Gen. Williams, re- gion is thinly and recently settled ; turning down the river; while Com. still mainly covered by the primitive Davis, with his fleet, steamed up to forest; gently rolling, and traversed the mouth of the Yazoo, thus aban- by a number of inconsiderable creeks, doning, for the time, the rëopening making eastward and northward, to of the Mississippi.
be lost in the Tennessee.
At Pittsburg Landing, the Tyler Gen. Grant's victorious army, after found a Rebel battery of six guns, a brief rest at Fort Donelson, re- which it silenced, after a mutual cancrossed, considerably strengthened, nonade of two hours; returning to the Tennessee, just above Fort thence to Danville and reporting. Henry, where several gunboats and a The movement of the army southlarge number of transports, passing ward on transports was continued down the Cumberland into the Ohio, the 46th Ohio, Col. Worthington, and thence into the Tennessee, took leading, on the transport B. J. up our soldiers by regiments and Adams-so far as Savannah, where started with them on a new move it was landed, 52 and proceeded to ment up the Tennessee. General take military possession. All the Charles F. Smith had been desig- transports, 69 in number, conveying nated by Gen. Halleck to direct this nearly 40,000 men, were soon démovement, but was soon disabled by barking the army, with its material, the sickness of which he died not long at and near this place, whence Gen. after reaching Savannah, Tenn., and Lew. Wallace's division was disGen. Grant was thus restored to chief patched 68 to Purdy, a station 16 miles command. The rendezvous of the W.S.W., where the railroad was deexpedition was at a little place called stroyed. Gen. Sherman's first diviDanville, where the railroad from sion was next 54 conveyed up the river Memphis to Clarkesville and Louis- to Tyler's Landing, just across the ville crosses the river. The gunboats Mississippi State line; whence the Tyler and Lexington had already 6th Ohio cavalry was dispatched to made a reconnoissance up the Ten Burnsville, on the Memphis and nessee, meeting their first resistance Charleston road, some miles eastward at PITTSBURG LANDING, an insignifi- of Corinth, which was likewise de
ant two-house nucleus of a prospec- stroyed without resistance. The extive village, 8 miles above Savannah pedition then returned unmolested and 20 miles N.N.E. of Corinth, Miss., to Savannah. at the junction of the Memphis and These easy successes, and the fact Charleston with the Mobile and Ohio that no enemy came near or seemed Railroad. The country hence to to meditate annoyance, must have Corinth is rolling, and generally imbued our leading officers with a
51 July 16–22. 53 March 10. 59 March 12. 64 March 14.