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Abjection. Term employed in Botany to express forcible casting off of seeds or spores.

Abjunction. Method of spore formation, obtaining especially in fungi; the terminal portion of a cell is cut off by partition and falls away as a spore.

Ablaut. German word meaning gradation of sound, and usually applied to the change of vowels by which words of the same root vary in meaning or application; e.g., drink, drank, drunk.

Abner. Cousin and commander-in-chief of King Saul, and of his son Ishbosheth. Making overtures to David, who promised him the same rank, he was treacherously murdered by David's nephew and chief general, Joab, who had a blood-feud with him.

Abneural. Pertaining to side of an animal opposite to that where the nervous system lies; thus, in a back-boned animal the abneural side is the belly, because the back bone incloses spinal cord. In an insect or other non-vertebrated animal, abneural side is usually carried up; i.e., looking skyward —the opposite of what is true in Vertebrates.

Abo. Town of Finland, its capital till 1819; founded 1157; pop. about 28,000. By the Treaty of Abo, Aug. 18, 1743, Sweden ceded part of Finland to Russia. Abode. A person's dwelling-place, temporary or permanent. One's permanent abode is ordinarily his domicile. Abomasum, or RENNET STOMACH. Fourth and final compartment of stomach of Ruminants. Contains true gastric glands, and in it the real digestion takes place. The “cud" reaches this compartment by being strained through the manyplies, Aboral. Pertaining to region at the pole opposite the mouth in Radiates. All radiated animals are considered as having a central axis whose position is usually vertical, and whose ends are the “poles.” In those polyps which are fixed by a stalk the mouth is on the upper end; i. e., the stalk is attached to the aboral pole. Aborigines. Original or primitive inhabitants of a country. See INDIANs, AINos, AUSTRALIANs, AzTECs, etc.

Aborted. Said of an organ that should typically be present, but has been suppressed in development.

Abortion. As a criminal offense, maliciously producing the premature birth of a child without legal excuse. Under most modern statutes, it is not necessary that the mother be quick with child, nor does her consent affect the abortionist's crime. In medicine, the expulsion of the foetus from natural causes before the fourth month; from the fourth to the sixth month it is called miscarriage; after the sixth month premature labor. Also, term o in Botany to indicate non-development of organs which are present in typical structures, also known as SUPPRESSION.

Aboukir. Village of Egypt, 13 m. n.e. of Alexandria; once Canopus. Here Nelson defeated the French fleet in the bay, Aug. 1, 1798, and Bonaparte, with 5,000 French, defeated a Turkish army of 15,000, July 25,1799. It was surrendered to the English, after a sanguinary conflict with the French, March 8, 1801.

Aboukoff. See GUN FACTORIES.

Aboul Mesa. Arabian astronomer of the 10th century; he lived at Cairo, and discovered the third inequality of the moon's motion, known as the variation.

About. Technical military word used to express movement by which a soldier, a body of troops or a battery of artillery changes front : as about face, right or left about.

About, EDMOND, 1828–85. French novelist and satirist. Contemporary Greece, 1855; King of the Mountains, 1856; The Roman Question, 1860.

Abrabranel. See ABARBANEL.

Abraham. Father of Isaac and Ishmael, grandfather of Jacob, and through him ancestor of the Israelites. He came from Mesopotamia, and is the chief Biblical example of faith.

Abranchiata. (1) Group of VERTEBRATEs, including SAUROPSIDA and MAMMALIA, same as AMNIOTA. (2) Division of ANNELIDA, characterized by absence of external branchiae, as in earthworms and leech. (3) Subdivision of GASTROPODS (Apneusta; Dermatopmoa), related to Nudibranchs, including Limapontidae. Phyllirhoidae, Elysiidae, (4) Also written ABRANCHLA, and variously applied when branchiate and non-branchiate forms are contrasted in classification, as in Arthropoda, contrasting land forms with Crustacea.

Abraum Salts. Mixture of sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and potassium overlying the rock-salt deposit at Stassfurt, Prussia.

Abraxas grossulariata, or HARLEQUIN. Abutterfly with white wings speckled black.

Abraxas Stones., Term applied generally to the gems of the GNOSTICS (q.v.), but derived from one especial §§ cut

Abraxas grossulariata. Abraxas Stones.

with the Greek letters Abrasax (not Abraxas). These letters represented numerically the 365 successive emanations of the creative principle, as worshiped by the Gnostics.

Abrupt Point. One where a curve stops suddenly; called also stop-point or point d'assét (French).

Abrus precatorius. Graceful, twining plant of natural family Leguminosae; indigenous to India, but now growing wild in all tropical countries, and grown, as an ornamental plant, in greenhouses in tenperate countries. Known by common name of Indian Liquorice, or Wild Liquorice; flowers are rose-colored, on one-sided, long-stalked raceme; pods contain 4 to 6 scarlet-colored seeds, of size of a small pea, with black spot at hilum: are used for making rosaries and necklaces, hence are called prayer-beads, and sometimes jumblebeads or crabs'-eyes; whole plant has sweet taste, and root is used like liquorice root in tropical countries; seeds are also used in India as a standard of weight by Hindoo jewelers and druggists. Each seed is estimated equal to 2 3-16 grains. g. were introduced to Europe and America in 1882 under name of Jequirity, and a weak decoction has been employed for cure of granular eyelids, but in some cases severe inflāmmation followed its use.

Abruzzi. District of south central Italy, lat. 42°–43°, including part of the Apennines. It formerly belonged to Naples.

Absalom. Third son of David, eminent for beauty. Hav

ing murdered his half-brother Amnon, the eldest son, in revenge for a scandalous wrong done to A.'s sister Tamar, and despairing of being nominated David's successor, he rebelled against his father and drove him across the Jordan, but was defeated and slain. Absalon, or AXEL, 1128–1201. Abp. of Lund, Primate of Denmark and Sweden, 1178; famous as scholar, statesman and warrior. Absaroka Range. In southern Montana and northwestern Wyoming, separating the Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers; elevation, 10,000 to 12,000 feet; composed in southern part of volcanic conglomerate, changing to granite in northern part. Abscess. Collection of pus inclosed in a cavity formed by the tissues in which it is found, or in one lined by a membrane which in old chronic varieties has acquired the property of secreting pus; may be the result of injuries which bruise the parts, or of disease or death of an organ or tissues; when in an organ necessary to life, such as the brain, they result fatally as a rule, and when the pus escapes into any of the cavities of the body or into a joint, serious inflammation is set up ; cold abscesses are those which form slowly, give rise to few symptoms and are hard to relieve. Treatment in all cases consists in the removal of the |. and measures to promote the growing together of the walls of the cavity and measures to build up general strength. Abscissa. One of the two lines determining position in Cartesian system of co-ordinates. The abscissa of any point is distance of that point from the axis of ordinates measured on or parallel to the axis of abscissas.

Absence. Military offense on part of an enlisted man when he absents himself from his post or company without proper authority. If convicted by court-martial, army regulations provide that he shall forfeit all pay and allowances accruing during such absence and make good time lost. An unauthorized absence for ten days or more may be charged against him as desertion a military crime of a much more serious character.

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Absence, LEAVE of. Permission granted to officers of the army to absent themselves from duty at the post where they are serving, for a definite period; commanding officer may grant a week's leave to an officer, but for a longer period, authority of the War Department is requisite. A corresponding leave to an enlisted man is called a furlough.

Absinthe. An alcoholic liquor, flavored by the plant Artemisia Absinthum. wormwood, containing absinthin, an alde

hyde. It is best prepared in Switzerland. The dried and ground plant, with green anise and fennel, is digested in

alcohol, diluted with water and distilled. The last third of the distillate is digested with small wormwood, hyssop and lemon balm, strained and added to the first two-thirds. This is then diluted with water to 75 per cent alcohol. Inferior qualities are made, without distillation, by flavoring alcohol with essential oils. It in proves with age, losing its sharp and empyreumatic taste. It is drank diluted with water, when it is opalescent. Continued abuse deranges digestion, effects the nervous system, induces epileptic convulsions and paralysis, Magnan, French physician, noted 250 cases in Paris in three years. Much drank in France. Absolute, THE. In philosophy, variously conceived. By one school it is synonymous with God minus personality, or at least does not necessarily imply this property. First Cause is also an equivalent. Another school conceive it as denoting that which exists out of all relation, and so oppose the term to the Relative. The true meaning, which is not exposed to the objections of the second conception, is that which exists out of the relation of dependence upon another, but in relation as its cause. The relation in this view would be that which exists only as an effect and never as a first cause.

Absolute Alcohol. C.H.OH. ...} or ordinary alcohol from which water has been removed and is chemically pure alcohol. Made by distilling alcohol from lime, then allowing it to stand over anhydrous copper sulphate and finally over metallic sodium. Purity not over 99.8 per cent. Sp. Gr. 0.793 at 60° F. Absolute Ethics. Expression used by H. Spencer to indicate a code of ethics whose injunctions alone are absolutely right, and which may serve as a system of ideal conduct to be referred to in solving the problems of real conduct where actions are only relatively right. Used in opposition to Relative Ethics. Absolute Moisture. See HYGROMETRY. l Absolute Space. Space regardless of material form or imit. Absolute Temperatures. Temperatures reckoned from absolute zero (q.v.), which is 459°.4 below Fahrenheit zero, and 273° below Centigrade zero. Temperatures in the formulae of THERMODYNAMICS (q.v.) are expressed in these units, using T as initial to represent them. In any gas, if P Pv denote pressure, and V denote volume, F – a constant. The mechanical work, which can be done by heat during any change of arrangement of a body, is proportional to absolute temperature at which that change occurs. Absolute Zero. Temperature of a body entirely without heat, i.e., where heat motions or oscillations have entirely disappeared. Its position on any thermometric scale is thus found. Regnault and others have shown that perfect gases change by g;s of their volume at 0° Centigrade for each 19 C. If therefore a unit of volume at 0°C. be cooled still further, it will grow smaller by a ja of itself for each degree, and at 273° below 0°C. it will have reached a volume at which further refrigeration can have no effect, and hence will be no heat vibrations to be affected. Absolute zero is therefore at —273° C. For the Fahr. scale the co-efficient is root for each degree reckoned below 32° F.; hence absolute zero on this scale is 491.4—32–459°.4 below Fahrenheit zero.

Absolution. In Catholic theology, a judicial act of a validly ordained priest of competent jurisdiction, remitting the eternal punishment of mortal sins which a penitent has frankly confessed with at least the imperfect repentance called attrition, and a firm resolution of avoiding them hereafter. In danger of death any priest, even if degraded, excommunicate or apostate, can absolve any penitent from any sin. Such a confession and absolution (implying suitable self-mortification), constitute the Sacrament of Penance.

Absorbents. Lacteal and lymphatic vessels, more particularly those connected with the intestines, which absorb digested food, convey it into general circulation, and also take up certain bodies at all points in the body; as, e.g., the poisonous matters in unhealthy wounds, albuminoids or drugs injected beneath the skin, the products of inflammation, etc.

Absorbing Power, That property of a substance in virtue of which it converts a greater or less portion of incident radiant energy into heat. Its value is the ratio of the

energy absorbed to the whole amount incident. Lampblack is one of the best absorbers known ; its absorption is practically independent of the wave length. See OCCLUSION and SoLUTION. Absorption. Process by which digested food is taken up by the system. The principal and most important factors are the blood vessels and lymphatics of the intestines. Fatty matters and soluble salts may be absorbed to some extent by the skin, and albuminoids by the peritoneum and membranes lining the other cavities of the body and the tissues, when injected into them. In Botany the taking in of gases and liquids by growing plants through the epidermis and its various appendages, stomata, lenticils, trichomes, etc. Absorption Bands. . In spectroscopy, when a bright light, passes, through a body, which may be a vapor, solution or solid, dark bands are observed in the spectrum.

Uranium Chloride.

Absorption Lines. When a bright light is projected through a flame, in which elementary substances are vaporized, the peculiar lines, observed by the spectroscope, are replaced by dark lines in the continuous spectrum.

Abstinence. Avoidance of any form of food, drink, or pleasure; applied especially to beverages which may intoxicate, and opposed alike to over-indulgence and to temperance or moderate use. Total abstinence societies have existed in the U. S. from 1808.

Abstraction. Several psychological phenomena of inportance. (1) That degree of mental occupation which makes the person oblivious of surrounding circumstances and objects which would naturally come within the field of attention. (2) More technically, the mental act of conceiving a mere property of an object as a thing, and neglecting all other concomitant properties and relations as if they did not exist. (3) Often in a popular sense “an abstraction” is taken to be something or conception which cannot be expressed in material or physical terms, and is synonymous with the unpicturable. Abstract of Title (brief of title or search). Synopsis or summary of all conveyances, liens and charges affecting the title to an estate in lands. In England the vender of real estate is bound, and in the U.S. he is accustomed, to furnish an A. of T. Abstriction. Term employed in Botany to separation of one part of a plant from another by constriction and formation of a septum. Abt, FRANZ, 1819–85. Prolific German composer of songs for voice and pianoforte and male chorus. His best known song is When the Swallows Homeward Fly. Abu, or ABoo, Simbel. Site on west bank of the Nile,

Façade of the Great Temple at Abu-Simbel.

between the first and second cataracts ; famous for two rock temples dating from Rameses II., ab. 1850 B.C. The temple façades are cut in the face of the rock, which overlooks the



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river. The larger temple's façade boasts of four colossal seated invoked; hence a period of Jesuit ascendancy, ending with portrait figures of Rameses II., each about 66 ft. in height. their expulsion in 1633. (See THEODORE II.) The English took Abu-Abdallah. See BOABDIL.

Abulfaragius, GREGOR, 1226–1286. Of Jewish origin; became bishop of Guba and afterward of Aleppo, where he was made, in 1266, Maphrian or primate of the eastern division of

DIA the Jacobites; famous as philosopher, linguist and theologian. His greatest work is a History of the World in Syriac, of which he made an Arabic abridgment. We possess a Latin version of the latter.

Abulfazl, d. 1608. Vizier of Akbar, the Mongol emperor, whose biography, entitled the Akbar Nameh, or Book of Akbar, he wrote.

Abulfeda, ISMAEL BEN ALI EMAD-EDDIN, 1273-1331. Arabian prince, b. at Damascus. He took part in the wars against the Crusaders, and was a patron of learning. His work on geography is extant ; also portions of his Abridgment of the History of the Human Race.

Abulghazi-Bahadur, 1605–1663. Khan of Khiva, who abdicated his throne and in retirement wrote a history of the Mongols and Tartars.

Abul-Teman, 806-815. Arabian poet, so famous that the proverb says, “No one could ever die whose name had been praised in the verses of Abdul-Teman." He also pub, three collections of Oriental poetry, the Hamasa being the best.


Abundant Number One less than sum of aliquot parts, Ex. 30x1+2+3+5+6+10 +15. Distinguished from deficient number and perfect number.

Abuse of Authority. The authority invested in all persons belonging to the military hierarchy is clearly defined in ihe Articles of War, regulations of the army and general orders emanating from War Department from time to time. In exercise of this authority the rights of individuals as well as the

Sketch Chart of Abyssinia. good of the service are to be considered, and no unjust discrimination should be exercised for gratification of personal

Magdala 1867. Menelek II., king of Shoa, gained the throne spite or attainment of petty ends.

1889. Abutilon. Genus of Mallow family, comprising several

Abyssinian Church. Branch of the Coptic, holding with species with showy flowers, cultivated for ornament.

it Monophysite doctrine. It received its first bishop or abuna

(father) from Alexandria. Exceedingly irregular and barbarAbutment. Mass of masonry which l'esists the outward

ous, but stoutly maintaining its independence. push of an arch. When a bridge has several spans the ma

Abyssinians. Probably of Asiatic origin; Christians, Jews (proselytes), and Mohammedans, but with retention of some pagan practices; one aboriginal practice, wife-capture, is practiced as a mere ceremony. The wife enjoys much social liberty in spite of the absolute power of rule in the husband.

Acacia. Genus of Leguminosce, trees or shrubs, native of the warmer regions of the globe. A. senegal and A. arabica



sonry supports nearest the shore are sometimes called abutments, and the others are called piers. See ANCHORAGE.

Abydos. Town of the Troad, just above which Xerxes built his bridge of boats over the Hellespont, 480 B.C.

Abydus. Egyptian site (also called Thinis), famous for its ruins of two temples dating from the eighteenth dynasty, ab. 1400 B.C.

Abyssal Clay. Deposit found covering the ocean bottom at depths exceeding 3,000 fathoms. It consists of an impalpable red clay mixed with volcanic and meteoric matter. The first ingredient is probably the residuum left after solution of the shells of pelagic animals during their long descent to the bottom.

Abyssinia Country of eastern Africa, south of the Soudan, containing an area of nearly 200,000 sq. miles. Its surface is much diversified, consisting of high mountain ranges 12,000 to 13,000 ft. above sea, and elevated table lands 6,000 to 10,000 ft. bigh, among wbich are numerous deep valleys. It is drained mainly by the Blue Nile and other branches of that river. The inhabitants are of various races, but mainly Caucasian, nominally Christian, and in manners are rude and barbarous. The government is a hereditary monarchy. Pop. 3,000,000 to 4,000,000. The kings claim descent from the Queen of Sheba. Christianity was

Acacia arabica, introduced ab. 350; monks came in numbers ab. 470. In consequence of the search for PRESTER JOHN (g.v.), the produce gum arabic by spontaneous exudation. Catechu or Portuguese began missions here ab. 1490. The Mohammedans cutch is an extract prepared from A, catechu. overran the country 1528-40, and the aid of Portugal was! Acacia, FALSE. See LOCUST.



Acacius, d. 366. Arian theologian, Bp. of Caesarea 340– 365. He and the sect of Acacians held that the Son resembled the Father in will, but rejected the terms Homoousian and Homoiousian alike.

Académie de Musique. Official title of the Grand Opéra in Paris, a State institution founded 1669, receiving an annual subvention, and managed by a director subject to the Minister of Fine Arts.

Academies to Regulate Language. The best known institution of this kind is the French Academy, founded 1635 by Richelieu, and intended to fix standards for the national speech. It has made the well-known dictionary, and is still a court of appeal in all questions of linguistic accuracy. Its other functions belong to literature. Similar institutions have been founded in other countries, as the Royal Academy of Spain, 1714, or the older Accademia della Crusca of Italy, Florence, 1582. See INSTITUT NATIONAL

Academy. Plot of ground near Athens, adorned with plane and olive trees, and containing a gymnasium in which taught Plato, and afterward his followers, hence called academic philosophers.

Academy, Military, U. S. At West Point, N. Y. Institution established by law for the instruction of young men preparatory to their promotion into the U. S. Army as commissioned officers. It is commanded by an officer of rank as superintendent, under the direct supervision of the War Department. An Academic Board directs and controls its system of studies and methods of instruction, subject to the approval of the Secretary of War. Its staff of instruction consists of about fifty officers specially selected from the army and detailed for four years' duty, after which they are returned to their proper stations, and of seven professors permanently attached to the institution. The students are warrant officers recommended by representatives of Congress and appointed by the President. They must be actual resi

dents of the Congressional District from which they are

appointed and of legal age (17 to 22 years), and before they are admitted must pass a preliminary examination in the

simpler branches of learning taught in the common schools.

The course of instruction extends over four years. Each cadet receives pay, amounting to $540 per year, which covers every possible expense for his support, clothing and books, and leaves sufficient to pay for his officer's equipment on graduation. It is essentially a national school, whose pupils are wards of the Government and are drawn from every section of the country. From 1800, the date of its establishment, to September, 1894, there were admitted into the institution 7,582 cadets, of whom 3,616 have been graduated. Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, Pa. Founded 1812. Association of scientists, holding meetings for the reading of papers and discussion. It publishes Proceedings and Journal. Acadia. Name borne by the province of Nova Scotia (q.v.), while under French dominion.

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including small, spherical, protozoan bodies floating on the ocean surface. The sarcode is supported by siliceous or horny spines, the former are hollow and transmit pseudopodia. The spines radiate from a common center, in the form of a double cone in Diplocomida. In other sub-orders there are twenty spines (except in the Litholophidae, in which the number is indefinite), that are united at their apices by a perforated shell in Sphaero capsida and are united by transverse bars in Dorataspida. In Acanthonida there is no union of the spines except in the center; they lie in five zones of four spines each.

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stricted sense fiye sub-orders are included: (1) Pharyngogmathi, including the Labridae; (2) Hemibranchii including the Gas. terosteidae and trumpet fishes (Fistulariidae); (3) Pediculati, including forms like the fishing frogs (Lophius); (4) Opisthomi, the “spiny eels”; (5) Acanthopteri, restricted: this includes the Scombroids, such as the mackerel, bluefish, pilot-fish. dolphin, tunny, swordfish, etc.; the Chaetodonts, the Percoids, Such as weakfish, redfish, drumsish, porgie, sheepshead, blackfish, red grouper, jewfish, rocksish, perches, darters, bass. sunfish ; the Ophiodoids, such as Fieråsfer and many others. See the above, also GoBy, GURNARD. TOAD-FISH, LABRIDA:. WOLF-FISH, COTTIDAE, CHIASMODONTID.E. Acanthus...'Genus of plants, the typical one of the family Acanthaceae. The species of A, have large lobed and sinuate leaves. A. mollis of southern Europe and cultivated in Britain has mucilaginous properties and may be used as a substitute

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Acarina, or ACARIDA (Mites). Arachnids with stout oval bodies. The cephalothorax is fused with the unsegmented abdomen. Mouth parts are adapted for biting, piercing and sucking. Respiration is effected by tracheae. Most Mites are parasites; large blood-sucking forms are called Ticks. Demodeac, Sarcoptes, Iacodes and Trombidium are troubleSome to man. See MONOMEROSOMATA.

Acarnania. District in western part of Greece, first brought into view in Peloponmesian war, 431 £3. Its inhabitants were less civilized than in the rest of Greece.

Accad. City mentioned Gen. x. 10; robably on the Euphrates, nearly w. from agdad. Sargon I., the earliest king of Babylonia of whom anything is known, ruled here about 3800 B.C. Ishtar, or Anunit, was the chief deity. A. is the name also of the northern section of Babylonia, Sumir being the lower or southern section.

Accadian. Dialect of the speech of Babylonia, belonging to the Semitic family, and famous for its cuneiform (wedgeshaped) inscriptions. Acceleration. (1) Rate of change in the velocity of any moving body. A number of units of length in one unit of time, and the difference between the velocity observed at the end of one unit of time and the velocity at the end of the next succeeding unit. Where this difference is negative, the notion is being retarded. Acceleration may be uniform or varied. The most usual of the uniform accelerations is that due to gravity, which produces a change of velocity of 32.2 feet per second when a body falls or is thrown upward into the air. There are also astronomical accelerations observed in the motions of the heavenly bodies—due, for the planets and fixed stars, to the orbital motion of the members of the solar system ; the apparent acceleration of the moon has not been fully explained. (2) Occurrence of the stages of development of an animal earlier and earlier in its life history as the generative cycles are repeated; e.g., the lower Crustacea hatch as free swimming Nauplius larvae, while in the higher this stage is passed in the egg, the free larva here corresponding with the adults of lower forms. See DEVELOPMENT. Accent. Aside from its use to indicate a mark or sign of pronunciation, the stress or loudness of voice laid upon a particular syllable, word, or phrase. Also, the pitch, or relative sharpness of tone, as in the classical languages. In these, as in oldest Germanic, the accent was movable, and varied with varying forms of the word; whereas, in English, as in the historical Germanic dialects, the accent falls upon the initial syllable of the word. Many words, however, which we have taken from the French, retain their original accent. Accent is the chief factor in modern rhythm, as compared with classical quantity. Accent in Music. Emphasis or stress regularly laid upon certain tones, designated generally by their position with relation to the bar across the staff. Unless explicitly displaced the accent falls upon the first note in each measure; exceptions to the rule are created by forcing dynamic stress upon other parts of the measure, or by binding an unaccented to an accented note by a slur, the stress being thus displaced. Accents used in instrumental music are generally called grammatical or metrical. In vocal music there is also oratorical, rhetorical, aesthetic or pathetic accent, by means of which the


musical expression is made to conform to the sense of the words. Ecclesiastical accents are simple melodic formulas

used in reciting portions of the church liturgy. Accentor modularis (Hedge-Sparrow).

Bird of family

Accentor modularis.

Sylviidae. The golden-crowned thrush belongs to family Sylvicolidae. Accession. Title by which the owner of property holds that which becomes accessory to it. Owner of the female had title by accession to her progeny. Owner of land becomes owner of whatever is permanently affixed to it. Accessory. Botanical term for a fruit composed of an enlarged receptacle or adherent surroundings of a simple or aggregate fruit. Such are also known as anthocarpous; also aplied to buds when additional ones occur in the same axil which ears the main one.—Legal, before the fact, at common law, one who is absent at the commission of the felony, yet procures, counsels or commands the crimes; after the fact, one who, with knowledge that a felony has been committed, receives, relieves, comforts, or assists the felon. In misdemeanors there are no accessories; all are principals. Modern statute generally treat accessories before the fact as principal offenders.

Accessory Foods. Spices, condiments and beverages. such as pepper, tea and coffee, largely used to stimulate and aid digestion, but containing none of the elements necessary to life.

Accessory Means of Defense. All those artificial and natural obstacles which are found or can be placed in front of assailed positions and so arranged by the military art as to break up the assailant's formation for assault, or delay his progress and subject him to a destructive fire from the works. Among the artificial obstructions of this class are abatis, chevaux-de-frise, crows' feet, entanglements, fraises, inundations, mines, palisades, stakes, pickets, stockades and trous-de-loup.

Accessory Process. See ANAPOPHYSIs.

Accessory Rays. Twelve small rays lying dorsally and ventrally at the base of the caudal fin of fishes. Dorsal accessory rays are all that are present above the bent-up notochord of a homocercal tail.

Accident. Event which could not have been avoided by the use of the kind and degree of care necessary to the exigency, and in the circumstances surrounding the parties. For the accidental result of a lawful act there is no legal liability. Court of equity will often grant relief to the victim of an accident, as when a bond or promissory note is lost or destroyed, or when a written contract has been mistakenly drawn or defectively executed. Accident insurance provides indemnity for the loss of life, limb, sight, or time ; but not generally for pain, annoyance or grief, as a result of accidental injury to the body of the insured. Terms of a proffered accident policy should be carefully examined by the party about to take it out. In military operations, term applied to an event of secondary importance and which has happened by chance. When applied to the ground over which military operations are conducted, it refers to elevations or depressions which would sensibly affect their successful execution, such as precipitous heights or ravines, streams, forests or other obstacles to unimpeded movements of troops in military formation.

Accidental Wariation. See WARIATION.
Accidentals in Music. Symbols occurring outside the

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