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the s. bank of the Arkansas. Other important cities are Ft. Smith, upon the w. boundary, and Hot Springs, a watering place. The region was colonized by the French 1720, and purchased by the U. S. 1803 as part of La. A. was set off 1819, from a part of Missouri Territory, and admitted as a State 1836. Pop., 1890, 1,128,179, 311,227 being colored, and few of foreign birth. Density of pop., 21 to sq. m. Arkansas Post, ARK. Taken by Union forces Jan. 11, 1863. Arkansas River. Large right branch of the Mississippi. It heads in the Rocky mountains of Col. and flows generally s. e. across Kan., Ind. T., and Ark. Length 2,170 m., drainage area 185,671; navigable at high water to Ft. Smith, Ark; average flow 63,000 cub. ft. per second. Arkansite. TiO, Black variety of titanium oxide (Brookite), found in Ark. Arkwright, SIR RICHARD, 1732–1792. Inventor spinning-frame for cotton warp, patented 1769. knighted 1786. Arles. City of s. e. France, on the Rhone, noted for its amphitheater and other Roman remains; capital of a Burgundian kingdom 932–1032. Pop., ab. 24,000. Arm. Upper limb, or, more properly, that portion of it above the elbow.
Fig. 2.-Muscles of the Human Arm: abe, deltoid muscle; d, coraco-brachialis muscle; r. r, triceps: e, i, extensors of wrist and long supinator of the hand; km, flexor of fingers and radial and ulnar sides of the wrist, and t, palm of the hand, or palmaris longus; p, |. aris brevis; q, palmar fascia; o' biceps. Armada, THE INVINCIBLE. Collected for the subjugation of England by Philip II. of Spain, 1587. It consisted of 132 ships with 3.165 cannon, 8,766 sailors, 2,088 galley slaves. 21,855 soldiers, 1,355 volunteers commanded by the duke of MedinaSidonia; sailed from Lisbon May 19, 1588; entered the Channel July 19; suffered in several engagements July 21–29; retreated n. around the Orkneys and met great loss from severe storms. Armadillo. See LORICATA (Edentata) and DASYPODIDAE. Armagh. City of Ireland, capital of Co. A., seat of an archiepiscopal see, traditionally traced to St. Patrick. Its abp. is styled Primate of all Ireland; the abp. of Dublin, Primate of Ireland. Pop. ab. 10,000. Armancier Mountain-Gun. See GUNs, MOUNTAIN. Armata. Group of Gephyrean worms including the Chaetiferi and Tubicoli. Armature. I. Piece of soft iron which, when placed in contact with the two poles of a magnet, completes the magnetic circuit between them; sometimes called a “keeper,” as it prevents the loss of magnetism.
Fig. I.-Bones of the Human Arm:
h, humerus; r, radius; u, ulna; 10, wristjoint; hd, hand; s, scapula; c, clavicle, or collar bone.
II. One or more coils of insulated copper wire surrounding a core of soft iron: usually made the movable part of a dynamo, or magneto-electric machine; when made to rotate between the poles of the field magnets, currents are induced in the coils. Armatures may in general be divided into two classes: the ring or Gramme Armature, in which the coils are grouped upon a ring, whose principal axis of symmetry is also its axis of rotation; and the drum or Siemens Armature, in which the coils are wound longitudinally over the surface of a drum or cylinder. Ring armatures are used in the dynamos of Pacinotti, Gramme, and Brush, while the drum armatures are found in the machines of Siemens, Edison, Weston, and Thomson-Houston. A few special types of machines use pole armatures, having their coils wound on separate poles projecting radically around the periphery of a disc or central hub. Other special machines contain disc armatures in which the coils are flattened against a disc.
III. Sectors of ...}. placed upon the fixed plate of an influence electrical machine, as those of Holtz, Soepler and Voss.
IV. Conducting plates of tin-foil placed on either side of the dielectric in an electric condenser.
Armature Coefficient. Constant depending upon the number of turns of wire b in the armature of a dynamo-electric machine, upon the average area a of the turns, and upon a coefficient k, which represents the number of times the effect is increased by the soft iron core. If we represent the armature coefficient by A, we may write, A=kab, k is the “coefficient of magnetic permeability” of the core. The quantity A is sometimes called the “equivalent area,” and is the area of a single turn of wire which would produce the same difference of potential as the armature in question, including its many turns and core.
Armed Neutrality. That condition of a nation by which it maintains an armed force to repel any aggression on the part of belligerent nations between which it desires to remain neutral.
Armed Strength of Europe. SEE TABLE.
Armenia. Ancient country of s. w. Asia, whose inhabitants were of Caucasian stock; conquered by Assyrians and Persians, and by Alexander 325 B.C.; regained independence ab. 190, and was ruled by the Arsacidae. The Armenians became Christians ab. 300. A. has since been theater of many contests, and is now divided between Russia, Persia and Turkey. Alleged revolts in the winter of 1894–95 formed the excuse for Turkish massacres, which caused great indignation in Europe and America.
Armenian. Indo-European (or Aryan) language, with written records dating from 4th century. It was formerly ranged under the Iranian group, but is now recognized as independent.
Armenian Bible. Tr. 410–435 by Mies rob and the patriarch Isaac. The Syriac Peshito version was first taken as a basis, but the Greek was afterward used.
Armenian Church. Established 289, through Gregory the Illuminator, who became hierarch 302: independent and isolated since 491; usually called MONOPHYSITE (q.v.), though this is denied. Most of its doctrines and rites resemble those of the Greek Church. It has four patriarchates, and ab. 4,000,000 members, most of them in the Turkish dominions: its head or Catholikos lives in Russia. Some, living abroad, submitted to the Pope in 1316–34, and formed the United Armenians; this body has lately been divided. The A. B. C. F. M. founded a mission in 1831, and in 1850 an Evangelical Protestant Church. Many of the clergy in Turkish Armenia are said to have fallen in the massacres of 1894–95.
Armenian Literature. Although the heathen authors have perished, traces exist to show that they were quite numerous. Christianity stimulated Armenians to study and translate from the Greek and Latin, and some books which would other wise have perished are preserved in these versions, as the Chronicle of Eusebius. In the 5th century Miesvob developed and changed the Armenian alphabet. is pupils wrote various histories and other works. Thus Yeghishe or Elisaeus treated of the wars with Persia, and Moses of Khorene was the greatest historical writer of his race. In the 6th century the successes of the Persians destroyed literary activity for a time, though isolated writers remain from 700 to 1100. The next two cen– turies witnessed a revival of interest in letters. Since the 17th century the printing press has brought about a renewed activity in literary study and production.
Armenians. People of Iranian stock, inhabiting Asia Minor s. e. of the Black Sea, where are ab. 200,000; but in Russia are still more, and in Persia about half as many. They are intelligent. handsome, and woman holds a high position. The complexion is copper-colored.
Armilla. Plaited membranous frill surrounding the summit of the stipe in certain toadstools.
ARMILLARY SPHERE–ARMOR PLATES FOR WAIRSHIPS
began with them, as far as known. So, apparently, did the cuirass, consisting of two solid pieces for the front and back, which also continued in Roman use. Bodv-armor of chain mail characterized the earlier Middle Ages. This was gradually displaced by jointed plate-armor from the 14th century. This reached its most cumbrous and also most extensive use in the 16th century, when the wider use of firearms began to make it practically useless. The survival of the cuirass in the 17th and 18th centuries was rather traditional than practical, but it is still worn by certain cavalry regiments of Europe. See BULLET-PROOF CLOTH.
Armored Defenses. Owing to the enormous velocity and great mass of modern projectiles, masonry forts can no longer withstand their striking energy. Since 1855 sea-coast fortifications have been gradually protected by armor plates on their assailable fronts. These plates are of chilled cast iron, as in the Gruson shield, or of iron or steel, or a combination of the two. These devices have not yet reached a stage of final development.
Armorica. Old name of n. w. Gaul, reaching from the Seine to the Loire; now Bretagne or Brittany. The language resembles Welsh.
Armor-Piercing Projectiles. See PROJECTILEs.
Armor Plates for Warships. The inventive Hollanders, in raising the siege of Leyden in 1574, employed a paddlewheel floating structure called “The Ark of Delft,” which was covered with shot-proof bulwarks, and was probably the forerunner of the armor-clad. In 1812 John Stevens of New Jersey proposed the employment of inclined armor in his designs, and by 1841 had determined the resisting power of iron against cast-iron shot. Experiments in England in 1827 and 1840 with wrought-iron bars and iron plates respectively gave unfavorable results. In 1841 the French general Paixham recommended the use of iron to protect ships from the shells he had invented. In 1845 Dupuy de Lome submitted his first project for an armored frigate. In 1854 John Ericsson submitted a design of a monitor to Napoleon III. Coles proposed a similar design 1855. October 17, 1855, the first sea-going iron-clad fleet (French) was successfully tested at Kinburn; these vessels were armored with 4% inches of iron. England quickly followed with slightly heavier batteries. From 1856 to 1861 much experimentation took place, and in the U. S., 1861–65, many expedients were tried which gave a marked impetus to armor-clad construction. The monitors of this period developed into the battle-ships of to-day. By 1854 the manufacture of iron armor became a distinct industry, and 1859 saw the acceptance of turret armor. In 1867 experiments were made with the plate-upon-plate system, in which several plates in direct contact were employed. These were of value until the manufacturers were able to make good thick plates which had proportionally greater resistance. In 1872 British experiments proved that turrets and their gear would not necessarily be disabled by contortion or racking. This same year Admiral Ammen, U.S.N., proposed a plan of deck armor for a ram that promised the best deck protection, but such a ram was not laid down until 1891. She was completed in 1894, but has not yet been tested. The noted Spezia trials of 1876 demonstrated the superiority of Schneider steel over wrought-iron of both British and French manufacture. These results led to the production of the type known as British compound, adopted in 1877. To this É.i. tenaciously held until the Annapolis trials of 1890 so completely demonstrated the superiority of Schneider steel and nickel-steel that another extensive series of experiments was ordered, which resulted in Great Britain accepting the allsteel carbonized type under a combination of the Ellis (British) and Harvey (U.S.) patents. In 1889 Schneider made some excellent nickel-steel armor, in 1890 it became an accepted type, and has since been largely employed in the U. S., France, and Germany. Practically all lates are now made of homogeneous steel, compound armor aving been replaced by it. The heaviest plates are 22 inches thick. The Bethlehem Iron Co., and the Carnegie Co., Pittsburg, are the only American makers of armor plate; 36 inches of oak are usually employed behind heavy armor. With chilled-iron armor, the surface is hardened by being cast and chilled in a metallic mold. Gruson (German) chilled iron has been employed for land turrets, and has high resisting OWver. p Wrought-iron armor was manufactured from puddled ball and bar, by slabbing, piling and rolling. Steel armor is nearly all made of open-hearth steel. Deckplates, shields and splinter bulkheads are rolled. Ammunition 98
hoists and tubes, and conning towers, are hollow forgings. All other heavy armor is shaped under the hydraulic forging press, steam-hammer, or rolling-mill. Nickel steel is made by the addition of 34 per cent of nickel, and has proved of great value. A lower carbon and treatment at lower temperatures are secured thereby. Schneider of Le Creusot, France, was the first to successfully use it. Carbonized armor is manufactured in the same manner as steel armor, supercarbonized at a high temperature and suddenly chilled. The carbon of the surface is increased to 1 per cent by gas, bone, or other charcoal processes; the hard face is secured in different ways by various manufacturers, generally by the application of salt ice-water. Nickel-chrome steel contains 2 per cent of nickel and 1 per cent of chromium. St. Chamond of France is the most successful maker of this type. Compound armor was manufactured for many years under Ellis and Wilson pool. (British) in Great Britain, Gero France and Russia. It consists of ; iron with # steel acre. Ellis (Brown) system consisted of a wrought-iron foundation (back) plate and wrought-steel (face) plate united by liquid steel; o rolled to the required thickness. łoń. substituted 2 per cent nickel steel for the face plate. Wilson (Cammell) system consisted of thin iron plates rolled together to form foundation (back) plate, which after thorough scaling receives liquid steel to form the face plate; the whole is then rolled to the required thickness. Sandwich armor was composed of alternate layers of metal and wood; not now employed for ships. The British ship Inflea-ible has this 26 in. thick. The severest requirements are those of the U.S., and comprise, in addition to a personal official inspection of all operations, chemical analysis, physical tests for elongation, tensile-strength and uniformity, and a ballistic test of one or more plates selected from a lot, the weight of which is determined by the naval inspector. The ballistic test consists of firing a certain number of projectiles against the selected plate at determined energies for cracking and perforation.
Armory. See ARSENALs.
Arms, ANCIENT. In prehistoric ages the same offensive weapons were used which are now found with those still existing primitive peoples to whom wood and stone are the most accessible materials, viz., the club, mace, spear, bow and arrow, and sling. It was the introduction of copper, bronze, and iron which gave a more extensive use to the sword and spear. These metals were probably used in Chaldea and Egypt in the time of oldest monuments or records, ab. 4000 B.C. Their introduction into Europe was one of the phases of the transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age, probably ab. 1500 B.C. Although the bow was nowhere abandoned in consequence of this change, the ancient Orientals, as distinct from the classic nations, continue to employ it generally. In the Middle Ages both kinds of weapons were used indifferently, although the bow was confined to foot-men, until the development of the cross-bow, and then of firearms, gradually tended to displace the weapons of, hand-to-hand fighting. In this development the use of artillery (13th century) preceded that of hand firearms, which first appear in the shape of diminutive and portable reproductions of the larger cannon. Culverins and petronels appearab. 1810. The long-barreled arquebuse, the ancestor of the musket, was invented in Spain ab. 1475. It was fired by a priming-pan and match. The flint-lock was invented in France ab. 1640, but did not supersede the match-lock generally until ab. 1700. The percussion-cap musket was invented in Scotland in 1807. Ancestors of the modern breech-loaders, revolvers, and repeating weapons go back to the 15th century, as does also the practice of rifling. The bayonet was invented at Bayonne ab. 1650.
Armsby, HENRY P. American agricultural chemist, director of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. Manual of Cattle Feeding, 1880.
*# John, M.D., 1709–1779. Scottish poet. Art of Preserving Health, 1744.
Armstrong, WILLIAM GEORGE, Lord, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., b. 1810. Inventor of the hydro-electric machine 1840, the hydraulic crane 1845, and the Armstrong gun 1854: founder of the Elswick engine-works at Newcastle 1847; knighted 1858, made a baron 1887.
Army. Organization for combat, command and supply. The theory of organization rests on two important principles, individual responsibility and subordination; so that wherever a fraction of an army may be, one soldier is individually responsible for the command, and the remainder are subject to his orders. It exists by virtue of the fundamental laws of the
Government it serves; its supreme command must of necessity be vested in the head of the nation. Under him, a series of subordinate commanders subdivides the command and carries the responsibility down to its minutest fraction. Such a system is called o Hierarchy. In civilized nations, the military forces are divided first into armies, army corps, divisions, brigades, regiments. battalions, and companies. For drill the companies may be subdivided into platoons, sections, and squads. In all these parts the relative rank and limitations of each officer as to command, and the methods of transmitting and receiving orders and establishing responsibility, are rigidly fixed by regulations. See ORGANIZATION OF EUROPEAN ARMIES.
Army Corps. Two or more divisions. A corps is complete in itself as an army, having infantry for its main body, and such proportions of the other arms of the service as to make it capable of successfully defending itself or attacking the enemy. It is commanded by a major-general.
Army History. Comprises the greater bulk of ancient and a considerable proportion of modern history, and is a record of the development of the Military Art According to Prince Galitzen it may be considered under four heads and appropriate sub-divisions:
A. Ancient War: . To the beginning of the Persian wars, 500 B.C. . To the death of Alexander, 323 B.C. . To the death of Caesar, 44 B.C. . To the fall of the West Roman Empire, 476 A.D.
B. Wars of the Middle Ages: 1. To the death of Charles the Great. 814 A.D. 2. To the introduction of fire arms, 1350. 3. To the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, 1618.
C. Modern Wars: 1. The Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648. 2. To the epoch of Frederick the Great, 1740. 3. To the French Revolution. 1792.
D. Recent Wars: 1. The period from 1792–1805. 2. Napoleon's Wars, 1805–1815. 3. Wars since 1815.
In the early oriental wars strategy was unknown and the tactical formation for battle was almost invariably the parallel order. Devastation and cruel slaughter transformed these wars into huge destructive raids from which no valuable military lessons can be derived. Organization and discipline were the elements which enabled the small armies of the Greeks and Romans to overthrow vastly superior numbers in armies lacking these qualities. The phalanx, resistless in shock and immovable by its solidity, was peculiar to the Greeks; the legion of the Romans, possessing greater o: was better adapted for maneuver on more varied ground. The campaigns of Alexander, Hannibal and Caesar demonstrate the value of discipline and training, and the progressive military spirit called out by their genius for war. The introduction of the mercenary system, the prostitution of civic virtue, and the despotism of the emperors, are the efficient causes of the subsequent decadence. he feudal period was one of retrogression: countries and provinces invaded and ravished, cities ruined, castles razed, wholesale butcheries of inoffending peasants, are not the characteristics of progressive civilization. The victory of the Swiss Confederates at Morgasten in 1315 over the flower of Austrian chivalry established the importance of infantry and marked a new epoch. The invention of fire-arms, the substitution of the bayonet for the pike, the introduction of the cartridge, the establishment of field artillery and increased mobility were notable events, although the defects of the parallel order, the mixing of cavalry with infantry on the battle front, the deliberate maneuvers, and lack of appreciation of the resources of the battleground, still existed. The important changes of the modern war period belong mainly to the improvement in fire-arms and changes in the order of battle, as exemplified in the campaigns of the great Frederick. The system of skirmishers and columns of attack arose in the wars of the French Revolution, and to Napoleon, the great master of the art of war, are due an appreciation of the proper relation of each arm, and of their respective powers; also an insight into the science of strategy and of tactical combinations. Although it has taken nearly twenty-five centuries to pass from the massive Grecian phalanx to the single open rank formation of infantry, and from the heavy Macedonian pike to the magazine breech-loader, it seems marvelous that the conditions which exacted every able-bodied citizen to be a soldier
in the ancient armies is paralleled by the civilized countries of continental Europe to-day. The numerical o of armies is necessarily limited by the enormous difficulties attending their subsistence, transportation, organization and discipline, and by the rare quality of leadership. Ancient armies, recruited from non-homogeneous peoples, lacked cohesion; and although their records are somewhat untrustworthy, their probably great numerical strength is marvelous. Only modern armies of the present century, highly organized and disciplined, approximate to them in this respect. Rameses II. (1388–52 B.C.), whom the Greeks, by a peculiar tradition arising from the bombastic expressions common to the royal inscriptions of the Egyptians, transformed into the military hero Sesostris, was accredited with an army of 650,000 men. The army of Xerxes for the invasion of Greece (480 B.C.), recruited from forty-six Asiatic nations, has been variously estimated from 2,000,000 down. On leaving Sardes it had a probable strength of 900,000 and required seven days steadily moying to cross the Hellespont. The unsuccessful expedition of Darius against the Scythians (513 B.C.), with an army estimated 700,000 men, failed from lack of homogeneity and organization. As a contrast to these enormous hordes, Alexander's army of 30,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry, highly organized and disciplined, crossed the Hellespont (334 B.C.) and entered upon its wonderful career of conquest. By recruits from Greece and conquered nations it subsequently grew to much greater proportions. Hannibal leaving Spain (218 B.C.) with 50,000 foot and 9,000 horse, traversed Gaul, crossed the Alps by the little St. Bernard Pass, penetrated Italy and fought the remarkable battles of Lake Trasimene and Caunae. The foundation of the present military power of Prussia was laid by Frederick William (1713–40 A.D.), who maintained a standing army of 83,000 men in a country of only two and a half millions of inhabitants. His son, F...; the Great, with an army 80,000 strong invaded Bohemia (1744) and Saxony (1756) with an army of 67,000 men. In the Napoleonic wars examples are numerous of great armies. Thus in 1805 Napoleon by wonderful strategic marches moved his army of 200,000 men from the Camp at Boulogne on the English Channel across France to the Danube, and forced the surrender of the Austrians at Ulm. In 1809 the campaign against Vienna, ended by the victory at Wagram, employed a France-Allied army of 317,000 against an Austrian of 313,000. In the invasion of Russia (1812) Napoleon's army, consisting of 11 corps of insantry, 4 of cavalry, the Guards and Austrian contingent, numbered 509,700 men. Of this number 480,000 crossed Prussia, but not more than 340,000 advanced on the Dwina. During the War of the Rebellion in the U. S. 2,772,670 men were furnished by the loyal States and Territories for the Union armies. The effective strength of the army at various dates was:
Jan. 1, 1861 . . . 14,663 (wholly Regulars).
This great force was spread over an in mense territory, organized into twenty-five army corps, and a cavalry corps whose strength varied from time to time owing to exigencies of the service. The main and secondary armies were formed of one or more army corps, according to the in portance of their mission. and were known as Army of the Potomac, Virginia. Ohio, Cumberland, Tennessee. Mississippi, Gulf, James, West Virginia and Middle Military Division. In the Austro-Prussian War (1866) Prussia mobilized an army of 326,000, and the Austrians a northern army under Benedek of 240,000. and a southern army of 100,000. The superiority of Prussia caused the war proper to end in a month. In the Franco-German War (1870) the French organized a grand army of 250.000. with a reserve of 320,000, while the Germans mobilized a total force of 850,000. In this war the surrender of great armies by the French at Sedan and Metz and the marvelous succession of predicted military operations are the most marked features. See ARMED STRENGTH OF EUROPE.
Army Regulations. Issued by the War Department. by direction of the Pres., for the government of the personnel of the army. They comprise provisions relating to officers, enlisted men. public property, money and accounts, and the several staff departments.
Army Worm. Larva of Leucania umipuncta, very destructive, almost omnivorous; common in U. S. The parent moth