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by their White officers in trying to generally swampy, wooded, and thinkeep them in line at the front, prob- ly settled country, where none but ably overbalanced the total value of negroes made any professions of their services; so that, if they chose Unionism, and, being joined at Jackto depart for their homes soon after sonporta3 by Gen. C. C. Washburne, the close of the battle, it is not prob- with the 3d Wisconsin cavalry, which able that any strenuous efforts were had come through from Springfield made to detain them. 20

alone and unassailed, proceeded to

Augusta, where he took leave 24 of the Gen. Curtis, after resting and re- White, and, assuming a generally S. fitting his army, finding no enemy in W. direction, took his way across the its vicinity, again put his column in cypress swamps and canebrakes of motion, proceeding S. S. E. through the Cache, where his advance (the north-western Arkansas to Bates- 33d Illinois, Col. Hovey), which had ville,21 on White river, near which been struggling over roads heavily. point he had expected to meet gun- obstructed by fallen trees, was atboats with supplies from below. He tacked 25 by some 1,500 Rebel cavalry, found the river, however, at an un- mainly Texans, led by Gen. Albert usually low stage for the season- Rust, who held him in check for an barely four feet; while the gunboats hour, until he was joined by the 1st required six or seven; beside which, Indiana cavalry, Lt. Col. Wood, with the Mound City, which attempted two howitzers, when an impetuous the ascent, had been resisted and charge was made by the Indianians, blown up in a fight with the Rebel whereby the enemy were routed and battery at St. Charles some days be- put to flight. The bodies of 110 dead fore. Being compelled, therefore, to Rebels were buried by our soldiers, depend for all his supplies on wagontrains from Rolla, Mo., now several wounded, including Maj. Glendenhundred miles distant, he did not feel nin, who led the charge, receiving a strong enough to advance on Little shot in the breast, which proved morRock, the capital of Arkansas, nearly tal. The Rebels were satisfied with 100 miles S. S. W. from his present this experiment, and gave no further position. Having halted seven weeks, trouble. wholly unmolested, at Batesville, he Gen. Curtis again struck” White again set forth,22 crossing the Big river at Clarendon, just below the Black by a pontoon-bridge, and pur- mouth of the Cache, only to learn, suing a southerly course through a with intense chagrin, that Col. Fitch, SCHOFIELD AND MONEIL HOLD MISSOURI:

20 Pollard says:

simple children of the forest may be imagined at "The Indian regiments, under Gen. Pike, had

ile had the sight of such roaring, deafening, crashing not come up in time to take any important part

monsters as 12-pounders running around on in the battle. Some of the red men behaved

wheels. Gen. Van Dorn, in his official report well, and a portion of them assisted in taking a

of the battle, does not mention that any assist

ance was derived from the Indiansman ally that the deafening roar of artillery, to which they

had, perhaps, cost us much more trouble, exwere unaccustomed, and were naturally amazed

pense, and annoyance than their services in at the sight of guns that ran on wheels. They

modern warfare could, under any circumstances, knew what to do with the rifle; they were ac

be worth." . . customed to the sounds of battle as loud as their

21 Arriving there May 6.

22 June 24. own war-whoop; and the amazement of these ! 23 June 25. 24 July 4. 25 July 7. 26 July 9. '


with the expected gunboats. and field persisted in enrolling and organtransports, had gone down the river izing militia until he had 50,900 men barely 24 hours previous. Being on his lists, of whom about 30,000 short of provisions, in a thoroughly were armed. Upon full considerainhospitable country, he had no choice tion, he decided to enroll only loyal but to make his way to the most ac- men, since passive were often concessible point on the Mississippi. verted into active Rebels by à reThis was Helena, 65 miles S. E., quirement to serve in the Union which was made 27 by Gen. Wash- forces. He had 20,000 men ready burne, with 2,500 cavalry and 5 how- for service, when, late in July, 1862, itzers, in a march of 24 hours, the the tidings of McClellan's disastrous infantry coming through during the failure before Richmond combined two following days, bringing about with other influences to fill the half a regiment of white Arkansas interior of the State with formidvolunteers, with a large number of able bands of Rebel partisans. Of negroes, who, having been employed these, Col. Porter's, two or three to block the roads in our front by thousand strong, was attacked 2o at felling trees across them, were entitled Kirksville, Adair County, by Col. to liberty and protection under the John McNeil, with 1,000 cavalry regnant military policy. A single and a battery of 6 guns, and, after a train of 40 wagons, laden with sup- desperate fight of four hours, utterly plies, being wholly unguarded, was defeated, with a loss of 180 killed captured by Rebel guerrillas in Mis- and 500 wounded. Several wagonsouri, within 30 miles of Rolla, its loads of arms were among the spoils starting-point.

of victory,' and Porter's force was

by this defeat practically destroyed. Gen. John M. Schofield Bad at an McNeil's loss was reported at 28 early day 28 been placed by Gen. Hal- killed and 60 wounded. leck in command of all the Missouri Four days thereafter, Col. Poinmilitia--à force then visible only to dexter's band of about 1,200 Rebels the eye of faith. By the middle of was attacked, while crossing the April following, he had an array of Chariton river, by Col. Odin Guitar, 13,800 men in the field, mainly cav- 9th militia cavalry, 600 men, with 2 alry; to which was intrusted the de- guns, and thoroughly routed; many fense of the State, while our other of the Rebels being driven into the troops were drawn away to Arkan- river and drowned. “Many horses sas and the Tennessee. Gen. Curtis's and arms, and all their spare ammumovements eastward toward the Mis- nition and other supplies, were capsissippi opened the State to incur-tured." 30 Poindexter, with what resions from the Rebels, still in force mained of his force, fled northward in western Arkansas; while consider to join Porter; but was intercepted ble numbers of Price's men were and driven back by another Union clandestinely sent home to enlist re- force under Gen. Ben. Loan, and cruits and organize guerrilla bands for again struck by Guitar; who, in a activity during the summer. Scho- running fight of nearly 48 hours,

27 July 11. 28 Nov. 27, 1861. % Aug 6, 1862. 30 Gen. Schofield's official report.


entire command. Poindexter, after county, wounded and defeated him, wandering alone through the woods with the loss of his two guns, and for several days, was made a pris- compelled him to fall back to Lexoner; and Porter, driven back upon ington, upon which place Coffey was McNeil by the same movement of advancing with an army now augGen. Loan, was compelled to disperse mented to 4,500 men; when, finding his band to save it from destruction. that Gen. Blunt was in strong force, This was the last appearance of the threatening his line of retreat, while Rebels in formidable force northward Loan's and Wright's and other comof the Missouri river; though small mands were concentrating upon him bands of guerrillas continued to from every direction, he relinquished plunder and murder there, as else- the hope of capturing Lexington and where, for more than a year. relieving the Rebels north of the

Independence, on the western bor- river, and turned to fly. Eluding der of the State, was about this time Gen. Blunt in the night, he was hotly attacked by a Rebel band of 500 to pursued to the Arkansas line, but 800, under Col. Hughes; and its gar- escaped without serious disaster. rison, 312 men of the 7th Missouri Gen. Schofield was soon after 32 sucavalry, was surrendered by Lt. Col. perseded in the command of the deBuel, after a short resistance. Gen. partment, by Gen. Curtis, but immeCoffey, with 1,500 Rebel cavalry from diately placed at the head of the Arkansas, early in August, invaded | forces confronting the enemy in the south-western Missouri, and, avoid- south-west, where the Rebels, now ing Springfield, moved rapidly north- led by Gen. T. 0. Hindman,** were ward. Col. Clark Wright, 6th Mis threatening a fresh invasion. Setting souri cavalry, was sent with 1,200 forward from Springfield" to Sarcoxie men in pursuit; Gen. Totten being to reconnoiter the enemy's position, directed by Schofield to strike the Gen. Salomon's advance had been band which had just captured Inde- overwhelmed at Newtonia by a large pendence, before it could be joined body of Rebel cavalry. Salomon had by Coffey; while Gen. Blunt, com- thereupon moved forward to their manding in Arkansas, was requested support, and renewed the battle at to send a force from Fort Scott, to noon; fighting until sunset without cooperate in cutting off Coffey's re- serious loss, ultimately retiring in good treat; and Col. Fitz-Henry Warren, order from the field. He estimated his 1st Iowa cavalry, was dispatched from strength at 4,500, and the enemy's in Clinton with 1,500 men to effect a his front at 7,000. Gen. Schofield, junction with Maj. Foster; who, with being rëenforced by Gen. Blunt from the 7th militia cavalry, 800 strong, Arkansas, found himself at the head had been pushed out from Lexington of 10,000 men; while the Rebels at by Totten, in quest of Hughes. Newtonia were estimated at 13,000

These combinations upon our side to 20,000. He resolved to advance failed most signally. Coffey and that night and attack at daylight Hughes united their forces and fought next morning ; Gen. Blunt approach31 Aug. 11. 2 Sept. 24. 33 Late M. C. from Arkansas.

34 Oct. 1.



the north east. réent further ed his steps and




ing Newtonia from the north and to Ozark, resolved not to fight until west, and Gen. Totten from the east. rëenforcements should arrive, and He found, on coming up, that the that further pursuit would be useless; enemy had sent their baggage to the so he retraced his steps, via Bentonrear, and were preparing to retreat. ville, to Cross Hollows and Osage Immediately charging with cavalry Springs, sending Gen. Herron, with and artillery, the Rebels fled without the 1st Iowa and 7th militia cavalry, resistance, and were chased 30 miles about 1,000 in all, to attack in the into Arkansas. It appeared that, rear some 3,000 or 4,000 Rebel cavthough in great numbers, they were alry who were encamped on White badly armed, many of them not at river, 8 miles from Fayetteville; while all; having been sorely disappointed Gen. Totten, advancing via Fayetteby the capture of a vessel laden with ville, was to assail them in front. arms for their use on the Mississippi Gen. Herron reached their camp at some time previously. Schofield early dawn,96 and immediately atpressed on to the old battle-ground tacked with such vigor that the of Pea Ridge, only to find the ene- Rebels, though in superior numbers, my's forces divided: à part, under fled rapidly into the mountains, with Cooper, having moved westward to the loss of their camp equipage. Gen. ward Maysville, with intent to oper- Totten did not arrive till after they ate on our communications with Fort had vanished. Gen. Schofield found Scott, while the main body had re- no further enemies within striking treated south-westerly toward Hunts- distance, until compelled by sickness ville, leaving two or three thousand to resign his command," leaving Miscavalry in our front to screen these souri substantially pacified. movements. Gen. Blunt was there- But Gen. Hindman, commanding upon sent after Cooper; and, after a the Confederate forces in Arkansas, hard night's march, found him in was not disposed to rest satisfied with camp near Maysville, and at once at- such a conclusion of the campaign. tacked, capturing his 4 guns and Having collected, by concentration completely routing his command. and conscription, a force estimated The Rebels fled in disorder across by our officers in his front at 25,000 the Arkansas to Fort Gibson. Their to 30,000 men-while he officially reloss in material would have been ports that, for want of stores, etc., he greater had they had more to lose. was able to take on this expedition

Gen. Schofield, with the residue of but 9,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, and his army, made a forced march over his artillery–he crossed the ArkanWhite River Mountains, to a point 8 sas river at or near Van Buren, and miles west of Huntsville, where Rains advanced upon our scattered and nuhad encamped the day before. His merically far inferior division, which advance was next morning pushed was watching him from the neighforward into Huntsville, whence a borhood of the last conflict. It was few Rebel cavalry fled at his ap- now December; but the weather was proach. He here learned that Rains clear and dry, and the days bright was retreating across the mountains and warm, though the nights were 35 Oct. 17. 36 Oct. 28.

37 Nov. 20.


chilly; while the roads were in good / of Blunt, he rested his men but an condition. Gen. Blunt, commanding hour or so before putting his column the 1st division, in good part of Kan- again in motion, and had proceeded sas troops, numbering about 5,000 but 5 or 6 miles when his advance men, was at Cane Hill, or Boones- was met by the 1st Arkansas and borough, some 10 miles north-west of 7th Missouri (Union) cavalry, being a Van Buren, and 18 south-west of part of those he had dispatched froin Fayetteville, when he was apprised Elkhorn to the aid of Blunt, who had of this advance,38 with one of his just before been attacked and thrown thrée brigades (Gen. Salomon's), pro-into great disorder by Marmaduke's tecting his trains at Rhea's Mills, 8 Rebel cavalry, forming the vanguard miles north. Determined not to be of Hindman's army. driven out of Arkansas, he tele-1. Gen. Blunt had been skirmishing graphed in various directions for for the last two days with what he Gen. Herron, commanding the 2d supposed the advance of the enemy's and 3d divisions, now in Missouri, main body; but learned, at 8 P. M. of and left subject to his orders by Gen. the 6th, that Hindman had turned Schofield's departure; and attempted, his left and interposed between him by showing a bold front and direct- and all of Herron's infantry and aring his cavalry to skirmish sharply tillery. Col. Wickersham, with 4 cavwith the Rebel vanguard, to delay alry regiments, reported to Blunt at Hindman's advance until Herron Cane Hill two hours afterward, with could reach him. Blunt's dispatch tidings that Herron would be at Fayfound so that able and earnest leader etteville early next morning. . at Wilson's creek, some 10 miles Blunt now attempted to warn Hersouth of Springfield, but with most ron of his danger, but it was too late; of his command from 10 to 20 miles his messengers were intercepted by nearer the Arkansas line. Within Marmaduke's cavalry. Hindman was three hours, his divisions were in mo- probably reaching for Blunt's trains tion southerly, making marches of at Rhea's Mills, when, to their mufully 20 miles per day, with all their tual astonishment, he locked horns guns and trains. Having reached with Herron on Illinois creek, near Elkhorn, 40 he dispatched Col. Wick the settlement known as PRAIRIE ersham, with his 3,000 cavalry, to GROVE. the more immediate relief of Blunt; Herron, divested of his cavalry, and pushing on to Fayetteville, had but about 4,000 men in hand, marching all night, he entered that and ought to have stood on the deplace at 4 A. M., on Sunday morning, fensive," availing himself of every Dec. 7th. Impressed with the peril: advantage of position and shelter.

38 Dec. 2. 39 Dec. 3. 40 On the evening of the 5th. | From a prisoner taken, I learned that Hindman

41 Gen. Herron, in a private letter to a friend was on the ridge, with his whole force, and inat Dubuque, Iowa, dated Dec. 16, says:

tended to whip me out before Blunt could get "For four miles, we fought their cavalry, dri- | up; in other words, to take us one at a time. ving them back to Illinois creek, where I found The case looked tough, with Blunt ten miles their whole force strongly posted on a long away, and 25,000 men between us; but I saw ridge, with magnificent positions for batteries. at a glance there were just two things that could For one mile in front, it was clear ground, and be done; namely, fight them without delay, and my road lay right in the center of their line. I depend on the chance of Blunt's hearing me

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