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Alexander I., 1777–1825. Emperor of Russia 1801–25; son of Paul I. He sought to promote education, commerce, unity and patriotism; abolished many abuses; joined the coalition against Bonaparte 1805; was forced to unite with Prussia in the Peace of Tilsit 1807; declared war against England 1809, from whose ally, Sweden, he took Finland; turned against Napoleon 1812-15; founded the Holy Alliance with Austria and Prussia 1816. Dread of revolution led him to aid Austria at the Congresses of Troppan, Laybach and Verona in crushing out the efforts of the nations toward Poio progress. Popular discontent with war burdens led to his later repressive measures. He was succeeded by Nicholas I.

Alexander II., 1818–1881. Son of Nicholas. Czar 1855. March 3, 1861, he proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs, 23,000,000 in number. In 1865 he established elective representative assemblies in the provinces. He declared war with Turkey, 1877. After repeated attempts on his life by the Nihilists, which led to stringent measures, he was killed by a bomb in St. Petersburg, Mar. 13, 1881.

Alexander III., 1845–1894. Emperor of Russia 1881–94; second son of Alexander II. and Maria of Hesse Darmstadt. He married, 1866, Maria Sophia Frederica Dagmar, of Denmark, sister of the Princess of Wales and of the King of Greece. The salient features of his reign were the repression of Nihilism, the development of Russia as a military power, and preparation for the ultimate control of Constantinople. Alexander (JOSEPH), OF BATTENBERG, 1857–1893. Prince of Bulgaria 1879–86. He defeated Milan of Servia 1885, and was expelled by Russia. Alexander, THE AETOLIAN. Alexandrian Greek poet of 3d century B. C. He wrote much, but only fragments remain. Alexander, ARCHIBALD, D.D., 1772–1851. American theologian and educator; first professor of Princeton Theol. Sem., 1812. His sons followed . in his footsteps. JAMES WADDELL, D.D., 1804–1859, was professor at Princeton. 1849–51, and pastor in New York. Joseph ADDISON, D.D., 1809–1860, was also professor in Princeton Seminary from 1838, and wrote several commentaries. Alexander, WILLIAM, D.D., D.C.L., b. 1824. Bishop of Derry and Raphoe from 1867; theologian and poet. Witness of the Psalms to Christ (Bampton Lectures), 1877. His wife, CECIL FRANCEs (Humphreys), b. 1823, has published many hymns and poems. Alexander, WILLIAM, D.D., b. 1831. Pres. San Francisco City College, 1871–74, and professor Theol. Sem, there since 1871. Alexander, WILLIAM LINDSAY, D.D., 1808–1884. Scottish divine and educator. Alexander of Hales, d. 1245. English Schoolman, “ doctor irrefragabilis.” A Franciscan monk, he taught in Paris, and was the first comprehensive Aristotelian. Summa Theologiae. Alexander Severus, ab. 205–235. Roman emperor 222– 235; of exemplary character, cultivated tastes, and liberal opinions; murdered by Maximin, his successor. Alexanders. . Coarse plant of the carrot family, Smyrnium Olusatrum, formerly used instead of celery.

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Alexandra. Jewish princess, widow and successor (106 B. C.) of the Maccabean king, Aristobulus I.

Alexandra, CAROLINE MARIE CHARLOTTE LOUISE JULIE, b. 1844. Daughter of Christian IX. of Denmark, Princess of Wales 1863.

Alexandra Nyanza. waters of the White Nile.

Alexandria. City and seaport of Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great 332 B.C. It soon became the capital of the Ptolemies, and one of the most magnificent cities in the world, famous for its commerce, its schools of philosophy, its library (the largest in the world), its museum, the temple of Serapis, and the lighthouse near by on the island of Pharos, with a population of probably 600,000, mainly Greeks and Jews. From A. D. 300 till its conquest by Omar 640 it was an influential center of Christian theology. From this time the city declined, and its fall was accelerated by the founding of Cairo 969 and the discovery of a new route to the East by Cape of Good Hope 1497. Modern A. stands mainly on what was the island of Pharos and the ancient dyke which connected it with the mainland. A railway joins it with Cairo and Suez, and a canal with Cairo. Its commerce is extensive. Pop. ab. 227,000, one-fourth Europeans. The English bombarded it July 11 and 12, 1882, and reduced the best part of the city to ruins; the European quarter was burned by the natives.

Alexandria. City of Alexandria Co., Va., on the Potomac, 6 m. below Washington. Pop. 1890, 14,339.

Alexandrian Library. Founded by Ptolemy II., Philadelphus (285–247 B.C.), who endowed a corps of scholars to revise, copy and arrange the collection, which in Caesar's days amounted to 700,000 rolls. Its chief librarians, among whom were Aristarchus, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Eratosthenes, Callimachus, and others, were the first literary critics, and science of every description was studied here. The destruction of the library was begun by Archbishop Theophilus and his followers in 391 and completed by the Mohammedans in 642.

Alexandrian School. Ab. 300 B.C.—A. D. 400, at Alexandria in Egypt. It included the best thought and learning of the Jews, who here received Plato's philosophy. (See PHILoJUDAEUs.) In later days its teachings were maintained and extended by the great Christian school in the same city, under onus. Clement, and Origen. Its influence was wide and eep.

Alexandrines. Verses of 12 syllables, named probably from a French poem, ab. 1200, on Alexander the Great.

Alexandrite. Be Al,O,. Variety of chrysoberyl, emerald green in color, but exhibiting a peculiar shade of red by transmitted light; found in the Ural Mountains, and used as a precious stone. Named after Czar Alexander I.

Alexinatz, SERVIA. Scene of battles between Turks and Servians, Aug. and Sept. 1876. The town was captured by the Turks Oct. 31.

Alexis, 392–286 B.C. Comic poet at Athens, generally assigned to the Middle Comedy, who wrote 245 plays and is often quoted. Many plays were tr. into Latin, but only fragments remain.

Alexius Comnenus, 1048–1118. Byzantine emperor 1081– 1118. He checked the Turkish conquests, and used the Crusaders as his tools to that end.

Alfalfa. Medicago satira, an herb of the natural family Leguminosae, native of Europe, where it is known as Lucerne: extensively cultivated in America as a forage plant. Like most leguminous plants, it is rich in nitrogenous substances, whence much of its value as a fodder. . It has deep roots, and is able to stand greater extremes of drought than any other plant of its class. It thrives in most soils and climates of the s. U.S., but is mostly cultivated in the irrigated districts of the Rocky Mountain slope. It will not stand pasturing, but in good soil and under favorable conditions three and often four cuttings can be made in a season. It is sown broadcast late in spring in a well-prepared seed-bed, in land free from weeds. The young plants start rather slowly, and any large weeds * be removed by hand. The first year but a single cutting is usually made; after that it should be cut as often as it comes into bloom. Alfalfa, either green or made into hay, is nutritious and palatable, and is readily eaten by all classes of stock.

Al-farabi, ABU-NASR MUHAMMED IBN TARKHAN. Arabian philosopher of 10th century, and court playsician. He classified science under six heads: language; logic; mathematics, including music and occult sciences; natural science; civil science; divine science. He assumed a Supreme Existence, infinitely good, but without distinguishing attributes.

Alsieri, VITTORIO, COUNT, 1749–1803. Italian poet, chiefly noted for his tragedies, composed in severe style, imitative of

Lake of Central Africa, on upper

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the Greek drama, but full of vigor and passion. Stuart; Saul.

Alfonso I. King of Castile 1072–1109. (VI. of Leon 1065.) “The Brave.” Aided by the Cid, he defeated the Moors.

Alfonso I., 1112–1185. Son of Henry of Burgundy; Count of Portugal. He defeated the Moors at Ourique 1139, assumed the title of king, captured Lisbon, and was succeeded by Sancho I., his son.

Alfonso VIII. the Moors 1212.

Alfonso X., 1226–1284. “The Wise.” King of Castile and Leon 1252–82. Second known Spanish author. He wrote verses, and promoted the writing of chronicles and tr. the Scriptures, but was more successful in literature than in government, and died in exile.

Aronso XI. King of Castile 1312–50; defeated the Moors 1340.

Alford, HENRY, D.D., 1810–1871. English poet. Canterbury 1857; first editor Contemporary Review, 1866–70. His edition of the Greek Testament, 1844–61, was highly valued.

Alfred, THE GREAT, 849–901. King of West Saxons 871; grandson of Egbert, son of Ethelwolf. He successfully withstood the Danes, enjoyed the titular supremacy of o England from 893, established order, founded schools, built a navy, compiled a code of laws, and tr. Boethius and other Latin works.

Algæ. Group of plants belonging to the sub-kingdom Thallophyta. They are mostly aquatic, abounding in salt and fresh water. They also frequent moist ground and damp rocks, the bark of trees, the tissue of higher plants, and unite with fungi in the formation of lichens. Some forms are cosmopolitan; but, as with land plants, the various species are restricted in their distribution, being controlled by climatic conditions, substratum and depth of water. In structure the algae are widely various, ranging from microscopic forms to great seaweeds that ramify #: trees. The plant body may be unicellular or multicellular or coenocytic, the cells being arranged in series to form filaments, or they may be united to form cell surfaces or complex structures. Many forms are free, others attached by disks or rhizoidal growths. Among the lower forms propagation is largely vegetative. Higher forms increase by means of swarm spores, zoogonidia, naked masses of protoplasm more or less spherical, and rendered mobile by one or more cilia. After a mobile stage the come to rest, lose their cilia, become invested with a cell-wall, and develop into a new plant. The highest orders of algae produce motionless spores. In reproduction the algae are as various as their forms. Here we find the simplest manifestations of sexuality, i.e. the conjugation of similar gametes, but in the evolution of sex the male element alone remains mobile, and in the highest forms the sexual elements are clearly distinguishable from the complex structures in which they are developed. Vaucheria illustrates a common method of reproduction. The male and female cells originate as short, lateral branches. The male cell, antheridum, gives rise to many biciliated spermatozoids, while the female cell, oogonium, produces an egg-cell, oosphere. A spermatozoid sinds its way to this cell and fuses with it (fertilization). A new plant results from the germination of this impregnated body. Among the highest members of the algae, the #. the male elements, spermatia, are motionless and the female apparatus, procarp, is usually much complicated. From an economic standpoint the algae are of little importance. Sodium carbonate and iodine are extracted from the ashes of the coarser forms. The most important use of the algae to-day is as fertilizers. Many species are edible and nutritious, from a carbohydrate analogous to starch, others are rich in gelatine. Algaroba. Spanish-American name for species of Prosopis, trees of the natural family Leguminosae, natives of subtropical America. The Mesquite of s. w. U. S. is P. juliflora. Algaroth, Powder of. Mixture of oxychlorides obtained by treating antimony trichloride with hot water. The composition of this mixture is approximately represented by the formula Sb, O.Cla. Algarotti, FRANCEsco, Count, 1712–1764. Italian poet and art critic. Newtonian Philosophy for Ladies, 1733. His letters are highly esteemed. Algebra. Variously defined as Universal Arithmetic (Newton); Science of Pure Time (Hanuilton); Science of Succession (De Morgan); Science of the Equation. Its beginning is unknown. It existed early among the Greeks in its processes, though included under Arithmetic. The work of Diophantus, ab. 360, was algebraic.

Abel; Mary

King of Castile 1158–1214. He defeated

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Algebra came to Europeans through the Arabs, who traced it to Mohammed Ben Musa Alcherarizmi of Khiva, 9th century, who had learned from Hindoo scholars. The beginning of the analysis is now ascribed to them: Arya Bhatta, probably of the 1st century, being the earliest known author. The early notation was meager: the value of negatives was hardly recognized, and equations of the second degree were the limit of consideration. In 1202 Leonardo, a Pisan traveler, brought to Italy from the Arabs a knowledge of algebra. The first printed text-book was by Lucas de Burgo, 1494. In 1505 o Perrea solved an equation of the third degree. Tartales of Brescia continued the investigation, and in 1545 Cardan, prof. at Milan, published general rules for the solution of third degree equations, still known as Cardan's Method. Ferrari, his pupil, solved the equation of the fourth degree. Meanwhile German mathematicians, working independently, improved the notation. The earliest English work is by Robert Recorde, teacher at Cambridge, who introduced the sign of equality. Vieta, Girard, and Harriot added to the processes and known relations of the science, Harriot doing more probably than any other. In 1637 appeared the great work of Descartes; and thenceforward algebra in its varied applications made progress so rapid as to require constantly new definitions for new branches. The latter part of the 17th century was full of new developments of algebraic forms, Newton and Leibnitz, with Wallis, Barrow, Demoivre, Taylor, Stirling, Maclaurin, the Bernouillis, Roberval, Fermat, Pascal, and others pressing out along new lines. In the 18th century there was much elaboration of previous suggestions. Toward its close La Grange and Euler made substantial advance. With the opening of the present century came Gauss, Cauchy, Jacobi, Ş. Fourier, Horner, Sturm and others. . Their work Salmon, Sylvester, Cayley and others have carried forward. The more recent development is in the branch called “Determinants.” Hamilton and Grossman have introduced new elements in the discussion. Pure algebra in its higher development becomes “The Theory of Equations.” Algebraic notation and processes, applied in different directions and under various conditions, sweep over the entire mathematical field. Algebraic. , Mathematical processes in which quantity is represented by letters and operations are indicated by signs, including all discussions except those of arithmetic and pure geometry.

Algebraic Function. One involving only the fundamental operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, involution, and evolution—distinguished from “transcendental function.”

Algeciras. Town in Spain, near Gibraltar; taken by the Moors 713; destroyed by Alfonso XI. of Castile 1344, after a long and famous siege. The new town was built 1760; pop. 13,000. Near it a British fleet defeated the French and Spanish, June, 1801. Alger, HoRATIO, JR., b. 1834. American author of many juvenile books. Alger, RUSSELL ALEXANDER, b. 1836. Brevet Major-Gen. of U. S. Volunteers 1865; Gov. of Michigan 1885–87. Alger, WILLIAM ROUNSEVILLE, b. 1822. American author. Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, 1863; Genius of Solitude, 1865; Friendships of Women, 1867.

Algeria. French possession of northern Africa. Its area is about 150.000 sq. miles. The country is mountainous, in ranges parallel to the coast, with fertile valleys and plains near the shore. Pop. ab. 4,125,000, including ab. 300,000 Europeans. It was early settled by Numidians and Mauri; afterward conquered and colonized successively by Romans, Vandals, Arabs and Turks. The latter established a military despotism. Their piracies were a constant menace to civilization. Charles V.'s fruitless expedition against them in 1541 was followed by like unsuccessful attempts on the part of Spain, France. England and Holland. In 1708, the dey. Ibrahim, freed Algeria from the dominion of the Porte. Piracy was somewhat checked during the French Revolution, but resumed on the return of peace. The Americans defeated the Algerine fleet off Carthagena, June 20, 1815. The bombardment of Algiers by the English and Dutch followed, and a treaty was secured by which Christian slaves were released, with the promise that piracy and slavery of Christians should cease. Piracy, however, continued. Difficulties with France culminated in a three years' blockade, ending in the bombardment of July 4, 1830, and a capitulation. The French took possession and control of Algeria. Many mistakes were made, and cruelties perpetrated, in the effort to introduce French

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laws and institutions. Abd-el-Kader became the leader of a “holy war” which raged for many years, with intervals of uncertain peace. Constantine was meantime subjugated by the French; Algeria was placed under a governor-general; Frenchmen and foreigners to be subject to French laws, the natives to retain their own. In Feb. 1841, Bugeaud introduced a system of warfare that brought about the surrender of Abd-el-Kader, Dec. 1847. All attempts to conciliate the Arabs proved vain. After establishment of the French republic, the military government of Algeria was abolished. The territory of the Sahara remains under military rule.

Algiers. City, seaport, and capital of Algeria. Pop. ab.75,000. Algiers, CORSAIRS OF. See CORSAIRs.

Algodonite. Mineral compound of copper and arsenic, named from a locality in Chili.

Algol, A PERSEI. Variable star of short period. Ordinarily of the second magnitude, but at intervals of 2 days, 20 hours, 49 minutes. its light diminishes to fourth magnitude, occupying 44 hours in decreasing, remaining at the minimum 20 minutes, then returning to its former brightness in 34 hours. Right ascension, 3 h. 0 m. 57 s. Declination, 40° 31' 38' N.

Algology, or PHYCOLOGY. Branch of botany, treating of the Algae, a class of the sub-kingdom Thallophyta. See ALGAE.

Algoma. District of Ontario, Canada, lying between 81° and 85° W. long., and stretching from Lake Huron to Albany River. It is rich in forests, in water, and in minerals, but has few Indians, and in the eastern portion a few white settlers.

Algonkian. In geology, a group of very ancient strata lying below the Cambrian and made up of the following subdivisions: Keweenawan—Keweenan, Grand Cañon, and Llano series; Huronian—Lake Superior, Minnesota, Adirondack, Newfoundland, etc.

Algonkian time is co-ordinated with palaeozoic, and the two chief subdivisions rank with Cambrian, Ordovician, etc., while the minor terms, Keweenan, etc., stand with Potsdam, Trenton, etc. At present Algonkian strata are everywhere unfossiliferous, but the abounding and varied life of the lower Cambrian forbids the belief that Algonkian time was azoic. Doubtful specimens have been discovered.

Algonquins. region from Lake Winnipeg to Labrador and south to the Appalachian tribes (except the Huron-Iroquois of central New York). They tilled the soil, even using fertilizers, built villages, worshiped the heavenly bodies, gave women power to decide on war and other momentous questions. The most important tribes included were: (1) Crees of n. w. Canada, 15,000; (2) Mikmaks of New Brunswick, who had a system of hieroglyphics and who still are hunters and fishers; (3) the Maine tribes; (4) several tribes of New England, now extinct; (5) the Leni-Lenapi, Mohicans of New York, Delawares, Powhatans of Virginia; (6) Shawnees, driven south by the Iroquois, now ab. 1600, scattered and civilized; (7) Illinois; (8) Sac-Fox Indians of Wisconsin, ab. 1000 in Indian Territory; (9) Pottawatomies of s. w. shores of L. Michigan; (10) Ojibways, north of L. Superior; (11) Blackfeet of Manitoba, 25,000, now in this region, including parts of Minnesota and Dakota; (12) Ottawas of Canada.

Algorism, or ALGORITHM. From the surname of Mohammed Ben Musa Alcherarizmi, an early Arabian mathematician: used to distinguish reckoning with numerals from that by the abacus; introduced among Arabs in the 9th century and adopted through them by Europeans in the 12th century.

Algum, or ALMUG-TREES. Indian trees imported by Solomon in the timber, and used for pillars of the Temple and instruments of music; probably sandalwood.

Alhambra. Palace of the Moorish kings in Granada,

Indians of N. America, who inhabited the

built 1248–1314; surrendered to Spaniards 1491.

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Ali, 602–661. Arabian poet, caliph 656. Divan. His maxims, or proverbs, were tr. 1832. Ali Bey, 1728–1773. Mameluke chief, ruler of Egypt 1757.

Alibi. Defense in a criminal prosecution, by showing presence of the accused in another place when the crime was committed. Alicante. Seaport of s. e. Spain, besieged by Moors 1331, and by French 1709. Pop. ab. 40,000. Alidade. See QUADRANT. Alien. One born out of jurisdiction and allegiance of the government and not legally naturalized. He is not entitled to political privileges, but, as a rule, in the U.S. is allowed to take and hold property and to enjoy most of the private legal rights of a citizen. n alien enemy (i.e. a subject of a country at war with those of his residence), although a noncombatant, may be ordered out of the country at any moment, but until so ordered, he is generally accorded legal protection.

Alien and Sedition Laws. Passed 1798, providing that the President might arrest or banish any alien whom he regarded as dangerous to the country, and punish with fine and imprisonment malicious writings against the U. S. government or Congress; never actively enforced.

Aliethmoid. Cartilage which roofs in the posterior region of the nasal cavity near the upper turbinals. See also ALINASAL.

Alimentary Canal. Tube in which all the processes necessary for digestion and absorption of food are performed; consisting of mouth, throat, oesophagus (gullet), stomach, and large and small intestines.

Aliments. See FOODS.

Alimentus, L. CINCIUs, ab. 209 B.C. Roman writer of contemporary history, praised for accuracy.

Alimony. Allowance to a wife, ordered by a court out of her husband's estate. If made to enable her to carry on divorce proceedings, it is called pendente lite: if made for her support upon the termination of the proceedings in her favor, it is permanent. The subject is regulated by statute generally, although the amount of alimony in any case is largely a matter of judicial discretion.

Alinasal Region. Sides and front of nasal chambers as distinguished from internasal septum or partition between the nostrils, in the cartilaginous cranium, as seen in the embryo chick and other vertebrate embryos. The alinasal cartilages are lateral, roof-like outgrowths from the septum nasi, behind the prenasal cartilage or rostrum, and are continuous behind with the aliethmoids. From this roof the scroll-like turbinals are downgrowths, the alinasal turbinals being formed in front, the inferior turbinals in the middle or interseptal region, and the superior turbinals in the aliethmoid or true olfactory region. Here also the roof sends down the antorbital plate, which forms the partition between the eye-socket and olfactory region.

Alioth. Third star in handle of “dipper,” in constellation of the Great Bear; used by surveyors in establishing a meridian; the North Star, on the meridian about 24 minutes after it, and Alioth are in the same vertical line.

Aliquot Part. Such part of a number as will exactly divide it; e.g. 1, 2, and 3 are aiiquot parts of 6. Aliseptal Region. See ALINASAL REGION.

Alishir, AMIR, d. 861. Eastern poet. His works are extant in Turkish and Persian.

Alismaceae. Natural family of Flowering Plants, of class Angiospermae, sub-class Monocotyledomes, comprising 16 genera and about 55 species, found in the fresh waters of the tenerate and torrid zones. Commonly called the Water-Plantain amily. Alison, ARCHIBALD, 1757–1839. Scottish divine and author. Nature and Principles of Taste, 1784.—His son, SIR ARCHIBALD, 1792–1868, wrote two books on the Criminal Law of Scotland, 1832–33, and a History of Europe, 1789–1815, in 10 vols., 1839– 42, continued to 1852 in 6 vols. more, 1852–57. He was made a baronet 1852.—His son. SIR ARCHIBAL.D. J.R., b. 1826, British officer, served in the Crimea, India, the Ashantee war, and Egypt, and rose to lieutenant-general 1882.

Aliwal, N. W. INDIA. Scene of a Sikh defeat by the British Jan. 28, 1846, with loss of nearly 6000.

Alizari. Commercial name of madder. The manufacture of alizarine from coal-tar has suppressed the madder-root industry.

Alizarine. Cia H.O. Dioxyanthraquinone. The most important coloring matter of the madder-root, prepared for commerce from the anthracene obtained from coal-tar; used in textile coloring on account of the brilliant lakes produced by

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Alizarine Assistant. Mixture of sodium or ammonium salts, produced by neutralization of oil obtained by action of sulphuric acid upon castor-oil. Its constitution is disputed, but it contains salts of the oxyoleic acids. Used in Turkeyred dyeing. Called also soluble oil, sulphated oil, and alizarine oil.

Alizarine Black. Combination of NAPHTHAzARINE (q.v.) with sodium bisulphite.

Alizarine Blue. C, N,NO,. Prepared from alizarine orange by the action of sulphuric acid and glycerine. Insoluble in water. Forms a blue lake with chromium oxide. The soluble alizarine blue is a combination of alizarine blue with sodium bisulphite.

Alizarine Green. See CoERULEINE.


Alizarine Orange. Cli H, NO. Mononitro-alizarine. Prepared from alizarine by action of nitric acid upon it. Insoluble in water, soluble in alkali. Forms an orange lake with alumina.

Alizarine Red. Shade produced by combination of alizarine, alumina, and alizarine assistant; called also Turkey red.

Alizarine Violet. See GALLEINE.

Aljubarrota, PORTUGAL. By his victory here over John I. of Castile Aug. 14, 1885, John I. of Portugal secured the independence of his kingdom.

Alkalnest. The alchemists' solvent.
Alkali Blue. See NICHOLSON's BLUE.
Alkali Green. C, H, N,SO, Na. See VIRIDINE.

Alkalies. Chemically, a class of substances, as caustic soda, NaOH, and caustic potash, KOH, which have the power of neutralizing acids, of changing red litmus to blue, and possess a peculiar soapy feeling when in contact with the fingers. Ammonium hydroxide and carbonate and the oxides, hydroxide and carbonates of the alkali and alkaline earth metals possess the first two qualities. Of these, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are necessary for the development and maintenance of the body, calcium being the most important and magnesium the least so. They correct undue acidity of the stomach and of the fluids of the body, as in gout or * matism. The oxides and hydroxides are powerful caustics and corrosives, and taken internally in sufficient quantities give rise to fatal results; the carbonates are also more or less caustic, but, except in large amount, not dangerously so.

Alkali Metals. Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and caesium.

Alkalimetry. Process by which the strength of a given solution of an alkali is determined, by comparing it with an acid solution of known strength.

Alkaline Earths. The oxides of barium, calcium and strontium; beryllium and magnesium are sometimes included.

Alkaloids. Organic bases containing basic nitrogen; also carbon, hydrogen, and often oxygen; of very complicated structure, and largely derivatives of pyridine and quinoline; mostly of vegetable origin, with powerful physiological action; many are deadly poisons.

Alkanet. Amchusa tinctoria, a blue-flowered Borage family, native of s. Europe. dye with the same name.

. America.

Al-Kindi, ABU. YUSUF, ab. 900. “Philosopher of the Arabs.” . He tr., Aristotle, and wrote on the whole range of human knowledge. His works on astrology and medicine alone survive.

Alkmaar. Town in N. Holland. It successfully sustained a siege by the Duke of Alva 1573. The Duke of York was defeated here Oct. 6, 1799. Pop., 1890, 15,833. See BERGEN.

Alkyl. Simple univalent radicals derived from the paraffine or marsh gas hydrocarbons, as methyl (CH,), and ethyl (C.H.).

Allah. Arabic name of God.

Allahabad. City of British India, at junction of Ganges and Jumna rivers. nce the chief residence of Akbar, it was taken by the British 1765, and ceded to them 1801. It has long been a resort of Hindu pilgrims, and is a place of growing commercial in portance. Pop., 1891, 176,870.

Allan Line OF OCEAN STEAMSHIPS. Established 1852 to carry passengers and mails between Canada and Great Britain. The first steamers (North American and Anglo-Saxon) had a

lant of the Its roots yield the red Also, Lithospermum canescens of

gross tonnage of 1500. The largest was the Parisian, built 1880, 5600 gross, with compound engines. Allanite. Mineral allied to epidote, but containing cerium, lanthanum, and didymium; found in N. J., Pa., and Greenland; named from Thomas Allan, 1777–1833.

Allantoidians. Birds, reptiles, and mammals, similar in having an allantois during foetal development.

Allantoine. C, H, N, O,. Ureide of glyoxalic acid. Found in certain secretions of cows and the urine of calves.

Allantois. Leaf-shaped, hollow organ produced in the embryos of land vertebrates. It starts as a bud from the hinder end of the intestine, and spreads out between the “true” and the “false’’ amnion. It is in fact a hypertrophied bladder (urocyst). It serves a respiratory function in the embryos of birds and reptiles, and in mammals it also serves the function of nutrition, as it becomes the main part of the placenta. In the latter group of animals, its stalk contributes main§ to the structures of the navel string (umbilicus). The base of its stalk becomes the urinary bladder and urachus. Allassotonic. Movements of mature vegetable organs, as the leaves of the various “sensitive plants” on being shocked. Allegany Mountains. Parallel ranges, running n. e. and s. w., through Pa., Md., and Va. Mean ht. ab. 2500 ft. They are a part of the Appalachian system. Allegany River. Head branch of the Ohio, in Pa. It drains part of the Allegany plateau in western Pa., and joins the Monongahela at Pittsburg. Length 325 m.; drainage area 11,437 sq. m. It is navigable to Franklin, 123 miles above its mouth. Allegany. City of Allegany Co., , Pa., situated at the junction of the Allegany and Monongahela rivers, upon the right bank of the former, and o: Pittsburg, which lies between them. Its industries, like those of Pittsburg, relate mainly to the manufacture of iron and steel. Pop., 1890, 105,287. Allegany College. At Meadville, Pa.; organized 1815, incorporated 1817; controlled by M. E. Ch. since 1883. It has 15 instructors, ab. 180 students, ab. 35 of whom are women, and a library of 12,500 vols. Allegiance. Obligation of fidelity and obedience which individual owes to the government under which he lives, or to his sovereign, in return for the protection he receives. A subject's o is termed permanent, a domiciled alien's local and temporary. Modern legislation in the U. S., in Great Britain, and in some other countries permits the renunciation by a subject of his natural allegiance and its transfer to the country of his adoption. Allegory. Extended parable; a tale, usually fictitious, wherein the persons and events symbolize spiritual ideas, as Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. ... St. Paul, in Galatians iv. 24, calls Ishmael and Isaac “an allegory’ of the two covenants. Allegri, ANTONIO. See CoRREGIO. Allegri, GREGoRIo, ab. 1586–1652. Master of the classical Italian school of Church music. His Miserere for double choir, nine voices, is still performed every Wednesday and Friday in Holy Week by the choir of the Sistine Chapel. In 1770 Mozart, a boy of 14, wrote down this famous composition from two hearings, and thus compelled its publication, till then forbidden on pain of excommunication.

Allegro. Lively movement in music.

Alleine, Joseph, 1634–1668. English Nonconformist. Alarm to the Unconverted, 1672, was long popular.

Allemande. In music, generally the first movement of the collection of pieces called a suite, though sometimes preceded by a prelude. It has only its name in common with the dance which became popular at the court of Louis XIV., or that in triple time, still popular in Bavaria, Suabia, and n.

Foetal Membranes of a Mammal: E, embryo; M, its middle layer or mesoderm; H,

ut-cavity lined by inner layer or endoderm;

.W., umbilical vesicle; al, allantois, with allantoic cavity. AL.C.; am, amnion, with amniotic cavity, A.C. am represents the united inner portion of double folds, the outer limbs of which form the sub-zonal membrane (not lettered) under pc, the zona pellucida. (From Turner.)


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Switzerland. The allemande of classical music is of moderate rapidity and in common time.

Allemontite. Natural alloy of arsenic and antimony.

Allen, MRs. ELIZABETH CHASE (MRS. AKERS), b. 1832. American poet, writing as “Florence Percy”; author of the much-claimed song, Rock Me to Sleep.

Allen, ETHAN, 1737–1789. Leader of Vt. troops in the War of Independence. With 83 men he captured Ft. Ticonderoga from the British, 10th May, 1775.-His brother, IRA, 1751–1814, was long connected with public affairs, and wrote a History of Vermont, 1798.

Allen, GRANT, b. 1848. English novelist of Canadian birth. Recalled to Life, 1891.

Allen, HoRATIO, 1802–1889. Civil engineer, who operated at Honesdale, Pa., Aug. 8, 1829, the first locomotive ever run in America, and built the S. Carolina railroad 1832; pres. Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers 1873.

Allen, JAMES LANE, b. ab. 1855. American novelist. Gray, 1893; A Kentucky Cardinal, 1894.

Allen, Joseph HENRY, D.D., b. 1820. Lecturer in Harvard Col. 1875–82; ed. Christian. Eacaminer, 1857–69; Unitarian Review, 1887–91, and of sundry Latin classics. Our Liberal Movement in Theology, 1882; Unitarian Movement since the Reformation, 1894.

Allen, TIMOTHY FIELD, M.D., b. 1837. Surgeon and botanist. Characeae Americanae, 1880.

Allen, WILLIAM (also called ALAN and ALLYN), 1532–1594. Founder of the English college at Douay 1568, and prof. there and at Rheims 1570–85; cardinal 1587; polemic writer.

Allen, WILLIAM, D.D., 1784–1868. Pres. Dartmouth Coll. 1817–19, and Bowdoin Coll. 1820–39. American Biographical and Historical Dictionary, 1809–32–57.

Allen Engine. Designed by John F. Allen, built 1862 in conjunction with Chas. T. Porter. The Allen valve-gear embraced the following features: 1st, giving separate and different movements to valves for admitting and exhausting the steam, so that a variable cut-off was possible with fixed release and compression; 2d, effecting this by a fixed link driven by one eccentric standing at the same angle as the crank, the cut-off varied by the position of the biook in the link; 3d, the use of a double-opening valve, occupying less room than a gridiron valve; 4th, an adjustable pressure plate, resting on inclined supports, and held by the steam-pressure as close to the valve as adjusting screws will permit. The engines built by Mr. Allen and embodying these principles were not intended to run at the high speeds which were adopted by C. T. Porter. An Allen engine of 1868, still extant, was designed to run at 75 revolutions per minute.

Allen Valve. Invented by John F. Allen to distribute steam in cylinder of a steam engine; extensively used on locomotives. A channel is cast in the back of the valve over the hollow of the exhaust cavity, and the steam passes from one end of the valve through the channel into the port, which is open at the other end of the valve. The valve seat often has five parts in it. Abundant area for passage of steam into the cylinder is thus made at high speeds, without excessive movement of the valve on its seat.

Allende, JUAN RAFAEL, b. 1850. Chilian journalist, dramatist, and poet.

Allentown. City of Lehigh Co., Pa., on west bank of Lehigh River. Pop., 1890, 25,228. It has four railroads, furnaces, iron mills, and Muhlenberg College.

All Fours. A game of cards, also called Old Sledge, Seven-Up, and High-Low-Jack, played by two or four persons playing partners, with a full pack, in which the cards rank as in whist. The points are known respectively as “High,” “Low,” “Jack” and “Game,” each counting one, and seven being game. Six cards are dealt to each, the card following the deal being turned for trumps. If this is a Jack the dealer counts one; otherwise the Jack counts for its captor. The player on the left hand of the dealer can “beg,” when the dealer must give him one point or deal three cards more to each, for a change of trump. If the same suit is turned for trump, the deal must be repeated until another suit is turned, though usually the subsequent deals are one card each. In counting for game Ace counts four, King three, Queen two, Jack one.

All-heal. See VALERIAN.

Allia, or ALIA. Branch of the Tiber, ab. 6 m. above Rome; memorable for disastrous defeat of the Romans by Gauls 390 B.C.



Alliance, EVANGELICAL. General Protestant association, on a Trinitarian basis, formed in England 1845, with national branch alliances. It has held meetings in London, Paris, Berlin, Geneva, Amsterdam, New York, Copenhagen, and elsewhere. Alliance of the Reformed Churches HOLDING THE PRESBYTERIAN SYSTEM. Formed in London 1875; has since met in Phila., Belfast, London, and Toronto; represents 61 organizations. Allibone, SAMUEL AUSTIN, LL.D., 1816–1889. American bibliographer. Dictionary of Authors, 3 vols., 1858-70; 2 v. Sup. Alligation, ALTERNATE. Arithmetical process which determines amount of several ingredients of different prices or qualities to produce a mixture of given value or quality. Alligation, MEDIAL. Arithmetical process which determines price or quality of a mixture of several ingredients whose quantity and price or quality are known. Alligator, or AVOCADO, Pear. Persea gratissima, natural order Lauraceae. Fruit tree of the western tropics. The fruit is pear-shaped, with soft greenish pulp, surrounding a large spherical seed, the juice of which is indelible on linen. The pulp is eaten as a salad or with claret. Alligators. Family of Procoelia, including American forms, characterized by a broad snout and twenty teeth in the lower jaw (twenty-two in the Caiman of the Orinoco), fitting

Alligator mississippiensis.

into pits in the upper jaw when the mouth is shut. (The canines fit into notches.) Those in the Southern States are being exterminated. They are fond of fish, dogs, and pigs. They have a collar at the base of the tongue, which enables them to keep water from entering the windpipe while holding their prey under water to drown it. They bellow with the roar of thunder. use their tails as weapons when attacked, but are not aggressive when unmolested, while out of the water. The plates on their back are separated from those on the head, as in the crocodiles proper, which have narrower snouts; the webs of the hind toes are rudimentary. See CROCODILIA and PROCOELIA. Allingham, WILLIAM, 1828–1889. Irish lyric poet, for some time editor of Fraser's Magazine. Allioli, Joseph FRANz, D.D., 1793–1873. German R. C. theologian, prof. at Munich 1826–35. His German Bible, 1830–36, based on Braun's translation of the Vulgate, received the Pope's approval. Allioni, CARLO, 1725–1804. Prof. of botany at Turin. Pedemontana, 1785. Allison, WILLIAM B., b. 1829. M. C. from Iowa 1863–71, U. S. Senator from 1873. Alliteration. Agreement in two or more words, not of initial letters, but of initial accented sounds. Thus “knife" and “Nile” are alliterative words; “knife” and “ kite” are not. It was the chief characteristic of early Germanic rhythm, and lingered in English poetry down to the 15th century. It is now merely an ornament, not a principle of verse.

Allix, PIERRE, D.D., 1641–1717. French Reformed theologian, settled in London from 1685.


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