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Albertype. Photogelatin reproductions from nature, and from works of art, first made commercially valuable by Albert of Munich, after whom the process was named. His discovery consisted of a new method of fastening the gelatin film upon a glass plate which he used as a foundation, and it was the only method of using the gelatin film for pictorial purposes until Edwards of England devised a means of attaching the film to copper or other metals, thus making a base that was unattended by the risks and losses incidental to so friable a substance as glass, when . to the necessary pressure on the #. ing press. The Edwards invention is generally known as Heliotype, and is "go". used for gelatin printing in this country and in Europe. See PHOTO-GELATIN. This process was perfected ab. 1868.
Albigenses. Sect once powerful in s. France, and named from the town of Albé, Pope Innocent III. proclaimed (1208) a crusade against them, headed by Simon de Montfort. Raymond VI., Count of Toulouse, who sympathized with them, was excommunicated and compelled to oppose his subjects with arms, and lead the army of monks and soldiers of fortune. A bloody war of extermination lasted intermittently till 1229. The Inquisition continued the process; many enligrated; Languedoc became a waste. The crusade facilitated the unification of France, but was a fatal blow to the nascent civilization of southern Europe. See DUALISM, CATHAZI and PAULICIANO.
Albinism. Production of white in organisms or organs nominally of some other color. Also, a condition resulting from the failure of the development of the pigment granules in the op". cells of the body. It occurs sporadically in probably all groups of animals, as well as in man. The resulting animal is an albino; e.g., white mice.
Albion. Early name distinguishing Great Britain from the islands about it. Pliny says they were together called British.
AIbite. Na,0Al,O,6SiO2. Mineral of the feldspar group, containing sodium as the principal alkaline element; a frequent ingredient in crystalline rocks.
Alboin, d. 574. King of the Lombards, invader of Italy 568, and founder of the Lonbard dominion there; killed for forcing his wife to drink from her father's skull.
Albolite Cement. Made of carbonate of magnesia and infusorial earth. It is used for repairing ornamental stonework, and also as a fire-proof coating for timber.
Alboni, MARIETTA, 1823–1894. Most distinguished operatic contral to of the time. She made a tour of Anjerica in 1853, became Countess Pepoli 1854, and retired 1863.
Al Boråk. Shining steed with face and voice of a man, and wings of an eagle. on which Mohammed made his journeys to the seventh heaven.
Albrechtsberger, Johann GEORG, 1736–1809. German composer of church music, theoretician and organist; Beethoven's teacher in counterpoint 1794. Gründliche Anweisung zur Composition, 1790; Sammtlichen Schriftem iber Generalbass, Harmonielehre und Tomsetzkunst, 1826.
Albright, JAcoB, 1759–1808. Founder of the Evangelical Association of N. America (q.v.).
Albuera. Village of Spain, site of the defeat of the French under Soult by the British and Spanish forces under Beresford, May 16, 1811. French loss, 8,000; of the allies, 7,000.
Albumazar, 805–885. Arabian astronomer. Author of An Introduction to Astronomy and Book of Conjunction; both tr. into Latin; supposed author of a work on the Revolution of the Years.
Albumen. Nitrogenous substance constituting a large portion of all animal tissues, and a considerable part of many vegetable bodies; the white of egg is the most familiar example. In blood it is the main constituent of the serum. It contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Constitution not known. Soluble in water, coagulated by heat, thus rendered insoluble in water. In Botany, starchy material surrounding or inclosing embryo of certain seeds, serving to nourish it.in germination. Such seeds are called albuminous; those devoid of this substance, exalbuminous. Also known as endosperm.
Album Graecuum. Whitish hardened excrement of boneeating animals; that of the hyena occurs fossilized in the bone caves of Europe.
Albuminates. Combinations of albumen with certain base: , iron, alkalies, etc., and probably the form in which many of them exist in the body. Also, normal constituents of the body, such as myosin, produced by the action of acids upon albumen.
Albuminiparous Gland. Spleen-shaped gland lying near the ovotestes in a snail, and connecting with the gonaduct.
Albuminoids. Bodies which resemble albumen and form the largest part of the solid portions of the body, except bones. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, are of unknown molecular arrangement, and important constituents of animal tissue. Among them are glue and gelatine. The term is in general applied to nitrogenous organic matter of unknown constitution, as diastase, pepsin, etc. They are necessary in articles of food on account of the nitrogen they contain. See PROTEIDs and PROTEIN.
Albuminose. Albumen rendered absorbable by action of the gastric juice, or an albuminoid acted upon by hydrochloric
Albuminuria. Presence of albumen in urine, due as a rule to affection of kidneys. Usually the quantity present indicates severity of the disease. The transient forms occur after scarlet fever or surgical operations, during fevers, pregnancy, and a number of other diseases, and sometimes in health after heavy meals of nitrogenous food, cold baths, severe exercise, and mental excitement, and are jo of little moment. When constant, it is a symptom either of serious disease of the kidneys or of some grave constitutional affection. By heating a small quantity of urine in a test tube and adding nitric acid, a curdy precipitate is formed if albumen be present, and is strong nitric acid is added to cold urine so as to float on top, a white disc forms between the two when albumen is present.
Albuquerque, ALPHONSO DE, 1452–1515. Portuguese general. He served in Africa and India, where he laid the foundation for Portugal's Eastern empire; was Viceroy of the Indies 1509, captured Goa 1510, Malacca. 1511, Ormuz 1515.
Alburnum. Sapwood of exogenous plants; named from its light color. Alcaeus, 7th century B.C. . First AEolic lyric poet, considered by many the greatest of this class. He lived at Mitylene in Lesbos, and died in exile. Only fragments remain. Horace jored and imitated him. The Alcaic meter was named from lill.
ALCALA DE HENARES-ALCIDÆ
Alcala de Henares. City of Spain, 21 m. e. of Madrid, de Villa Nova, 13th; Basil Valentine, 14th; George Ripley, 15th, birthplace of Cervantes; pop. ab. 12,000. Its University, founded and Paracelsus and Andrew Libavius, 16th. The last two sought by Cardinal Ximenes 1510, and long eminent, was transferred to Madrid 1836. The Complutensian Polyglot Bible was printed here 1502–17.
Alcamo, GIULIO D'. Sicilian poet of 12th century, in the dawn of Italian literature.
SICCVS Alcannin. Coloring matter occurring in root of Anchusa tinctoria, the Alkanet.
Alcántara. Town of w. Spain, on the Tagus. By defeating the Portuguese army here, June 24, 1580, the Duke of Alva gained Portugal for Spain. Alcantara, ORDER OF. Spanish order of knighthood, in
SICCA stituted 1156 by Hadria II., king of Leon. Alcarraza. Vessel made of porous pottery, and employed
RRA in warm climates for cooling water. The outer surface is always covered with a layer of moisture, which evaporates
CONTRA rapidly, thus keeping the temperature of the vessel and its con
FRIGIDA tents much lower than that of the surrounding air; also called
Alcazar Queber. Town near Fez, Africa, scene of a total defeat of the Portuguese by the Moors, Aug. 4, 1578, in which King Sebastian and most of his nobles were slain.
Alcedinidæ. Family of Cuculi, including the Kingfishers, of which there are 150 species, mostly old world and tropical forms. The western hemisphere has but one genus (Ceryle). In the old world are two types-Alcedo, with long scapulars, and Halcyon, with short. The Laughing Jackass of Australia, as large as a crow and living on small reptiles, illustrates the latter. The fish-eating kingfishers belong to the former type.
Alchemical Representation of the Transmutation of the Elements. to free chemistry from the meshes of alchemy and mysticism. Paracelsus held the first chair of chemistry at Bale and pointed out the value of chemistry to medicine. Boerhaave, 1669–1738, was the last eminent chemist to support the doctrines of the alchemists.
Alcibiades. Ab. 450_404 B.C. Athenian, gifted but unworthy pupil of Socrates. Appointed one of the commanders of the Sicilian expedition 415 B.C., but charged with mutilating the Hermae at Athens and recalled from Sicily to stand trial, he went to Sparta and acted as enemy of Athens; took refuge with Tissaphernes 412 B.C., returned to Athens 407 B.C., and was made commander-in-chief, but superseded 406 B.C.; went into exile and was slain in Phrygia by assassins.
Alcidæ. Family of Cecomorphæ, including (1) the Sea Dove, or Dovekie (Alle alle), which swarms on rocky shores in the
Kingfisher (Alcedo ipsida).
They are gorgeous in plumage, and rear their young in holes in the bank of the shore. A fable that it breeds during the reign of calms, in the subtropical ocean, has given rise to the expression “halcyon days."
Alcedinoideæ. Sub-order of Cuculi, including the families : Meropidoe (bee-eaters), Todido, Momotidce (motmots), Alcedinido (king-fishers), and Bucerotidæ (horn-bills).
Alcestis. Wife of Admetus, who died in her husband's stead and was brought back from Hades by Hercules,
Alchemy. Delusive art, which with chemistry probably originated in Arabia, A. D. 700. The Smaragdine Table and all books attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, called the father of alchemy, were doubtless the production of monks of the Middle Ages. The alchemists believed in the transmutation of metals, and sought for the Philosopher's Stone, which would convert base metals into gold and silver, and the Elixir of Life, to prolong human existence. They worked in the utmost secrecy and with many mysterious books, most of which contained much incomprehensible and, to the scientist of the present day, nonseasical matter. These writings are in many languagesArabic, Greek, Persian and Latin. The sources of knowledge of the early alchemists were the writings of Aristotle, Dioscorides, Lucretius, Archimedes, Hero and Pliny. Arabia was the seat of learning; the University of Bagdad in the 9th century, Cordova and Cairo in the 10th, were centers. Geber wrote one of the first works on alchemy. He had many chemical appliances, understood distillation and filtration, and made a number of chemical preparations. Amongthe more noted alchemists are : Avicenna, 1ith century; Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Raymund Lully, Roger Bacon and Arnoldus
western Arctic Ocean, especially off Spitzbergen. They in . habit caves or crevices, and feed on crustacea and worms. Some are seen out at sea off the coast of the n. U. S. in winter. The sides of the head, neck and chest are sooty brown in summer, but white in winter. Sometimes called Little Auk. (2) The true Auks (Alca) are sub-arctic, breeding on Newsoundland and adjacent shores, and in winter come as far south as Cape Cod or farther. They grow to a length of 17 in., about twice that of Alle. (3) The Great Auk or Gare-fowl (Plautus impennis) attained a length of 30 in., and is believed to have been exterminated 1844. It had normal wing quills, but was unable to fly. Of the 76 priceless skins of this bird now known, only five are in American museums. It was known as the Arctic Penguin (see PENGUIN). (4) Murres (Uria) and Guillemots (Cephus) swarm off rocky shores in Arctic regions. Five species come south in winter as far as New Jersey. (5) Puffins (Fratercula). These are all alike in having three webbed toes and no hind toe, and in possessing the characters of the Cecomorphae. They lay their eggs in hollows, on rocky ledges, and are an important source of food for arctic peoples.
Alcohol. Ethyl Alcohol, Spirits of Wine, Spirits, CH, CH,OH. Bpt. 78.3°C. Sp. Gr. 0.79 at 15°C. Colorless liquid produced by the action of the alcoholic ferment upon certain sugars, starches, fruit juices, etc. in Germany it is made by treating potatoes with malt which contains the ferment, diastase. This converts the potatostarch into a sugar which when fermented yields alcohol. In America it is made from corn; in England from various grains; and in India from rice. Alcohol is the principal solvent for organic compounds; hence it is used extensively for the manufacture of perfumery, varnishes, tinctures of drugs, and for scientific purposes. Its use in various beverages is what has given it its great prominence. In order to purify alcohol it is rectified, i.e., distilled a number of times or subjected to repeated distillation in one operation. The absolute alcohol of connmerce contains from 0.5–0.2 per cent of water, while the socalled 95 per cent usually contains ab. 93.5 per cent alcohol. If alcohol be taken into the system in small quantities, it is absorbed by the system and disappears. In larger quantities it congests the stomach, impairs digestion and passes through the liver and kidneys unchanged, hardening and shrinking them. The most dangerous effects are upon the nervous system. It is useful to convalescents and consumptives. In acute diseases it relieves depression.
Alcohols. Combination of a hydroxyl (–OH) group or groups with a hydrocarbon group or radical. The compounds are organic hydroxides, and correspond in constitution to the inorganic hydroxides. They are acted upon by acids, usually neutralizing the acid and forming a salt. By oxidation they furnish aldehydes, ketones, and acids. Examples: methyl alcohol, CH,0H; ethyl alcohol, C.H.OH; and glycerine, C.H.(OH),.
Alcohol Engine. Designed to use the expansive force of the vapor of alcohol instead of steam in the cylinder; proposed by Edmund Cartwright 1797, and by Thomas Howard 1825–30. Alcohol was vaporized at each stroke by being injected on a surface of highly-heated oil, and after having driven the piston it was condensed on a large surface of metal, to be used again. There is no theoretical advantage in the use of alcohol vapor rather than water, and the combustibility of the material is a serious drawback.
Alcoholism. Morbid results of excessive or prolonged use of alcoholic liquors. The occasional excessive indulgence is termed acute alcoholism or inebriety. The long-continued use causes what is termed chronic alcoholism, results in severe morbid derangements or disorders of the digestive, respiratory and nervous system, and is the common cause of delirium tremens. Some are subject to a species of alcoholism which periodically induces them to great excesses in the use of liquor. A mild form of alcoholism is the habitual use of alcoholic stimulants in moderate quantities.
Alcoholometer. A hydrometer graduated to indicate the percentage of alcohol in liquors. It is made of glass. and contains a thermometer. he lowest graduations in .
dicate the gravity of water. The presence of alcohol causes the hydrometer to sink in the liquid; by consulting the calculated tables the amount of alcohol can be determined. Alcolea, SPAIN. Scene of the defeat of Isabella's forces by Serrano, Sept. 28, 1868. Alcott, AMos BRONsoN, 1799–1888. American author, “peddler, school-master, philosopher.” See his Life, 2 vols., by F. B. Sanborn and W. T. Harris, 1893.
Alcott, LOUISA MAY, 1832–1888. American writer o stories; daughtér of Amos B. Little Women, 1868; Little Men, 1871.
Alcuin, ab. 735–804. English scholar, who spent his later life in France as the adviser of Charlemagne. Philosophy, learning and education owe much to him.
Alectorides. See PALUDICOLAF.
Alectoromorphae. Order of birds including nearly all the Gallinacei, such as Grouse, Partridges, Phasianidae and Megapodiidae; or the Alecteropodes and Peristeropodes.
Aleman, MATTEO, ab. 1560 ab. 1610. Spanish novelist. His Don Guzman d’Alfarache, 1599, was extremely popular.
Alemanni. “All men.” German tribes who lived on the Main ab. 200; defeated by Julian 357, and by Clovis 496, whereupon their union was dissolved. Hence comes Allemand, the French word for German.
A lem bert, JEAN LE ROND D', 1717–1783. French philosopher and mathematician; editor, with Dide rot, of the Encyclopédie. Academician, 1754. Dynamics, 1743; The ory of the Winds, 1746; System of the Universe, 1754–56; Melanges, 1759; Opuscules Math, 1760.
Alembic. Distilling apparatus used by the alchemists. It has been replaced by the retort, condenser and receiver.
Alembroth Sal. See SAL ALEMBROTH.
Brazilian novelist. Ira
cema, Disa, Luciola. Alepocephalus. Genus of fishes having no scales on the
head. German “black glass-head.”
Aleppo. City of Syria, formerly one of the chief of Asiatic Turkey; important commercially; partly destroyed by earthquake, 1822. Pop. ab. 100,000. Alerse. Chilian name for a large tree of natural family Coniferoe; Libocedrus tetragona, highly valued for its timber. Alesia. Fortified town of the Mandubii on Mt. Auxois, in Gaul; taken and destroyed by Caesar 52 B.C., and by the Normans 864. Alessandria. City of n. Italy, founded 1168; noted for its citadel, strengthened by Napoleon I. Pop. ab. 31,000.
Alethopteris. Genus of very large ferns, found in the lower coal measures. Aletsch. Largest Swiss glacier, over 12 m. long.
Aleurone. Substance which occurs in seeds and more rarely in other vegetable organs, consisting of grains of nitrogenous organic substance, or proteid.
Aleutian Islands. Group of ab. 150 in N. Pacific, stretching from peninsula of Alaska, through 25° of longitude, nearl to Kamtchatka; discovered by Behring 1728; volcanic wit little vegetation; some of them active volcanoes. The seal, sea-otter and Arctic fox are found here. They belong to the
Aleuts. Indians of the Aleutian Islands and adjacent lands; those living in Alaska are the Unalaska. Ab. 4,000 in all. They are closely related to Eskimos; are Mongolioid: deend on seal-fishing, utilizing every part of the animal. Their omes are burrows, with two rooms, a kitchen and a bed-room. They are noted for their gentleness and integrity; but when angered are uncontrollable. Many have been converted to the Russian Church. The Unalaska have adopted some of the comforts of civilized people.
Alewife. See ISOSPONDYLI and CLUPEIDAE.
Alexander, THE GREAT, 356-323 B. C. Son of Philip II. of Macedon; educated by Aristotle. He aided largely in gaining the victory of Chaeronea, 338; ascended the throne 336; speedily crushed rebellion at home and in Greece; started on his expedition against Persia 334; traversed Asia Minor; defeated Darius at Issus 333, took Tyre 332; founded Alexandria; utterly crushed the Persians near Arbela, Oct. 331; from 330 to 327 was occupied in pursuit of Darius and conquest of regions to e. and n.; invaded India 327, and pushed to the Hydaspes; his army refusing to go further he proceeded down the river, reaching the Indian Ocean 826 and Susa 325; in spring
of 324 returned to Babylon, which he intended to make his