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Amalfi. City of s. Italy, plundered by the Pisans 1135, partly buried by the sea 1343.
Amalgam. (1) Metallic alloys of which mercury or quicksilver is constituent. This property of mercury of combining readily with certain other metals finds extensive application in the metallurgical treatment of gold and silver ores, “silvering ” of mirrors, covering zinc plates in a battery, etc. (2) A natural alloy of silver and mercury found at Moschellandsberg, Bavaria. AgBig and Ag, Hgs.
Amalgamation. Process for preventing local action, first applied to voltaic batteries by Kemp. It consists in covering the zinc plate with a layer of mercury. By this means a layer of pure zinc is brought on the surface, and this is not attacked by the acid solution unless the battery is in action. Thus local currents due to the impurities in the zinc are obviated.
Amalric, or AMANRY, 1135–1173. Latin King of Jerusalem 1162, involved in contests with the Templars.
Amalric of Bema, d. 1209. Schoolman, condemned by the Pope and the Univ. of Paris in 1207; his bones were exhumed and burned with his writings in 1210. His followers endured much persecution for their pantheistic tenets, which were revived by the Brethren of the Free Spirit (q.v.). Their worst heresy placed believers beyond the reach (or the imputation) of sin.
Amalthea. Nurse of the infant Jupiter, or, as others say, the goat which suckled him. One of her horns being broken off, the god filled it with whatever the possessor might desire; hence the Cornucopia.
Amapatolli. “Paper game.” Old Mexican name for playing cards, introduced into America by the Spaniards at the time of the Conquest. Two sheets of cards made in Mexico 1583 are reserved in the Archives of the ndies at Seville.
Amaranth. Plants of genus Amaranthus, bearing large clusters of minute flowers subtended by green or purple bracts. They are mostly natives of tropical America, but widely distributed as weeds. The Globe A., Gomphrena globosa, is an lo, sometimes planted for ornanment.
Amaranthaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermae and sub-class Dicotyledomes, comprising 50 genera and about 450 species, distributed throughout the world except the colder regions; commonly called the Amaranth Family.
Amara-Sinha, ab. 56 B.C. SanScrit grammarian and poet. Being a Buddhist the Brahmans attempted to destroy his works. We have,
Love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus).
however, the Amara-Kosha, a vocabulary of ab. 10,000 Sanscrit
words, arranged according to the roots in three books, whence called the Trikandra.
Amaravati. Site in Southern India on the river Kistnal), famous for a Buddhist tope from which many important relief sculptures were excavated in 1845 and brought to England. These are now an ornament of the main stairway of the British Museum. Their date is probably 3d century B. C. See Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship.
Amari, MICHELE, 1806–1889. Italian historian, associate of Garibaldi and Cavour. War of the Sicilian Vespers, 1842; Sicily and the Bourbons, 1849; Mussulmans in Sicily, 1 8.
Amaryllidaceae. Natural family of flowering plants of the class Angiospermae, sub-class Monocotyledones, comprising 65 genera and ab. 600 species, widely distributed through the temperate and warmer regions of the earth; commonly called the Amaryllis Family.
Amaryllis. Pastoral belle in Theocritus and Virgil.
Amasa. Son of Abigail, half sister of David ; made generalin-chief by the rebellious Absalom, after whose death David made hini commander-in-chief in place of his cousin Joab, who thereupon treacherously assassinated him.
Amasta. Monotremes, which are mammals without teats.
Amat, FELIX DE TORRES, 1772–1840. Bp. of Astorga, and official translator of the Bible into Spanish, 1823; author of a Dictionary of Catalan Writers, 1836.
Amaterasu. The Sun Goddess of Japanese Shinto mythology, and the reputed ancestress of the first Mikado and founder of the present imperial dynasty of Japan.
Amati. Family of Cremona, famous in the annals of violin o; Their best instruments were produced between 1590 and 1620.
Amaurosis. Impairment or loss of vision, due to injury . disease of the deeper portions of the eye, optic nerve, or Italin.
Amaziah. Eighth king of Judah, ab. 837-809 B.C. He defeated Edom, became an idolater, was overthrown by Jehoash of Israel ab. 824, and killed at Lachish.
Amazon. Largest river of South America, and in volume of water, drainage area, length and navigability of tributaries, largest in the world ft heads in the Andes, draining their east front from lat. 20° s. to 3° n. The descent from the mountains is very abrupt, and at their base the country is but a few hundred feet above sea level. The river enters the Atlantic through an immense delta. Its principal branches are the Negro, Japura, Ucayali, Purus, Madeira, Tapajos and Tocantins. Its length is between 3500 and 4000 miles, and its drainage area nearly 3,000,000 sq. m. Upon the main stream and its tributaries there are fully 10,000 m. of navigable water. Its average discharge at its mouth is 2,458,000 cubic ft. per second. The effect of tides is felt 400 m. above its mouth.
Amazons. settled about the river Thermadon in Asia Minor. end of the Trojan war they came to assist Priam.
Amazon-stone. K.Al,Si.O.g. Bright green . of potassium feldspar, microcline, closely resembling orthoclase Color is due to organic compound of iron. Named from the Amazon R. Handsome specimens have been found in the granite of Pike's Peak, Col.
Ambarvalia, or AMBARVALE SACRUM. Ancient Roman festival, in May, lasting three days. Besides private rites, the Arval Brothers conducted a sacrifice in the name of the state, the “Suovetaurilia,” so named because a sow, a sheep, and a bull were led around the fields and then offered with prayers to Ceres, goddess of crops.
Ambassador. Minister accredited by one sovereign to the court of another. The representatives of the U. S. in foreign lands received this title 1893 in some cases.
Amber. Fossil resin of tertiary age, found in small, translucent, or sometimes transparent, masses of irregular shape in the soil, or in slightly consolidated recent, geological formations, near the surface, in various parts of the earth. It is yellowish, brownish, or reddish in color, and frequently incloses remains of insects which became imbedded in it as it oozed from the trees. Its association with fragments of wood or lignite proves its vegetable origin. The regions about the Baltic Sea supply the greater part of the amber of commerce. It is not found in the U. S. in paying quantities. The world's yield of amber at present is about 150 tons a year. On treatment with nitric acid it furnishes succinic acid.
Amberger, CRISTOPH, 1490–1561. German portrait painter, mainly active in Augsburg; after Holbein, one of the best artists of his time. His pictures are in Augsburg, Stuttgart, Gotha, Berlin, Vienna, and Florence.
Ambergris. Grayish fatty substance, found in the bowels
Mythical race of female warriors, said to have Toward the
Amblypoda. Order of Sub-Ungulates, including the two sub-orders Dimocerata and Pautodonta, placental mammals of the Eocene period. The Dinocerata include gigantic forms with five-toed feet, elephantine limbs, no upper incisors, but the upper canines developed into downwardly-directed tusks. The nasals, maxillaries, and frontal bones bear each a pair of horn-cores, so that possibly the animal possessed three pairs of horns. There was no proboscis, of the brain was the smallest proportionally possessed by any mammal. The characters of Pautodonta are given under CoRYPHoDONTIDAE.
Amblypterus. Lepidoganoid fish resembling Palaeomiscus, but with shorter and deeper tail and larger body-fins devoid of anterior spines; found in the Coal Measures.
Amblystoma. Genus of SALAMANDRINA (q. v.), widely distributed in N. America, and remarkable for the fact that its larval development can be delayed indefinitely by subjecting
the menobranchus-like young to a continuance of its aquatic environment. See AXOLOTL.
Amboise. Town of Central France, where a Huguenot conspiracy was suppressed Jan. 1560, and an edict granting toleration to the Huguenots issued March 19, 1563.
Amboyna. One of the Moluccas or Spice islands, held by the Portuguese with intervals since 1580. Area, 264 sq. m. Pop., ab. 30,000.
Ambros, AUGUST WILHELM, 1816–1876. Composer, and ablest of modern musical historians. Prof. Univ. Prague 1869. Poetry and Music, 1856; History of Music, 4 v., 1862–78.
Ambrose, ST., ab. 340–397. Bp. of Milan 374, and one of the four great Latin fathers; eminent for devoutness, benevolence, firmness, eloquence, power of government, and all the virtues. He baptized St. Augustine, excommunicated Theodosius, reformed church music, and wrote hymns that are still used.
Ambrosia. Food of the Olympian gods.
Ambrosian Chant. Musical service established by St. Ambrose ab. 384 for the cathedral in Milan. Its characteristics are unknown.
Ambrosian Hymn. Te Deum Laudamus. A legend, which has no foundation in fact, attributes its composition to Saints Ambrose and Augustine. It is of later date and uncertain authorship.
Ambry. Small cupboard, formerly used in monasteries for keeping vessels per- taining to ritual.
A m b ul I a C r a 1 Groove. In Echinoderms, especially Crinoids and Star-fishes, that in which the series of a m bu l a cor a (sucker-feet) lie. It runs on the oval side of each arm.
Ambulacral Ossicles. Plates through or between which the ambulacra of Echinoderms project. Also, the sub-ambulacral ossicles in star-fishes, which are exposed and the only ossicles corresponding in position to the true ambulacral ossicles. AURICULA.
Ambulacral Plates. urchins.
Ambulacral Pores. Zigzag line of openings between ambulacral ossicles through which the ambulacral feet project.
Ambulacral Rosette. Petaloid figure formed by the anbulacral zones when they radiate from the aboral pole only, as in certain Echinoids.
Ambulacral Shields (of OPHINRoIDs). Plates that cover the ambulacral grooves ventrally; also known as super-ambulacral shields.
Ambulacral Surface. See ACTINAL SURFACE.
Ambulacral suture. Line of junction of the two rows of ossicles which constitute each ambulacral ray.
Ambulacral System (of ECHINoDERMs). The oval or actinal surface of star-fishes, sea urchins, etc., traversed by five double rows of locomotor suckers radiating from the mouth. The suckers pass out between a double series of calcareous plates, which are set vertically and transversely to the axis of the ray, and in star-fishes are sometimes called vertebral ossicles. In the star-fish each row of suckers is really a zigzag, which gives each ray the appearance of having four rows of these ambulacral feet. Each sucker has at its inner end a sac (ampulla), and is connected with a water-tube which lies in a groove in the vertebral ossicles, and radiates from a circular tube about the mouth, on which are ten polian vesicles and nine racemose vesicles and a stone-canal, ending on the aboral surface by the madreporite, sieve-plate, which admits water to the whole system.
Ambulance. Vehicle in which the wounded are removed from battlefields, or the sick and injured conveyed to hospi
True ambulacral ossicles of sea
tals. The service attending the former was developed in the Crimean war. Ambulatorii. Birds having walking legs with three toes forward, the middle and outer being united at their roots, and the inner directed backward. Ambulatory. In architecture, part or appendage of a building arranged for the passage of processions; often the passage around the choir of a Gothic church, which is a continuation of the outer aisle of the nave. Ambuscade, or AMBUSH. Cover concealing a body of troops, intended to surprise an approaching enemy and by a sudden and unexpected attack to overwhelm him.
America. Name derived from Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian who in 1499 visited the western continent. The Northmen are believed to have coasted from Labrador to Rhode Island ab. 1003. Columbus reached the West Indies 1492, and on his third voyage discovered S. America near the mouth of the Orinoco 1498, and Honduras on his fourth voyage 1502. John Cabot probably touched N. America 1497. Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Darien 1513. The coast of Brazil was explored by Pinzon and Diego de Lepe 1500, and soon after reached by the Portuguese Pedro Alvarez de Cabral, who was on his way to India around Good Hope. Magellan sailed to the west side of S. America. 1520.
Cortez conquered Mexico 1519–21; Pizarro conquered Peru 1532–3. First settlement in Nova Scotia (Acadie) 1604; at Quebec 1608; at Jamestown, Va., 1607; in Newfoundland and on the Hudson 1611; at Plymouth, Mass., 1620. The oldest settlements in the U.S. are St. Augustine 1565, and Santa Fe 1582. See North, CENTRAL, and SOUTH AMERICA. (See Map on next page.)
America, BRITISH. Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, Br. Honduras, Br. W. Indies, Bermudas, and Falkland Is.
America, CENTRAL. See CENTRAL AMERICA.
America, RUSSIAN. Term formerly applied to Alaska, bought by U. S. 1867.
America, South. See SouTH AMERICA.
America, SPANISH. Formerly most of the continent s. of the U.S.; now merely Cuba and Porto Rico.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. At Boston; founded 1780. An association of scientists, holding meetings for the reading of papers and discussion. It publishes Proceedings and Memoirs.
American Architecture. Evidences have been discovered, in both N. and S. America, that some part of each continent had been occupied, at some time before the discovery of the country by Europeans, by races more highly civilized than those which possessed it at the time of the discovery. These evidences consist in remains of buildings in Peru, Mexico, and Central America, especially in Yucatan. The Peruvian remains, which are supposed to be the work of a race anterior to the Incas, whom the Spaniards found in possession, are extensive and
Palace at Palenque.
massive, but of a rude and primitive character. They consist of circles of stones, like those in Europe, of which Stonehenge is the most familiar example, of walls of vast stones, accurately fitted, and evidently intended as fortifications, and of square and round towers of masonry, increasing in size from the bottom to the top, and in some cases covered with domical roofs of overlapping stones. The remains in Yucatan and Mexico are more interesting as showing a much greater skill, and also in consequence of their striking resemblance to the ancient architecture of Central Asia, especially in the erection of temples upon the summit of a series of receding terraces. The most extensive building of the ruins which remain in Yucatan, that at Palenque, is thus arranged. By some it is supposed to have been a palace, and by some a temple. The extent of the pyramidal substructure at the base is 310 ft. by 260, and it is 40 ft.
high. The superstructure is 25 ft. high, of a single story, and the rooms and corridors are arranged about three courts of unequal size. The ceilings are formed by slabs of stone carefully joined
Interior Facade, Palenque. and fitted. The whole is of masonry, but there are remains of a smooth stucco with which it was once covered, within and without, and which was used as a ground for pictorial decoration. American Association for the Advancement of
Science. Founded 1847. It meets annually for the reading of papers and discussion, and publishes Proceedings.
American Literature. During the colonial period it was nearly confined to theology, and was produced chiefly in New England. The Revolution called forth much political writing, rečminently that of Thomas Paine, and minor poets like Barow and Freneau. The first fiction of any note came from C. B. Brown. The first poem of real value was Bryant's Thamatopsis—but here we are within the 19th century. he main beginners of a national literature were Irving, whose great successes were largely won abroad, and Cooper, whose Leatherstocking Tales, though built in spirit and style on Scott's foundation, were in subject matter purely native. W. G. Simms and others followed in his wake. Our greatest geniuses were Hawthorne, master of subtle and introspective romance, and Poe, doomed to misfortune by his deficiencies of character, but reckoned abroad our foremost literary figure. In history Bancroft, Prescott, Widley and Parkman lead a roll of worthy names. Poetry, beginning with Bryant, was long most successfully cultivated in eastern Mass., where Longfellow won the love of nations, and whittier stirred or soothed men's hearts. Emerson, most inspiring of essayists, was at his best in his rare best verse. These were ioined somewhat later b Dr. Holmes, most witty and versatile of writers, and Lowell. whose scholarship and critical aptitude too often obscured from public view his deep and splendid originative powers: his Harvard Commemoration Ode and Emerson's Problem show the high-water mark of American verse poetry. The fame of Thoreau, a prose poet, is mainly posthumous. Of late, fiction has taken the place of poetry. Howells, with all his realistic theories, is at the head of our novelists; after him come Marion Crawford and Henry James, who live mostly in Europe; Mrs. Burnett, Miss Woolson, Miss Wilkins, Stockton, and Cable. Bret Harte is best in California themes, and Page is almost the laureate of Virginia, R. H. Davis is a master of the short story. Stevenson and Kipling, though now or lately residents of the U.S., are properly claimed by Britain. Mark Twain is the foremost living humorist. In science America has Agassiz and other names that bring her abreast of Europe. In religion, Bushnell, in the past, and Dr. Briggs, to-day, represent the reforming, and innovating spirit, while Beecher and Brooks made the pulpit illustrious. American literature, though a plant of recent growth, now holds its own in every field, as is shown by the names of many hundreds of authors throughout this work.
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Americanisms. Peculiarities in word or phrase which belong to the U. S. and are foreign to British usage. See J. R. Bartlett's Dictionary of Americanisms.
Americus Vespucius. See VESPUCIUS.
Amerighi. See CARAVAGGIO.
Ames, FISHER, LL.D., 1758–1808. Prominent Federalist, M. C. from Mass. 1789–97. His political essays were signed “Camillus " and “ Brutus.”
Ames, WILLIAM, D.D., 1576–1633. English Puritan, in Holland from 1611. Medulla Theologiae, 1623, tr. as Marrow of Sacred Divinity, 1642.
Ametabola. Insects that do not undergo metamorphosis, usually wingless; comprising the orders Anoplura, Mallophaga, Collembola and Thysamura (lice, bird-lice, spring-tails, etc.).
Amethyst. SiO,. . (1) Purple or violet quartz, the color, which is liable to fade on long exposure to the light, being probably due to manganese or iron. It is frequently found iining walls of geodes. The n. shore of Lake. Superior has furnished many large masses, but the gems of purest color come from Brazil or Siberia. (2) The oriental amethyst, a purple variety of corundum, is much harder and brings a much kigher price.
Ametropia. Abnormal or impaired vision.
Amherst, JEFFERY, LoRD, 1717–1797. British officer. He took Louisburg 1758 and Montreal 1760; was Gov. of Va. 1763; made Baron A. 1776; commander-in-chief in America. 1758, and in England 1778–82 and 1793–95; field-marshal 1796.-His nephew, WILLIAM PITT, 1773–1857, was envoy to China 1816, and Gov.gen. of India 1823–26; first earl of A. 1826.
Amherst Follo. At Amherst, Mass.; founded 1821; chartered 1825. It has 25 professors, 6 instructors, and ab: 400 students, an annual income of ab. $75,000; a library of 61,000 volumes, and valuable collections. The Mass. Agricultural College, also at Amherst, opened 1867, has a faculty of 14 and 160 students; permanent funds ab. $500,000.
Amiades (HALECOMORPHA). Tribe of Ganoid fishes with bony skeleton, round enameled scales, bony branchiostegal rays and heterocercal tail-fin. There are no fulcra. . This group includes Amia calva, the Mud-fish or “ Dog-fish" of American
rivers and lakes. It is allied to the Teleosts. It has a long undifferentiated dorsal fin. The swim bladder can to a slight extent function as a lung, and the fish will live out of water for several hours.
Amiantus, or AMIANTHUs. Finer and more silky fibrous varieties of amphibole and pyroxene (asbestus), and of serpentine (chrysotile).
Amicis, EDMONDO D', b. 1846. Italian descriptive writer. Spain, 1873; London, 1874; Morocco, 1876; Paris, 1878; Constantinople, 1878.
Amida (or AMITABHA) Buddha. Originally regarded as impersonal, as the ideal of boundless light. The dogma of Amida is supposed to have been originated by Persian or Gnostic ideas influencing the Buddhism of Cashmere and Nepaul, for it must have been from one of these countries that it reached China (via Thibet). According to the doctrines of the Mahātzāna school, Amida is regarded as the celestial reflex of Sakyamuni. “The doctrine of Amida and his paradise in the western heavens is, strictly speaking, no contradiction to the doctrine of Nirvana, for it does not interrupt the circle of transmigration, though it offers to the devotee of Amida aeons of rest. But the popular mind understands his paradise to lie beyond the circle of Metempsychosis, and the common people look upon this Pure Land of the West exactly in the same light as the Christian looks upon hiopromised rest in Heaven.”
Amides. Organic anmonias in which the hydrogen of ammonia is conceived to be replaced by an acid or oxygenated radical or radicals; thus from ammonia (NH,), acetamide, CH,CO. NH2. by replacing hydrogen by the acetyl group.– In botany, crystallizable organic substances containing nitrogen, mostly found in the more immature parts of plants. They are held by authorities to be less valuable for feeding purposes than the protein substances, though from the difficulty of separating the two they are usually classed together. Amidines. Compounds derived from the amides by substitution of the group NH: for the oxygen of the amides. Thus from acetamide, CH,-CO. NHa, is derived acetamidine, CH,.CNH.N.H. Amidoacetic Acid. See GLYCOCOLL. Amidoazobenzene. C.H.N: N.C.H.N.H. Amidoazo compound prepared by the action of nitrous anhydride upon aniline. See ANILINE YELLow. Amidoazo Colors. Artificial coloring matters containing the amidoazo group, NH.N:N. Amidoazo Compounds. Containing an azo grouping .N: N., and also an amido group, .NH2. A mi do a zon a phth a lene. Clo H.N: N.C, H.NH2. Brownish-red needle-like crystals, formed by the action of nitrous anhydride upon naphthylamine. Amidobenzene. C.H.N.H. See ANILINE. Amidobenzoic Acids. NH.C.H.COOH. Orthoamidobenzoic or anthranilic, metamidobenzoic, and paramidobenzoic. They are weak bases as well as acids. They are best prepared by the oxidation of the corresponding toluides. Amidocompounds. Belonging to the aromatic or benzene series and containing the group .NH, united directly to carbon, as C.H.NH, aniline. Amidogen. NH, or amido group of atoms. See HYDRAZINES. Amidophenols. HO.C.H.N.H. Phenol in which one atom of hydrogen is conceived to be replaced by the .NH, or amido group, known in three isomeric forms, the ortho-, meta- and para-amido phenol. Amido Plast. See LEUCOPLASTID. Amiel, HENRI FREDERIC, 1821–1881. Swiss poet, prof. at Geneva from 1849. His fame rests on his Journal Intime, 1882– 84, tr. 1889. Amiens. City of France, on the Somme, 40 miles from its mouth. It has a fine cathedral, built 1220, and a library of