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Anadyr Gulf. Arm of the Pacific, penetrating n. e. Siberia. Anaemia. Condition in which the blood is impoverished, lacking o in the number of its red blood-corpuscles; characterized by great paleness and loss of strength. It may follow insufficient nourishment, any acute disease, syphilis, rheumatism, gout, disease of the spleen, presence of an animal arasite (the Ankylostemee duodenale or Dochmius duodenale) in the duodenum, or may occur without any apparent reason and lead to a fatal termination. The parasitic form is known as brickmakers', miners', or tunnel anaemia, and the last variety as malignant anaemia. In the ordinary forms a generous diet, iron, and cod-liver oil will usually improve the condition, the proper special treatment for the disease being followed. Miners’ anaemia is cured by vermicides, while o: anaemia usually resists all treatment. An insufficient blood-supply to an organ or tissue is also termed anaemia.
Anaerobiotic. Bacteria whose vegetation is promoted by the exclusion of oxygen. Anaesthesia. Loss or diminution of the sense of touch. In medicine, a state of insensibility to external impressions and to pain. It may be caused by disease or artificially brought about by anaesthetics. Anaesthetics. Remedies which by inhalation or direct contact with a part abolish sensibility to pain. In the latter class are included extreme cold and a number of vegetable alkaloids, of which cocaine is the most important and most commonly employed. In the first class are ether, chloroform, nitrous oxide or laughing gas, and several substances which resemble ether and chloroform, but are rarely used on account of their dangerous properties. By the inhalation of these bodies the person is thrown into a sort of sleep, in which all consciousness is abolished and the most difficult operations undertaken, in some instances lasting hours. Ether and chloroform are employed when the operation is likely to last long, and nitrous oxide for the extraction of teeth o: short but painful operations. The two former are almost universally used to relieve the pains of childbirth: this was for some time opposed by certain sects as enabling women to avoid the penalties inherited from Eve. Under proper conditions and in the hands of competent persons the danger of death from anaesthetics is so slight that they are employed often in making examinations only moderately painful. The number of deaths from ether is only one in nearly 17,000 administrations, from chloroform one in about 3,800, and srom nitrous oxide death is almost unheard of. Chloroform and nitrous oxide should not be administered to persons having heart disease, nor ether to those afflicted with Bright's disease. Cold is employed either by applying ice, or freezing the surface by spraying ether, or any very volatile substance, upon it; but is seldom used, on account of danger of freezing the parts too deeply and causing gangrene. In any event it is applicable only for the extraction of teeth, opening of an abscess, etc. Cocaine is very largely used in slight operations upon the eyes and for other uninportant operations where it can be injected directly into the parts to be encised. Anagnostes, JoANNES. Author of an account of the storming of Thessalonica by the Turks 1430, and a Monodia or lamentation for that misfortune. Anagram. Word or sentence obtained by transposing the letters of another, as “James Stuart “–“a just master”; often superstitiously invested with importance. Anagrams. A game played with printed letters of the alphabet. Each player forms a word, and then, mixing the letters composing it, gives them to his right hand neighbor, who is required to arrange them again in their former order.
Anahuac. Great central plateau of Mexico, a part of the Cordilleran plateau of N. America. Its elevation is 6,000 to 9,000 feet, and it is crowned by mountain ranges and volcanic peaks, the highest of which is Popocatapetl, 17,720 ft.
Anakim. Giants in s. of Palestine 1500 B.C.; called Sons of Anak, Num. xiii. 28.
Anakinesis. See PROPHASEs.
Anal Appendages. Belonging to last segment of abdomen of insects, modified as forceps, antennae, etc.
Analcite. Na,Al,Si,O1a-H2aq. Zeolitic mineral, resembling garnet in crystalline form. Anal Gland. (1) Uropygial gland of birds. (2) Scent §. near the anus in certain mammals, e.g. the skunk. (3) lands in similar position in other animals, as snails. Anallantoideans. Fishes and Aoi. collectively, their embryonic forms being characterized by the absence of an allantois; more usually designated as Ichthyopsida.
Analogous Pole. That part of a pyroelectric body which shows positive electricity when the temperature is rising, and negative electricity when it is falling. The antilogous pole is that part which becomes negative by being heated and positive by being cooled.
Analogous Variation. See PARALLEL VARIATION.
Analogy. In common use, accidental resemblances; in logic, often a form of inductive inference. It is better to say that induction is founded upon essential, and analogy upon accidental qualities and resemblances. The former gives probability and the latter only rational possibility. Parables are good illustrations; they are not arguments, but means of making a doctrine intelligible. As Jevons remarks, analogy “denotes not a resemblance between things, but between the relations of things. A pilot is a very different man from a prime minister, but he bears the same relation to a ...! that the minister does to the state, so that we may analogically describe the prime minister as the pilot of the state. There is a real analogy between the tones of a monochord, the sages of Greece, and the gates of Thebes, but it does not extend beyond the fact that they were all seven in number.” E.g., the argument from the existence of terrestrial to that of planetary inhabitants has no cogency, and at best can only suggest a rational possibility. Analogy. In Zoology, as opposed to homology; resemblance in function, and therefore in superficial structure of organs. Thus the wings of insects and of bats are analogues. See HOMOLOGY. Analogy in Language. Tendency to reduce variety to unity by bringing exceptional or divergent forms to a common standard. The old plural of English “book” (böc) was bec, and would now be “beek "; but analogy with other plurals made it “books.” Another form of this tendency is so-called “popular etymology,” by which brenstone (i.e. burn-stone) became brimstone. Anal Plates. Of Echinoderms, those surrounding the proct. Of snakes, see ANAL SCUTE. Anal Pouch. Sac in badgers, above the anus, in addition to anal glands. Anal Respiration. Seen in the lower (entomostracous) Crustacea, in which the gut next the proct is rhythmically pulsatile, drawing in and expelling water. Anal Scute. Last ventral plate of a serpent, in front of
the proct. Anal Spurs. Rudimentary legs of boas and pythons. Analysis. Opposite of synthesis. The two, in common
life and the physical sciences, mean taking apart and putting together. In philosophy they describe the method of acquiring and developing knowledge. Analysis is deductive method, which involves definition, division, and probation; it renders explicit what is implicit in a doctrine. Synthesis describes inductive method, which involves observation, hypothesis, and verification by scientific principles. It adds to knowledge, while analysis only unfolds its implications. Analysis. In chemistry, processes by means of which the constituents of a given substance are determined. There are two principal subdivisions, QUALITATIVE and, QUANTITATIVE (q.v.).-In botany, examination of a plant with a view of determining its name and systematic position.
Analytic Function. One expressed in analytic symbols.
Analytical Geometry. Application of the notation and processes of Algebra to the investigation of the properties of form. Form, as lines, surfaces, etc., is considered as produced by successive positions, referred to fixed elements. The law governing this succession expressed in algebraic symbols forms the equation of the locus (or form). Deductions by algebraic processes from this equation give the properties of the locus. This application of Algebra was introduced by Descartes 1636.
Analytical Trigonometry. Science treating of the trigonometric functions of all angles and their inverse functions. The fundamental formulas derived geometrically are Sin (A + B)=Sin A Cos B -- Cos A Sin B Cos (AIEB)—Cos A Cos B FF Sin A Sin B ),
where A and B are any two angles. From these formulas, through algebraic transformations and the interrelation of the
Analyzer. Optical instrument for detecting and examining polarized light. Any form of polarizer may be used, e.g. a reflector of glass, a Nicol's prism, or a tourmaline plate.
Anam, or CoCHIN CHINA. Country of s. e. Asia, bordering on the China Sea, s. of China and e. of Siam; now under a French protectorate. The n. and s. parts are low and level, the middle portion mountainous. Area ab. 27,000 sq. m.; pop. ab, 5,000,000.
Anamorphosis. Objects when seen reflected from cylindrical or conical mirrors always seem more or less distorted, the amount depending upon the dimensions of the mirror. It is possible to reverse this process and to construct an image of such a shape that when seen reflected from a distorting mirror the object shall appear in its normal proportions. Anamorphosis is this restoration.
long bill with sieve-like lamellae, narrow tails and considerable variety of coloration and sexual differentiation. The males have a swelling on left side of trachea near the fork of the bronchi, known as the labyrinth (Bulla ossea). In most sea ducks it is fenestrated. Tree ducks (Deudrocygma) live in the tropics, and nearly related is the shelldrake (Tadorma), whose legs are long and central, without lobes on the hind toe; they inhabit the shores of the n. Atlantic. The eggs are laid in burrows in the sand-dunes. They are “farmed" by the Danes, who take their eggs and down. River ducks have no lobe on the hind toe, such as is characteristic of sea ducks. The Eider-duck, exceptionally, has no fenestra in its labyrinth. They breed in Arctic and subArctic regions, being specially protected on the coast of Norway. From Greenland are exported 6.000 lbs. of eider-down yearly, representing 72,000 nests. The Labrador duck became extinct 1878, and museum specimens are twice as rare as of the Great Auk. Sea ducks live on molluscs, but the mergansers seed on fish, to catch which the bill is narrow, long .# toothed. The head is crested.
Anatolia, ASIA MINOR. Now a Turkish pashalic. 208,327 sq. m.; pop. 9,125,000.
Anatolius of BERYTUs. Jurist, praetorian praefect of Illyricum, vicar of Asia 339 under Constantius.
Anatolius. Prof. of law at Berytus, d. 557 in an earthquake. He assisted in compiling Justinian's Digests.
Anatolius. Greek hymnist. probably of 9th century; supposed by Dr. Neale to be patriarch of Constantinople 459.
Anatomy. That branch of Morphology which treats of the structure of organisms. When studied on one or a few forms it is special anatomy. If a series of related forms are studied in their true classificatory relations, it is systematic anatomy; if the homologous and analogous organs are studied systematically one by one, it is comparative anatomy. The study of the organs and mechanisms constitutes gross anatomy: that of the tissues is Histology, minute or microscopic anatomy. Haeckel divides anatomy into TECTOLOGY and PROMORPHOLOGY (q.v.). See OSTEOLOGY, MYOLOGY, SPLANCHNOLOGY, ARTHROLOGY, NEUROLOGY, ANGEIOLOGY.
Anatomy, HUMAN. Attempts have been made to trace the study of the parts of which the body is formed to a very remote period, but if any information on the subject existed prior to Aristotle, it was vague and of little value. To Hippocrates has been given undeserved credit in this line, for he knew little or nothing of it. Aristotle dissected animals freely and man in a few instances; the knowledge he obtained in this way was singularly exact for the times; some of the terms he used are o: vogue.
Between his time and that of Galen some slight advances were made, chiefly by Eristratus and Herophilus of the Alexandrian school. Galen. ab. 130–201, described nearly all the bones and muscles, established the fact that the arteries contained blood, not air, as had been previously believed, gave accurate accounts of various organs, and founded a system of nomenclature, many terms of which still exist. After his death nothing of note was done until the 14th century, when Mondino dissected human bodies in Bologna and cleared up many points previously obscure. His influence rendered Italy the center of anatomical study, a position it maintained for near three centuries. Vesalius, a Belgian, who received his early education in France, was the first to produce a systematic treatise and is justly regarded as the “father of modern anatonny.” Prominent later teachers were Eustachius, Columbus, Ingrassias, Falloppio, and Fabricius. In 1619 William Harvey, who had studied in Italy, announced his discovery of the circulation of the blood. The microscope added inpetus to the study, and Albinus of Leyden produced plates which for beauty and accuracy have never been surpassed, covering almost every point of importance. From his time until the discovery of the compound microscope in 1830 little advance was made. Since then microscopic anatomy, or histology, has occupied the attention of an army of students, and each year fresh advances are made and difficult problems demonstrated. It has been found that a proper knowledge can be obtained only by tracing all portions of the body to their commencements in the embryo, and it is chiefly in that direction that investigators are now working. As a result of these labors some light is being thrown, e.g., on the questions of why one ovum should develop into a male and another into a female, and also on the changes which occur in the tissues in disease and the best methods of combating them. The ultimate elements into which all tissues can be resolved are cells which in man and most of the higher animals are from on to stop of an inch in diameter, vary in form according to the parts in which they are found, and can reproduce themselves indefinitely under proper conditions. Until recent times much difficulty in obtain: ing human bodies for dissection existed, the only material obtainable being those of executed criminals and the results of
past half century; it has been of the greatest value in affording increased knowledge of disease-processes and their prevention and relief. Comparative anatomy is the study of the structure of the lower animals and their relations to man. The various organs, tissues, and structures of the body are described under their titles. Anaxagoras. Ab. 500–428 B.C. Greek philosopher, b, in Asia Minor, a resident in Athens from ab. 480 till banished 450; friend of Pericles and reputed master of Socrates and Euripides. He may be regarded as the first great man of science, for he anticipated many doctrines supposed to be modern, and had some idea of the conservation of energy. He taught that air is a substance, the sun a mass of blazing metal, and eclipses due to natural causes, and that all things have existed from the beginning, but in infinitesimally small fragments, from which “nebulae.” the world had developed. Man and the other animals sprang from the warm and moist clay. He explained the mechanical nature of the physical order and the indestructibility of matter, and called chance the name for causes not perceived by the human intellect. Anaxandrides. Athenian poet of the Middle Comedy, ab. 376 B.C.; first to introduce love intrigues. Amaximander. Ab. 611—ab. 547 B.C. Greek philosopher, successor of Thales in Ionia. He made advances in natural science, is said to have invented the sun-dial and discovered the obliquity of the ecliptic, and stated clearly the doctrine of evolution: the earth and heavenly bodies had developed from a uniform substance, land animals from those of the sea, and man from the beasts. Anaximencs. Greek philosopher of Ionia, ab. 500 B.C. He taught that all things are developed from air. Anaximenes, 4th century B.C. Greek historian and rhetorician, b. at Lampsacus; companion of Alexander. Fragments of his histories remain, and a rhetorical treatise ascribed to Aristotle is regarded as his. Anaxonia. Animals like the amoeba, having no axis. Ancelot, JACQUES ARSENE FRANCOIs POLYCARPE, 1794–
1854. French poet and dramatist; academician 1841. Louis IX., 1819; Olga, 1828.—His wife, MARGUERITE VIRGINIE CHARDON, 1792–1875, wrote novels and plays. Ancestor. In law, the person, whether progenitor or not, from whom an estate descends to the heir.
Ancestor Worship. Basis of native religion of the Chinese, and an important element in most primitive religions, being regarded, in its broadest sense, by Herbert Spencer, as “the root of every religion.” Sanctified by Confucius and his school, it is practiced at the present day throughout China, Korea, and Japan.
sauce is made by macerating the fishes in water, digesting the mixture, adding red pepper and then filtering. Anchylosis. Stiffening of a joint from injury or disease. Ancillon, JohanN PETER FRIEDRICH, 1767–1837. Pastor in Berlin; Prussian foreign minister 1831; anthor of a French work, Revolutions of Europe, 4 v., 1803—5. Ancistrodon. Genus of American Solemoglpha, or poisonous snakes, including A. contortria, the highland copperhead of the South. It has a loreal plate and 28 rows of scales. When cold weather comes, several bunch together. The female bears seven ..", alive. They are ferocious. A. piscivorous is the Water Moccasin of the South, more dreaded than the Rattlesnake, in that it grows to a large
Moccasin Snake (Ancistrodon contortriz).
size (4 ft.). is very poisonous, attacks at the slightest opportunity, and strikes without warning. In Brazil is an allied form, Trigonocephalus, from whose bite many laborers die annually. Another genus, Caudisona, includes the Massasauga or Black Rattler of Ohio and adjacent region. It has rudimentary rattles, and lives in the holes of the Prairie-dog. Ancohum. Peak of the Andes, in Bolivia, ht. 21,286 ft. Ancona. City of Italy, on the Adriatic: annexed to the Paal States 1532: held by the French 1832–38; taken from the revoutionists by the Austrians June 18, 1849. Here the papal sorces surrendered to the Sardinians Sept. 29, 1860. Pop., 1891, 48,572. Ancren Riwle. (Rule of Female Anchorites, or Nuns.) Treatise on monastic life in Semi-Saxon, ab. 1200. Ancyra. See ANGORA. Andalusia. S. part of Spain, including the ancient Moorish kingdoms of Granada, Cordova, Seville, and Jaen. 8 provinces. Area 33,800 sq. m.; pop. ab. 3,500,000. Andalusite. Al,SiO. Basic orthosilicate of aluminium, occurring in several modifications. When transparent and pure in color, it finds use as a gem. A variety showing in crosssection spot of one color regularly arranged on a differently colored background is called chiastolite or macle. Andaman Islands. In Bay of Bengal; penal colony of India. The natives, among the lowest in development on the earth, are a tribe of Malays of dwarf-like stature, black skin, delicate features, strong muscles, beardless, and of nomadic habit. They construct temporary huts and wear no clothing. They are supposed by some to represent the remnants of a primitive race of man which inhabited a continent now lost under the Indian Ocean and called Lemuria. Andante. A time-designation in music indicating that a piece is to be sung or played at moderate speed. Anderledy, ANTONIUS, 1819–1892. General of the Society of Jesus from 1884, succeeding Beckz, whose assistant he had been from 1870. Andersen, CARL, 1828–1883. Danish poet.
Anderson, RUFUs, D.D., LL.D., 1796–1880. Sec. A. B. C. F. M. 1832–66; historian of various missions.
Anderson, WILLIAM, D.C.L., b. 1835. Leading British authority on war material; director-general of ordnance factories.
Andersonville. Military prison of the Confederacy, in Sumter Co., Ga., infamous by reason of the treatment of the prisoners confined in it. Out of about 50,000 nearly 13,000 perished from disease or from the inhuman discipline. At the close of the war Henry Wirz, a Swiss, to whom most of the barbarities were due, was tried, convicted, and hanged. The ' place where the soldiers had been rudely buried was transformed into a cemetery.
Andersson, NILS Johan, b. 1821. Prof. of Botany, Stockholm. Salices boreali-amer., 1858; Monographia Salicum, 1867.
Andes. Longest and most continuous chain of mountains on the globe and, next to the Himalayas, the highest. It ex
tends along the entire w. border of S. America, leaving on the west but a narrow strip of lowland. It is narrow relatively to its length, ranging from 60 to 300 m. in breadth. The s. end is partially submerged, forming the fiord coast of s. Chili, and has a height of 6,000 to 8,000 ft. In n. Chili it consists of two parallel ranges, with passes at 11,000 to 13,000 ft., and peaks exceeding 20,000 ft. Among them is Aconcagua, perhaps the highest peak in America, 23,290 st. In Peru and Bolivia the mountain mass becomes more complicated, with a high plateau of 10,000 to 13,000 ft., capped on either side by ranges whose peaks exceed 20,000 ft., and with numerous cross ranges, the whole having a breadth of 300 m. Further north the chain diminishes in altitude. until at the Isthmus of Panama it consists merely of low hills.
Andesite. Variety of feldspar, triclinic in crystallization; intermediate in composition between the calcium feldspar, anorthite, and the alkaline feldspars, orthoclase and albite. Associated with hornblende, it is an important ingredient in much of the crystalline rock of the western cordilleras of N. and S. America.
Andocides, 467–391, B.C., Attic orator, included among the famous ten. Several of his orations are extant.
Andorra. Republic between France and Spain, semi-independent. Area 175 sq. m. Pop. 6,800, of Catalonian stock.
Andover Theological Seminary. Oldest Congregational divinity school in America, founded 1807 as a department of Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.; controlled by Phillips trustees and a board of three visitors. It has 9 professors, ab. 60 students, a library of 50,000 vols., and a Palestinian nn useum.
Andradite. Casse,Si,Oz. Calcium-iron garnet, occurring in a variety of colors; named for the Portuguese mineralogist d'Andrada.
Andrássy, JULIUS, Count, 1823–1890. Hungarian revolutionist 1848; prime minister 1867; Austrian foreign minister 1871–79.
André, John, 1751–1780. B. in London of Swiss parentage; came to America 1774 in a British regiment. Appointed to negotiate with Arnold, he was intercepted on his return and executed Oct. 2, 1780, as a spy. His remains were taken to England 1821 and interred in Westminster Abbey.
Andrece, JAKOB, D.D., 1528–1590. Lutheran theologian; chancellor Univ. Tübingen from 1562; chief author of the Form of Comcord, 1577.-His grandson, Johan NVALENTIN, D.D., 1586– 1654, court preacher at Stuttgart from 1639, was a prolific writer.
Andreaeceae. Small family of mosses of a single genus, Andreaea, natives of cold regions. Andree, KARL THEODoR, 1808– 1875. German author and journalist; consul to Chili 1858. Buenos Ayres, 1856; Geography of Commerce, 1863–69. Andrés, JUAN, 1740–1817. Italian Jesuit of Spanish birth. He wrote a history of literature in 7 vols., 1782–99. Andrew, ST. Apostle, brother of Simon Peter; said to have been crucified at Patrae in Achaia. Andrew, St., OF JERUSALEM, 660–732. Abp. of Crete 711. Greek hymnist, known by Dr. Neale's translations, 1863. Andrew, JAMES OSGOOD, D.D., 1794–1871. Methodist bishop from 1832, prominent in forming the M. E. Ch. South, 1844. Andrew, John ALBION, LL.D., 1818–1867. Gov. of Mass. 1860–66; the day following Pres. Lincoln's call for troops he had three regiments on the . The prominent part taken by Mass. in the Civil War was due largely to his influence. Andrew, SAINT, ORDER of. (1) Founded in Scotland under James V., revived 1687 and 1703; also called Order of the Thistle. (2) In Russia, founded by Peter the Great 1698. Andrewes, LANCELOT, D.D., 1555–1626. Bp. of Chichester 1605, Ely 1609, and Winchester 1619; first on the list of King James's Bible translators 1607–11, and a leading theologian; best remembered by his Private Devotions. Andrews, CHARLEs, LL.D., b. 1827. Associate Judge N. Y. Court of Appeals 1870; Chief Judge 1881. Andrews, Edward GAYER, D.D., LL.D., b. 1825. Methodist bp. 1872. Andrews, ELISHA BENJAMIN, D.D., LL.D., b. 1844. Pres. Brown Univ. 1889. Institutes of History, 1887-89; Economics, 1889. Andrews, HENRY C., 1799–1828. English botanist. Botanist's Repository, 1797–1804; Heaths, 1802–30; The Heathery, 1804; Geraniums, 1804; Roses, 1805–28. Andrews, THOMAS, LL.D., 1813—1885. Prof. of Chemistry, Belfast, 1845-79. He made important investigations upon the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states of matter, and on ozone. Androdioecious. Plants with both perfect and staminate flowers, borne on different individuals. Androecium. Stamens of a flower. Androgynous. Flower-clusters which contain both staminate and pistillate flowers. Andromache. Daughter of Fétion and wife of Hector of Troy; celebrated by Homer and Euripides. Andromeda. Daughter of Cepheus; exposed to a seamonster and rescued by Perseus by aid of the Gorgon's head. Aster death she was made a constellation of the northern heavens. Its center is near 0h. 30m. right ascension and 40° declination.—In botany, a genus of the Heath Family. Andromonoecious. Plants which have both staminate and hermaphrodite flowers on the same individual. Andron. In ancient Greek house the front portion, which was set apart for the men, the Gunaikeiðn or women's quarters being in the rear, separated from this, and entrance permitted to near male relatives alone. Andronicus, LIVIUs, d. ab. 221 B.C. First Roman poet; a Greek from Tarentum, who came to Rome as a slave, was freed, and translated Greek plays into Latin. His first play, performed 240 B.C., was the beginning of Latin literature. He also translated Homer's Odyssey into Saturnian verse and wrote hymns. Only fragments remain. Androphore. Tube formed by the filaments of monadelphous stamens, as in the Mallow Family. Andros, SIR EDMUND. 1637–1714. Gov. of New York 1674–82; and of New England 1686–89. In 1687 he demanded the surrender of the Conn. charter, which was hidden in the “Charter-oak.” On the news of the deposition of King James, the Bostonians seized and imprisoned him. He was gov. of Va. 1692–98, and of Guernsey 1704–06. Androspores. Peculiar zoospores developed in the cells of certain green algae. Androtion, 4th cent. B.C.; Athenian orator, contemporary with Demosthenes. An electric. Any conductor of electricity; correlative to dielectric, a non-conductor.
Anemoscope. Apparatus for showing or estimating the direction from which the wind is blowing; a wind-vane. Anemosis. Condition of windshaken timber, the annual iayers of wood parting from each other, sup osed to be caused by violent gales, ut perhaps due to other causes. An enterata. Group of animals in which there is no digestive tract, as in the Cestodes, Mezozoa, Rotifers, and Acanthocephala. Amerio, FELICE, ab. 1560. Classical master of the Roman school, the last official composer of the Papal Choir. erous masses, motets, madrigals, psalms, etc. Aneroid. Portable form of barometer, consisting of a hollow elastic metallic box, with a corrugated top partially exhausted of air. Any variation in the external pressure produces a corresponding compression or dilatation of this box. A multiplying arrangement of levers causes an index to manifest, by its position on the face of a dial, the amount of this pressure variation. Careful preliminary graduation by comparison with a standard barometer enables the absolute pressure corresponding to each indication of the instrument to be recorded. It is not as accurate as the mercurial barometer. Aneurism. Dilatation of an artery, due to disease or in
Register-sheet of an Osler's
Wood Anemone (A. memorosa).
He wrote num