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Aachen. See AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.

| Aard-wolf. See VIVERRIDÆ. Aageson, SVEND. Danish chronicler, whose work extends Aargau. Swiss canton, bounded by Germany, Zurich, to 1185.

Lucerne and Basel. Pop. ab. 200,000. Aakil Khan. Persian poet, at the court of Aurungzebe, Aaron. Elder brother of Moses, and first high priest of who reigned 1658–1707. He wrote the romance called The Israel. His descendants alone admitted into the sanctuary, Taper and the Moth.

the other Levites only into the Temple courts. From Ezekiel Aall, JAKOB, 1773–1844. Norwegian statesman and histo

xliv, some infer that before the Exile this distinction was less rian; tr. Heimskringla, 1838–9.

marked. Aarau, JOHN OF. First celebrated cannon-founder; cast his

Aarsens, CORNELIS VAN, 1543-1624. Dutch statesman. His first cannon for Augsburg 1372 ; stones were then used for

son FRANCISCUS, 1572–1641, was embassador to France, Venice projectiles.

and England. Aardvark. See VERMILINGUIA (Edentata). Earth pig of

Aasen, IVAR ANDREAS, b. 1813. Norwegian philologist. the Cape Colony, South Africa ; snout and hairs alone give it a Abaca. Name given to manilla hemp in the Philippine resemblance to a pig. Its ears are long, hind feet plantigrade, Islands, the fiber of the Musa textilis, a plant of the Banana fore feet have no pollex, toes are armed with strong claws, Family, tail is stout, teeth are a compound mass of prismatic ele Abactinal Surface. Upper or aboral surface of the

starfish; surface attached to the stem in crinoids and branched polyps ; convex surface of jelly-fishes.

Abacus. In mathematics, an instrument for making numerical computations of addition and subtraction, consisting of

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Forms of the Abacus. balls sliding on wires stretched in a frame. It was employed by the Greeks and Romans, and is still in universal use among the Chinese. In architecture, a shallow plate interposed between the capital of a column and the supported lintel or pier. It appears in all styles in which columns are employed. In the earliest examples from Egypt it is less in area than the capital, but in later styles wider. It is usually square in plan, but in many cases conforms to the shape of the capital : thus each face of the Corinthian abacus shows a concave curve, and in mediæval work, especially in English Gothic, it is often polygonal, circular or composed of a series of segments of circles.

Abad, DIEGO JOSE, 1727-79. Mexican Jesuit and Latin poet, Aardvark.

exiled 1767. Hervica de Deo Carmina, 1769–80. ments, each with a pulp cavity-there are sixteen or eighteen

Abaddon. Hebrew equivalent of APOLLYON (q.v.). in all. It lives concealed in burrows by day and secures in- Abae. Town of Phocis in ancient Greece, noted for a tem. sects (ants, etc.) by means of an extensile tongue of moderate | ple and oracle. length. It burrows with great rapidity when pursued. The Abamurus. Wall built in order to strengthen another flesh is esteemed for food. 1

which shows indications of failure.

ABANDONMENT—ABD-EL-HAMID

Abandonment. Intentional relinquishment of rights, duties or property. A right of way over another's land may be abandoned by acquiescence in an unlawful interruption. The duties of a husband or of a parent are abandoned by the willful refusal to perform them ; those of a public office can be abandoned only as prescribed by statute. Property is abandoned by a voluntary relinquishment of one's title and possession, as where it is thrown away, or where it is surrendered by, the insured to the insurer. Relinquishment of a military post district, or station, or breaking up of a military establishment. To abandon any fort, post, guard, arms, ammunition, or colors without good cause is a military crime for which the officer in command is held responsible.

Abano, PIETRO DI, 1246–1315. oger, accused of magic ; d. in prison. tiarum.

Abarbanel, Isa AC, 1437–1509. Portuguese Jew, who wrote upon the prophecies. His son, JUDAH (Leo Hebraeus), ab. 1460– 1520, pub. in Italian a Platonic Dialogue on Love, 1535.

Abaris. Scythian priest of Apollo, to whom the god gave a golden arrow, on which to ride through the air; came to Greece ab. 570 B.C.

Abatement. Destruction or diminution of a right, or removal of that which is illegal. At common law the title of an heir or devisee to land abates, i.e., is destroyed, by the wrongful entry of a stranger after the ancestor's or devisor's death, and before entry by the heir or devisee. A legacy abates, i.e., is proportionately reduced, when the assets are insufficient to pay all debts and legacies. A nuisance or unlawful annoyance may be abated or removed peacefully by the sufferer. Relief from a defective legal proceeding may be obtained by abatement. Revenue statutes often provide for the abatement or refunding of overpaid duties.

Abatis, or ABATTIS. An obstruction formed by lo, picketing branches of trees on the glacis, in front of the ditch of a work intended to be defended against an assault. The butt ends are firmly anchored to the ground by pickets and the outer ends are sharpened and interlaced with each other, so that the obstruction cannot be easily removed, while at the same time it can afford no adequate shelter to the enemy. Like other accessory means of defense, an abatis is principally intended to delay the enemy in advancing upon the work, to break up his formation for assault and subject him to as great a loss in troops and morale as possible; it is therefore so placed as to be well within the close and accurate range of fire from the defended position. Abattoir. See SLAUGHTER-HOUSE. Abbadic, JACQUEs, D.D., 1654–1727. French divine, settled in England 1689; dean of Killaloe 1699. His Truth of the Christion Religion was written in French, 1684, and tr. 1694. Abbas H., or SHAH ABBAS THE GREAT, of Persia, 1557–1628. Came to throne 1582; defeated the Turks in great battle, 1605; made treaty with English, 1612; a ruler of great ability. Abbas Pasha, b. 1874. Eldest son of TEwfIK PASHA; succeeded his father as Khedive of Egypt, Jan. 7, 1892; was educated at Vienna; has exhibited anti-English proclivities.

Abbāsides, or ABBASIDS. Descendants of Abbas-ben-AbdulMotalleb, uncle of Mohammed. After defeat of Ommiades b Abul Abbas, 750, 37 caliphs of this line reigned at #. till the Tartar conquest, 1258.

Abbé. French word for abbot, and, as laymen were often commendatory abbots, finally applied to any one who stood in a loose relation to the Church, in hope of ecclesiastical preferment, meanwhile pursuing literature, politics, or social influence; often a parish priest.

Abbe, CLEVELAND, LL.D., b. 1838. Director of Cincinnati Observatory, 1868; published its Weather Bulletin, 1869; meteorologist of U. S. Signal Service, 1871; prepared probabilities or storm warnings; was popularly known as “Old Probabilities”; began Monthly Review and #io. of International Simultaneous Observations; numerous astronomical and meteorological publications.

Abbess. Head of a female convent of the first rank. Some, who bear the pastoral staff, might, monastically, not sacerdotally, be called female prelates.

Abbeville. City of France, on river Somme; pop. ab. 20,000. A treaty was concluded here May 20, 1259, between Henry III. of England and Louis IX. of France, by which the former relinquished all claim to Normandy, Anjou, Touraine, Maine and Poitou. Another, between Henry VIII. of England and Francis I. of France, Aug. 18, 1527.

Abbey. Properly, a monastic or conventual establishment, presided over by an abbot or abbess: differing from a priory mainly in extent and in the title of the chief ecclesiastic,

Italian physician and astrolConciliator differen

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Abbott, LYMAN, D.D., b. 1835. Son of Jacob. Editor since 1876 of the Christian Union, now The Outlook, and pastor since 1888 of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, succeeding H. W. Beecher. Commentaries: Evolution of Christianity, 1892.

Abbott Archaeological Collection. Made by Dr. H. Abbott, during 20 years' residence in Cairo; owned by N. Y. Historical Society since 1860. A collection of European reputation, containing many rare and several unique finds; among the latter a gold ring with the cartouche of Cheops, constructor of the great Pyramid, an iron helmet and remains of iron scale armor of 10th century, B.C., and three mummies of the BULL APIs (q.v.) not found in any other collection.

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ABD-EL-RADER—ABELE

Cairo; became a Mohammedan, was imprisoned in Persia, returned 1847; was sent to Timbuctoo 1848; pub. 2 vols. 1855. Abd-el-Kader, 1807–83. Arab chieftain. He defeated the French at Macta, Algeria, 1835, was conquered 1847, and imprisoned till 1852; protected the Christians of Syria 1860. Abdication. Laying down of office by a monarch. The most noted examples are Diocletian, 305, and Charles V., 1555, voluntary; Napoleon, 1814–15, compulsory. Abdiel. The faithful seraph who resisted Satan's solicitations to revolt. See PARADISE LOST, V., 896. Abdomen. The “belly” of Vertebrates, or the part which incloses the liver, stomach and intestines. The posterior region of the body of Arthropods. In insects, it consists of ten

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Abdominal Respiration. Breathing in which the muscles of the abdomen and the diaphragm are called into play more than those of the chest. It is more marked in men than in women, and always occurs in paralysis of the thoracic muscles.

Abdominal Ribs, or better, abdominal parosteal splints. Ossifications of the tendons of the rectus abdominis muscle of crocodiles and many fossil reptiles. They belong to the dermal exoskeleton, and are not homologues of the true abdominal ribs of certain birds. There are seven pairs in crocodiles.

Abdominal Scutella of snakes. Short wide scales that span the belly, and overlap, with free edges behind... They are so attached to the body wall that as each pair of ribs swings

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Abelard, PIERRE, 1079-1142. French philosopher, best known through his romantic relations with Heloise. He led a life full of vicissitudes, at times followed by thousands of pupils, at others hiding and in disgrace. He was influenced by Aristotle, and introduced an element of rationalism into the scholastic theology. He held a position between the extreme realism of St. Anselm and the extreme nominalism of Roscellin. Heloise, a woman of great beauty and intellect, refused to marry him, lest this might interfere with his advancement in the church, and their relations were cruelly avenged by her uncle. His teachings were opposed by St. Bernard and condemned by the Council of Sens, 1141.

Branch and male Catkin of Populus alba canescens.

Abele. Silver-leaved or white poplar, Populus alba, native of Europe, but widely planted in America.

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4 ABELIAN EQUATION.—ABITUS

Abelian Equation. One in which one root is expressible as a rational function of another; solved by Abel through another equation of lower degree.

Abelian Function. A symmetric hyperelliptic function composed of inverses of Abelian integrals.

Abelian Integral. An integral of an algebraic function which may not be reduced to elliptic form.

Abelite. Explosive used for naval warfare; composed of nitroglycerine, gun-cotton, nitrate of potash and carbonate of soda.

Abelites. Sect of Christians, 4th century, in N. Africa. Followers of Abel, marrying, but having no children.

Abencerrages. Powerful Moorish tribe of Granada, opposed to the Zegris. Their quarrels, 1480–92, deluged Granada

with blood, and hastened the fall of the kingdom.

Abenezra, IBN EzRA, or more fully ABRAHAM BEN MEIR BEN EzRA, 1090–1168. Jewish scholar, b. in Toledo and lived in several countries; author of commentaries on O. T.

Abensberg, Bavaria. Scene of Austrian defeat by Napoleon, April 20, 1809.

Abercrombie, John, M.D., 1780–1844. Scottish writer. His Intellectual Powers, 1830, and Moral Feelings, 1833, were long used as text-books.

Aberdeen. City and seaport of Scotland, at mouth of river Dee, ab. 90 m. NNE. from Edinburgh. Pop., 1891, 121,905. Its University was formed 1860 by the union of King's College, founded 1494, and Marischal, 1593, and has about 800 students. A Free Ch. Col. was opened 1850.

Aberdeen, GEORGE HAMILTON GORDON, EARL OF, 1784– 1860. Embassador to Austria 1813; member of Wellington's Ministry, 1828; received seals of Foreign Office, 1841. The conclusion of the Chinese war, the Ashburton treaty and the Oregon treaty fell within his administration. . He resigned with Peel 1846; was called in 1853 to form a ministry, whose popularity was lost by vacillation and mismanagement during Crimean War; resigned 1855.

Aberdeen, John CAMPBELL HAMILTON GORDON. (1870) b. 1847. Lord Lieut. of Ireland 1886.

Abernethy, JAMES, b. 1815. Civil engineer; designer of methods for improvement of the Danube, of the docks at Cardiff and Hull; consulting engineer of the Manchester ship canal.

Abernethy, John, 1764–1831. English surgeon.

Aberrancy. Angle formed by the normal at any point (P) of a curve, and a line from P to the middle point (L) of a chord parallel to the tangent at P. The line from P to L is the axis of aberrancy.

Aberration, CHROMATIC. As rays of different lengths, and hence of different colors, have different refractive indices, a single converging lens is unable to bring them all to a focus at a single point. This phenomenon is known as chromatic aberration. Thus the image of an object formed by a lens and projected on a screen is surrounded by a colored border, the color depending upon the distance from the screen to the lens.

Alberration, CONSTANT OF. Term applied to ratio of earth's velocity to velocity of light. 20.”445 is value commonly used in astronomical computations. Recent determinations give a somewhat larger value, about 20."50.

Aberration of Light. Apparent change in direction of rays of light coming from a heavenly body, caused by combination of the velocity of ray of light with velocity of motion of the observer. It is treated under two heads: Annual Aberration, displacement due to earth's motion about the sun, and Diurnal Aberration, that due to revolution about its axis. The effect is to cause a star to appear a little in advance of its true position in the direction of the observer's motion. This displacement was noticed by Bradley, the English astronomer royal in 1728, who measured it accurately. The greatest angular displacement from a mean position is called the constant of aberration, and is 20".445 of arc. If a represent this angle,

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then tan a-5, in which s is the velocity of the earth in its

orbit, and S the velocity of light.

Aberration, SPHERICAL. When a beam of light is incident upon a spherical mirror or lens, the rays after reflection or refraction do not all come together at a single point on the principal axis. This deviation from exact concurrence is called spherical aberration, by reflection in the case of the mirror and by refraction in the case of the lens. Rays incident upon the circumferential parts of the mirror or lens cross the principal axis after reflection or refraction nearer to the instrument than those rays nearer the axis, and the distance between the point of crossing for the outside rays and that for rays nearest the

axis is called the longitudinal spherical aberration. If now the rays be received on a screen, the image of a luminous point will be a circle of a radius varying according to the position of the screen; the diameter of the least image that can be formed is called the lateral spherical aberration. The envelope of a system of rays after reflection or refraction is called a “caustic.” Parabolic reflectors and refractors produce no caustics, and hence no aberration.

Abert, John JAMES, 1788–1863. Military officer and civil engineer, Chief of U. S. Topographical Engineers. Abetting. Encouraging or inciting another to the commission of a crime. It may consist in simply resisting an attempt to prevent the crime. Abeyance. Potential ownership, subsisting in contemlation of law. If land is granted to A for life, and then to 's heirs, the fee is in abeyance during B's life. The property rights of a bankrupt are in abeyance after the institution of proceedings and before the adjudication of bankruptcy. Abgarus. Name (like Caesar or Pharaoh) of several kings of Edessa, in Mesopotamia. There exists an apocryphal correspondence between one of them and Jesus.

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