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jury of its coats, a condition usually of slow development, which may occur in any of the arteries of the body, and whose danger varies according to the ease with which it may be operated upon. Those of the more deeply-seated vessels, or of those which supply large tracts of the body usually prove fatal. They are of frequent occurrence in the smaller arteries of the brain (miliary aneurisms) of the aged, and by shutting off the bloodsupply from small areas of the brain cause slight paralysis of motion or sensation. When near the surface they give rise to soft compressible and pulsatile tumors, but when deeply seated they can, as a rule, be diagnosed only by a peculiar purring sound. Unless relieved, death results from the bursting of the sack. Angelology. Branch of anatomy which treats of the blood vascular system. Angeioma. Tumor consisting of enlarged vessels; e.g., a birth mark. Angela Merici, 1511–1540. Franciscan nun who visited Jerusalem and founded at Brescia, 1537, the order of St. Ursula, to tend the poor and sick and teach the young.

Angelic Acid. C, H,.COOH. Unsaturated monobasic acid found in the angelica root. White solid, combining easily with bromine.

Angelica. Plant of the Umbelliferae. A. Archangelica, native of Europe. The leaf-stalks are candied, especially by the French, and known as Angelique. Name also applied to other species of the genus.

Angelica-tree. Small, spiny tree, Aralia spinosa, native of e. America; also known as Hercules Club.

Angelico. Ligusticum Canadense. Plant of the Carrot Family, native of the s. Alleganies; known also as Nondo.


Angelin, NILs. PETER, 1805–1876. Swedish palaeontologist, whose work established the existence in that country of Silurian strata. Known also by his monograph on the Silurian Crustacea of Scandinavia.


Angels. Sinless and glorified spirits, enjoying the immediate presence of God, and serving His purposes in creation and redemption. Satan, as the great antagonist of God, has also his angels, whom he is regarded as having drawn away with himself from original purity. Some, as Swedenborg and Rothe, teach that all angels were originally men, on some planet.

Angels of the Churches. In Rev. i.—iii.; identified with the churches. as if responsible; explained variously as abstract ideas, guardian spirits, colleges of presbyters, or bishops.

Angelus Silesius. Pen-name of Johann Scheffler, M.D., 1624–1677; German R. C. poet and mystic. Some of his hymns are familiar in English renderings.

Anger. Emotion aroused by injury or threat of injury; similar to resentment, but less settled, being the sudden instinctive outburst of passion.

Angers. City of France, on the Maine, near its junction with the Loire. Pop., 1891, 72,669.

Anghiera, PIETRO MARTIRE D', 1455–1526. , Spanish priest of Italian birth, prior of Granada 1505. He left a Latin book on America, De Rebus Oceanicis, 1530.

Angina Pectoris. Neuralgia of the heart. A chronic fatal disease, in which paroxsyms of severe pain occur, accompanied by a sense of suffocation. , During the intervals, which may last a few hours or several months, the general health is usually good. . It attacks men more often than women, is frequently inherited, may alternate with various nervous disorders, and usually occurs in advanced life, except when caused by excessive smoking.

Angiospermae. Class of . Spermatophyta or flowering plants, having the ovules contained in a | ovary, and including the greatest number of living species.

Angiospermia. Order of the Linnaean class Didynamia, including many plants of the Snap-dragon family, bearing their seeds in capsules or pods.

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certain position. The position reached is called, in reference to the angle, its terminal line, the fixed point is the vertex of the angle. Angle between Curves. Angle between the tangents to these curves at this point of meeting, taken in the plane determined by the tangents. Angle Block. Cast-iron block of triangular section against which abut the struts or wooden braces in a Howe truss bridge.

Angle Iron. Wrought iron or steel bars rolled in an L-shape. The largest size in the market is 6x6 inches and 7-16 in. thick, weighing about 51 lbs. per yard. They are used in the construction of beams and columns for bridges and buildings. A steel angle 12x12 and one inch thick was rolled 1894 by the Bethlehem Iron Co., Pa.

Angle Leaf. Ornament, in the form of a leaf, often introduced in mediaeval architecture to fill out the space between the circular or polygonal base of a column and the corner of the square plinth underneath.

Angle of Capillarity. See ANGLE OF CONTACT.

Angle of Contact. Formed by the surface of a liquid with that of any body with which it comes in contact. See CAPILLARITY.

Angle of Deviation. Angle which a ray of light on emerging from a refracting medium forms with its direction on entering. See PRISM.

Angle of Friction. Included between a normal to a plane surface and the direction of the resultant force which causes a body to slide upon it; angle with the horizontal to which a surface must be inclined in order that a body may slide down it. Its tangent is the same as the coefficient of friction.

Angle of Incidence. Made by an incident ray of light with the normal to a reflecting or refracting surface at the point of incidence. See REFLECTION.

Angle of Reflection. Made by a reflected ray of light with the normal to the reflecting surface at the point of reflection. See REFLECTION. Angle of Repose. Inclination of the surface of a bank of sand or earth in a condition of permanency. It lies between 30 and 40 degrees, varying with the kind of earth and the degree of moisture. It is frequently expressed by the ratio of its horizontal vertical projection; * a slope of 1 to 1 is the same as an angle of 45°; a 3. of 1% to 1 corresponds to an angle of ab. 34°. The coefficient of friction of earth upon earth is found by dividing unity by this ratio. Anglesa, or ANGLESEA. Mona. Pop., 1891, 50,079. Anglesite. PbSO,. Lead sulphate, sometimes found in sufficient abundance to be mined as an ore of lead.

Angli. German tribe on w. bank of Elbe, who entered Britain with the Saxons and gave their name to England.

Anglian Dialects. See ANGLO-SAXON.

Anglican Communion. Aggregate of those Episcopal churches which accept the Elizabethan model, the Ch. of England being central.

Angling. See FISHING.

Anglo-Saxon. Often called OLD ENGLISH. It extends roughly from A.D. 450–1100, and in space covers the area of Germanic conquest in Great Britain, excluding the Celtic population. It is a Low German dialect, nearest allied to the Frisian, and was brought to Britain by piratical settlers from the lower Elbe and the Cimbrian peninsula (Schleswig-Holstein). Its dialects are the Northumbrian (Humber to Forth), Mercian (southward to Thames), West-Saxon (south of Thames), and Kentish (in Kent and possibly Surrey). The Angles of the continent brought the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects, which are often grouped as Anglian, and furnished eventually the names England and English. The Saxons (as in names like Essex, Wessex) brought their dialect, except Kentish, which is due to the Jutes. Anglo-Saxon words are recorded from 679; but the earliest literature was Northumbrian, mainly preserved, however, in later West-Saxon copies. The language was inflected, had fairly abundant forms of declension and conjugation, and was rough, strong, and somewhat unwieldy. It

orms to-day the bone and sinew of the ENGLISH LANGUAGE


Anglo-Saxons. Mixed population resulting from union of various Low German tribes which invaded England in 5th century.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. history to 1154.

Anglo-Saxon Literature. Produced by those writers who employed the inflected Teutonic language, from which. after the Norman French had enriched its vocabulary and

Island of n. Wales, the ancient

Record of events in English

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leveled its inflectional system, modern English sprang. . Most manuals of English Literature discuss it under the title of “Old English,” which ended with 1100 and was followed by a transitional period occupying the following century. Little remains from heathen times, or from the period before 449, when the Angles and Saxons crossed from the continent to England. When Augustine came to introduce Christianity among them, in 596, a desire to cultivate a literature arose. The runes and tablets of beech were abandoned for the letters and writing materials used in Europe. The kingdom of Wessex and that of Northumbria were the principal centers of literary development. In the former the great monasteries of Winchester, Malmesbury, and Glastonbury were seats of learning. St. Aldhelm (d. 709) is claimed to have written a poem Andreas. Cynewulf (perhaps of the 8th century) wrote Crist, a religious poem on the Incarnation; Elene, which told the story of the discovery of the true Cross at Jerusalem by the empress Helena; and Juliana, a biography of a saint. Beowulf, an epic upon a Swedish hero, is the most important of Anglo-Saxon remains. Formerly dated variously from the 5th to the 11th century, it is now generally assigned to the 8th. King Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon Beda's Ch. History, Orosius's Universal History, and works of Pope Gregory and Boethius. Northumbria produced Adannan and Caedmon, whose Paraphrase of Bible History is extant. The venerable Beda (d. 735) was a famous scholar and composed many works, prose and verse, in Latin; and Alcuin, who followed him by half a century, was summoned by Charlemagne to his court and died there 804. Like Beda, i.e wrote in Latin. The Durham Gosls, in an Angle dialect, and the Homilies of Aelfric, Abp. of Canterbury (d. 1006), are the last Saxon works of importance. In the transition or Semi-Saxon period the most celebrated works remaining are the Ormulum, the Brut of Layamon, and the Ancren Riwle.

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by a point on a rotating body at a unit's distance from the axis of rotation. It is equal to 2 m X number of turns in one second of time. . [Ir—3.1416] The linear velocity of any point at a distance R from the axis—R X angular velocity.

Angus, Joseph, D.D., b. 1816. Pres. Regent's Park (Baptist) College, London, from 1849. Bible Handbook, 1854; Handbook of English Literature, 1865.

Anhalt. Ancient German principality. It became independent in 13th cent., and was osten divided annong branches of the reigning family, and is now a state of the German empire. Area 906 sq. m.; pop., 1890, 271,759.

Anharmonic Ratio. If a straight line be cut in four points their an harmonic ratio is the product of the extreme segments divided by the product of the mean segment and that included between the extreme points. If four lines meet in a common point their an harmonic ratio is the product of the sines of the extreme angles divided by the product of the sine of the mean angle into that of the . e bounded by the extreme lines. If in either case this ratio equals unity it is called “ harmonic.”

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Aniline Blue. Triphenyl rosaniline hydrochloride, Cao H, 6– (C.H.), N.HCl. First made § Girard and de Laire 1861. Opal or cotton blue, soluble in alcohol, not soluble in water. ow made by heating rosaniline, aniline and benzoic acid in iron still until the desired shade is produced. It is then cooled somewhat, run into methyl alcohol, brought to boiling, one fourth part hydrochloric acid added, and run to crystallizing tank.

Aniline Brown. Bismark Brown, Triamidoazobenzene, NH,C,EI, N.C.H., (NH2). Dinitrobenzene is reduced to metaphenylene-diamine by iron and hydrochloric acid, the iron salts decomposed by milk of lime and filtered out. By the action of nitrous acid upon metaphenylene-diamine the coloring matter is produced. Aniline Colors. from aniline and its derivatives. colors. Aniline Green. Malachite Green 3(Cas Has N,Cl). 22nclo+2H,O. Made by treating 1 part benzoic anhydride with 2 parts dimethylaniline and 14 parts zinc chloride, and oxidizing with lead peroxide. Aniline Hydrochloride. C, H.NH.HCl. White crystalline substance prepared by the neutralization of aniline with hydrochloric acid. É. soluble in water. The aniline can be recovered by the addition of an alkali to the solution of the salt. Aniline Oil. Commercial aniline, various qualities consisting of aniline, aniline and toluidine, or toluidine with some impurities. Aniline Red. Magenta C, H, N,C1. Obtained by Hofmann 1843. Made by the action of arsenic oxide upon a mixture of aniline and toluidine. 2C.H.N)+4(C.H.,N)+3As," O,-2(Ca,H, N,.)+3As, O,--6H.O. Aniline Yellow. Amidoazobenzene, C.H.N.C.H. NH2. Disc. by Mène 1861. Made by treating aniline and anilinehydrochloride with potassium nitrite.

Animal. All natural things have been recognized as belonging to one of three kingdoms, the Mineral, Vegetable, or Animal. A little study has shown us that there is a profound distinction between living and inanimate things, that plants and animals are essentially governed by similar laws in their growth and being, and that the substance (living matter or protoplasm) which composes the active part of their structure is, as far as our }. and chemical tests go, incapable of distinction. In defining an animal as distinguished from a plant, we must take a general survey of many features, and each statement will require qualification by exceptions. Animals ultimately depend for food upon the materials manufactured by the aid of chlorophyl, which is almost the exclusive property of a large part of the vegetable kingdom. Animals also as a rule actively seek their food, and are hence gifted with more acute sensation and have locomotor organs, a nervous system, sense, and digestive organs. Many of the lower animals (sponges, hydroids, sea lilies, etc.) resemble vegetables so far in external features as to deceive all but the scientific observer. There are about half a million species of animals, of which about half are insects. See BIOLOGY, PROTOPLASM, ANIMAL KINGDOM.

Animal Charcoal (BONE BLACK). The decolorizing power of this material was first observed by Lowitz in 1800. In 1812, Derosne introduced it for decolorizing sugars. It is made by charring the bones of cattle in retorts, after extracting the fat with a solvent; ammonia and bone oil are products of the distillation and are condensed in scrubbers of coke. The yield is 65 per cent charcoal, 10 per cent fat, 5 per cent bone oil, and 10 per cent ammonia as sulphate. The charcoal consists of carbor; 10.51, calcium and magnesium phosphates, fluoride, etc., 80.21, calcium carbonate 8.30. A pound of charcoal will decolorize as much raw sugar. Animal Chemistry. See PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. Animal Magnetism. See HYPNOTISM. Animal Worship. An expression of religious sentiment, which is found among nearly all races and peoples, and which is part of the widely extended belief among primitive man that everything in nature had a soul. The chief deities of many religions are represented in the form of animals, notably in ancient Egypt and among the early and existing tribes of N. America. The bull, lion, serpent, “ff. and tortoise are among the principal animals worshiped. The latter is regarded as the ancestor of the human race by many of the American tribes, a belief of which indications exist at the present day in China.

Animalcules. Animals too small to be seen by the naked eye, or at least so small as to appear like specks. The entire sub

Properly, artificial dye-stuffs, prepared More broadly, all coal tar

kingdom of the Protozoa belongs here; also the simpler forms of Čaplenterates, Vermes, Polyzoa, Crustacea, and Tunicata; also

the embryos of the marine animals that have free swimming

larvae as stages in their development. The term is a popular one, and has no meaning in classification.

Animalculists. Those who believed the germ which develops into the foetus to be the spermatozoon, or at least to reside in it.

Animal Fluids. Normally found in the body and necessary for the digestion, absorption, and distribution of the food. They furnish vehicles for the removal of the waste of the body, and lubricate surfaces which are in contact with each other. The gastric juice, perspiration, and vaginal mucus are normally acid, the urine occasionally so; all the other fluids are alkaline. The gastric Juice, saliva, secretions of the pancreas, and intestines, bile, blood and lymph are concerned in the assimilation of the food; the urine and perspiration remove deleterious and waste products; the tears, mucus, and watery fluids found in the joints, abdomen and other cavities act as lubricants. The spermatic fluid and milk are usually included, and are alkaline.

Animal Heat. Developed by the processes which take place within a living body, the evolution of which ceases at death. In man it maintains the temperature of the body at ab. 98.5°.

Animal Kingdom. Divided into three great series, the Protozoa, Mesozoa, and Metazoa. The last has these sub-kingdoms: Porifera, Coelentera, Vermes, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Molluscoida, Echinodermata, Tunicata (eight groups known as Invertebrates), and Vertebrata. The Invertebrates are often considered by themselves, and divided into the Acaclomata and the Coelomata. Some authors establish a group Chordata, including the Vertebrates and Tunicates. Cuvier, followed by Agassiz, recognized four types: the Radiates, Articulates, Molluscs and Vertebrates, but this division is more artificial than natural, and is now no longer retained. The group Vermes is composed of several phyla, each of which is separated from the others by as strong characters as divide most of the sub-kingdoms, Ali these groups were fully evolved when the earliest strata, which show organic remains, were laid down. As the previous strata are sometimes termed azoic, it simply means that they contain no fossils, not that at that period of geological history there existed no animals. The earliest ancestors of each sub-kingdom almost certainly possessed no firm skeleton, and they were besides of microscopic size. The subkingdoms, as is true of any group of Taxonomy, are not to be considered as following each other in a series, although it is possible to place them in such a sequence that the simplest or “lowest.” forms stand first enumerated and the most complex or “highest” last. They were probably simultaneously evolved by simple phylogenetic differentiation, which principle operated at once on the earliest differentiated groups to produce further differentiation. In a certain sense all animals are equally old, but doubtless swimming forms preceded land forms, and flying animals were last evolved.

Animal Pole (FoRMATIVE Pole). That pole of eggs with considerable yolk, where the most protoplasm is gathered and the nucleus also, and where segmentation takes place with greatest rapidity to form the micromeres of the segmenting ovum. When the yolk is excessive, as in the eggs of birds, reptiles and some fishes, the formation of the large segments (macromeres) apparently drops out, so that the micromeres remain as a germinal disc, which spreads from the animal pole, surrounding the entire yolk and closing at the vegetative pole, sometimes elsewhere. to form a sort of “blastopore.”

Animal Strength. A horse working 10 hours per day can exert a traction of 100 lbs. at a speed of 24 miles per hour, on a tow-path, or whin, or circular power. For a short time he can exert an effort sufficient to do the 33,000 ft. lbs. per minute called for by the nominal horse-power of steam engines. A man, pushing or pulling on a level, will do about $ as much as a horse in a working day of 10 hours; but at a crank of derrick or winch, or in pumping, where he depends mostly on the arms, a man will do about 1-10th of a horse-power of work.

Animism. The conception that matter has a life or soul, a belief common to primitive people who regard all things having motion, and even many destitute of power of motion in themselves, as having life. They frequently considered all things that man made, his tools and weapons, as endowed with life and often an extension of his own personality. Remarkable illustrations of this are found among the American Indian tribes, who ceremonially give life to their daily instruments, nourish and feed them, and ceremonially kill them at the death of their owner. The grotesque objects we designate as idols are expression of the sentiment, and all charms and amulets, many of which are carried even by intelligent people at the present day, are survivals of this primitive idea.

Anion. Constituent of an electrolyte which goes to the anode. See ELECTRODE.

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Family, native of the western States. Anise-seed. Pimpinella Amisum. Plant of the Carrot Family, native of s. Europe, cultivated for its aromatic fruit. Anise Star. Illiciwm anisatum. Shrub of the Magnolia Family, native of China, producing a highly aromatic star-shaped fruit. Anisic Acid. C.H.: (O. C.H, ) COO H. Methyl derivative of para-oxybenzoic acid. Beautiful rhombic prisms. Prepared from the dimethyl salt of para-oxybenzoic acid by saponification. Anisobranchiata. See CTENOBRANCHIATA. Anisodactylous. Arrangement of the toes of birds, in which three (out of four) are turned forward. Anisol. C.H.O.CH,. Bpt. 152°C. Methyl-phenyl ether. The methyl salt of phenol or carbolic acid. Liquid of agreeable odor, formed by the action of methyl iodide upon sodium phenate. Anisol Red. Anisolazo-3-naphtholdisulphonic acid. CH, O.C.H.N.C, H,(HSO,),.OH. Dye-stuff }. by the action of diazoanisidine upon so-naphtholdisulphonic acid. Sodium salt is used. Anisopleura. Section of Gastropoda having the gills belonging to one side more or less suppressed; or both gills may be absent, as in Heteropods, or placed externally, as in


Nudibranches. There are two divisions, the Streptoneura and Enthyneura. These animals may be conceived as having had their dorsal portion rotated so as to stretch the original left

side around to the right, thus pushing the right-side organs onto the left. The anus is thus brought forward to the neck, and the intestine forms a loop. The original left-side organs are usually aborted, i.e., not present on the new right side. Anisopoda. See Isopod A. Anisopola. See HOMOSTAURA. Anjou. Ancient French province, including the present department of Maine-et-Loire. Godfrey, its count in 12th century, was ancestor of the Plantagenets, and it belonged to kings of England 1154–1204. From Count Charles sprang kings of Naples, Sicily, and Hungary. A. became a fief of Naples, but returned to the French crown by inheritance 1328. In 1360 King John made his son Louis duke of A. Louis afterward became King of Naples. Louis XI. took A. from René II., last of that dynasty, reannexing it to France 1484. Since then A. has given honorary title to princes of the royal family.

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by the French 1604, as Port Royal; unsuccessfully attacked by Mass. 1707. On the conquest of Acadia by the English, 1710, its name was changed to A. in honor of Queen Anne. It was the capital till superseded by Halifax 1750. Pop. ab. 2,800.

Ann Arbor. City of Mich., on Huron R., capital of Washtenaw Co., seat of State univ. Pop., 1890, 9,431.

Annas. Father-in-law of Caiaphas, Jewish High Priest, and associated with him in the condemnation of our Lord. Himself formerly High Priest, he saw five sons High Priests after hin, and enjoyed an influence so great that Renan holds him mainly responsible for the death of Christ. Annatto. Biaca Orellama. Small tree of the natural order Birimea, native of tropical America, but widely diffused through warm regions by cultivation. The seed pulp yields the commercial article. Anne, 1665–1714. Queen of England 1702; second daughter of James II.; married 1683 to Prince George of Denmark. Her reign was celebrated for literary activity. Anne of Austria, 1602–1666. Daughter of Philip II. of Spain; married 1615 to Louis XIII. of France; regent 1643. Anne of Brittany, 1476–1514. Heir of Francis II, Duke of Brittan v. Married to Charles VIII. of France, Dec. 1491, and to Louis XII. Jan. 1499. Anne of Cleves, 1515–1557. 4th queen of Henry VIII. of England; married Jan. 6, 1540, and divorced July 9, 1540.

Anne of Denmark, 1574–1612. Wife of James I. of Eng

land 1589. Annealing. Operation of heating, followed by retarded cooling. It

by which steel and glass are rendered less brittle. has been }. in steel that local heating in the process of fabrication causes molecular strains in the structure of the piece; also that severe mechanical treatment, such as punching and shearing, has a tendency to send the carbon into the combined state with the metal at the affected edges. The heating and slow cooling dissipate the local strains from the first set of causes, restore the softness, and lower the elastic limit, which have been effected by the second causes. An annealed structural piece is not under initial strain before being placed to withstand a proportion of working strain in service. Annelida (ANNULATA). Articulated worms, having a brain, circum-oesophageal nerve ring, a ventral nerve chain, a vascular system and often setae, or processes for locomotion. Many are hermaphrodite, and some multiply asexually by transverse division, the segments having retained a measure of individuality. They form the sub-classes Chaetopoda, Gephyrca, and irudimea.

Nereis pelagica.

Annihilationism. Doctrine that those who remain impenitent will cease to exist, either at death, or at the last judgment. Anning, MARY, 1799–1847. Native of Lyme Regis, England, who contributed in no small degree to our knowledge of the great Emalio-Saurians and other forms of organic life entonmbed in that vicinity. She developed the remains of many fine Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri, which, without her care, would never o been presented to comparative anatomists in a form for study. Annuity. Yearly sum of money granted by one party to another in fee, for life or for years, charging the personal estate of the grantor. If the grant is a burden in posed upon land it is a rent charge. The value to accrue or in arrears may be reckoned at simple or compound interest, giving the elements of an arithmetical or a geometrical progression. Problems in annuities are solved by the laws of these series. Annular Eclipse. Central eclipse of the sun when the bodies are so situated that the apparent diameter of the sun exceeds that of the moon, thus showing a ring or annulus of light around the limb of the moon. Annular Wheel. Operating by inside gear, in which the centers of the driving and driven wheel are both on the same side of the point of contact, both wheels turning in the same direction. There is less obliquity when the number of teeth differ widely with a given arc of contact than in the case of outside gear. Annulata. Sub-order of lizards, with snake-like body, hard scaleless skin divided into rings crossed by longitudinal furrows. The sternum is absent, and so usually are extremities, though small front feet may be present. Eyelids are absent. They are

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Anomoura. Group of Decapod crustacea, with characters internmediate between those of Macrura and of the Brachyura; e.g., the Hermit Crabs. The abdomen is partly rudimentary, some of the appendages are absent, others are modified to help hold the body in the helicoid shell of some gasteropod mollusc, which the animal inhabits and carries about with him. When the shell becomes too small, a new house is sought.

Anopla. See NEMERTEA.

Anoplotheridae. Family of bunodont, even-toed Ungulates, comprising fossil forms from the Eocene and Miocene. There is no diastema in the jaw. The group is a connecting link between the Swine and Ruminants.

Anoplotherium. Fossil pachydermatous quadruped, described from the Paris tertiaries by Cuvier; about the size of a fallow deer, with two-toed feet, rudiments of two other digits,

a slender body, and a long, strong tail. This fossil may be said to mark the beginning of vertebrate palaeontology.

Anoplotherium commune.

Anoplura. Order of Ametabolic insects, including Pediculus (the louse). This is parasitic, with mouth parts formed for suction, and the eyes are simple ocelli only. One species (P. tabescentium) causes the disease known as Phthiriasis. This group is ordinarily included with the Mallophaga, as Aptera or Parasitica under the group Rhymchoti (Hemiptera), of which these forms are regarded as degenerated types.

Anorthite. CaAl,Si,Os. Variety of feldspar, triclinic in crystallization, containing calcium as the characteristic basic element.

Anselm, 1033–1109. Scholastic philosopher and theologian. Abbot at Bec in Normandy 1078; Abp. of Canterbury 1093. In his contests with William Rufus and Henry I. he showed great firmness in defending the claims of the Church. He is considered the ablest of the Schoolmen who tried to base theological dogmas on reason.

Anseres. Linnaean order of natatorial birds, including those having webbed feet, as in the Duck, or lobed feet, as in the Grebe. Families: Alcidae, Amatidae, Colymbidae, Laridae, Pelecanidae, and Procellaridae. In a restricted sense, only the Ducks and Geese. See LAMELLIROSTRES and ANATIDAE.

Anserinae (GEESE). Sub-family of Amatidae, distinguished from Ducks chiefly by having stronger and longer legs set further forward, comparatively shorter wings, and shorter and deeper bill, with much smaller lamellae. Amser includes Land Geese, and Branta, the Sea Geese. Of these B. bermicla is the BARNACLE GOOSE (q.v.). A number of genera of so-called Geese do not belong to the Amatidae, though nearly related. Of these are: the Cape Barren Goose of Australia, now domes

Anser Goose (Amser ferus).

ticated, distinguished by having a large green cere which reaches nearly to the tip of the bill; the Semipalmated Goose, also of Australia, with rudimentary webs; the Spur-winged Goose of Africa, the Egyptian Goose, and the Orinoco Goose. They represent the genera Cereopsis, Anseranas, Plectropterus, and Alopochem.

Ansgar, St., ab. 800–865. Apostle of Scandinavia; b. in Picardy. He labored in Denmark and Sweden 826–831; Bp. of Hamburg 831, and of Bremen 846, these being headquarters for his evangelizing work in the north.

Anson, LoRD GEORGE, 1697–1762. English naval officer and explorer. He circumnavigated the globe 1742–44, defeated a French fleet 1747, and was first Lord of the Admiralty 1751–56.

Ansonia. Manufacturing town of New Haven Co., Conn. Pop., 1890, 10,342.

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