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ERI

CHANDLER'S
ENCYCLOPEDIA

AN EPITOME

OF

UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE

IN THREE VOLUMES

EDITED BY
WILLIAM HENRY CHANDLER, PH.D., F.C.S.

OF THE LEHIGH UNIVERSITY

WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM A LARGE NUMBER OF EMINENT SCIENTISTS

ILLUSTRATED BY COLORED MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS

VOLUME ONE

NEW YORK
PETER FENELON COLLIER

MDCCCXCVIII

misn's

THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

349291A
ASTOR, LENOX AND
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

R 1928 L

COPYRIGHT, 1898

BY

WILLIAM HENRY CHANDLER

CHANDLER'S ENCYCLOPEDIA

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

WILLIAM HENRY CHANDLER, Ph.D., F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Library, Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa.; United States Commissioner to the Exposition Universelle, 1889, Paris, France; Co-editor with his brother, Prof. Charles Frederic

Chandler, Ph.D., of Columbia University, New York City, of "The American Chemist,1871-77.

ASSISTANT EDITORS

FREDERICK MAYER BIRD,

Editor of Lippincott's Magazine
CHESTER W. DIETRICH, E.M.

ARTHUR S. MARTIN

CONTRIBUTORS

AGRICULTURE-DOMESTIC ANIMALS
HENRY HIRAM WING, M.S., Ithaca, N. Y.; Assistant Professor of Animal Industry and
Dairy Husbandry in Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Author of Milk and its Products,

r to the Bulletins and Reports of the New York and Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Stations; previously Assistant Director of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station 1882–84; Instructor in Agriculture and Superintendent of the College Farm, in the University of Nebraska, 1884-88; and Deputy Director and Secretary of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station 1888-94.

ANATOMY-HYGIENE-MEDICINE-PHYSIOLOGY-SURGERY
WILLIAM L. ESTES, M.D.; Director of St. Luke's Hospital, and Lecturer on Physiology and

Hygiene, Lehigh University, both at South Bethlehem, Pa.
A. L. KOTZ, M.D., Easton, Pa.
CHARLES MCINTIRE, M.D., Easton, Pa.; Secretary of the American Academy of Medicine,

and Lecturer on Hygiene, Lafayette College, Easton.
WILLIAM K. OTIS, M.D., Consulting Surgeon City Hospital, and Attending Surgeon St.

Mark's Hospital, New York City.

ANIMALS, DOMESTIC
PROF. HENRY H. WING, M.S.

PROF. JULIUS NELSON.

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ANTHROPOLOGY-BIOLOGY-DOMESTIC ANIMALS-ETHNOLOGY-ZOOLOGY JULIUS NELSON, Professor of Biology in Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J., and Biologist

of the New Jersey State Agricultural College Experiment Station. Author of Vertebrates of New Jersey, 1890; Reports on Oyster Culture, 1888–92; Tuberculosis, 1893–96; Syllabus of Zoology, 1893.

(iii)

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