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1851. His collection of English and Scottish Ballads, 8 vols., 1857–8, enlarged 1882 and later, is by far the best work in that field.
Child, SIR Josiah, 1630–1699. English economist of the socalled Mercantile School. Trade and the Interest of Money, 1668–90.
Child, MRs. LYDIA MARIA (FRANCIS), 1802–1880. American reformer and author; ed. Anti-Slavery Standard, 1840–43; Philotheat, 1835.
Child, THEODoRE, 1847–1892. Anglo-American traveler, journalist, and author. He died in Persia.
Cimilders, HUGH CULLING EARDLEY, F.R.S., b. 1827. from 1860; member of several cabinets.
Childers, ROBERT CAESAR, 1838—1876. English Orientalist, author of a Pali dictionary. Children, PREVENTION OF CRUELTY to. Organizations to protect children against the cruelty of parents and guardians and the inhuman demands of employers are of very recent growth. In England the Factory Acts and kindred legislation regulated juvenile labor; but the Society of which Elbridge T. Gerry is president, started 1875 in New York, was the first to deal with parental abuse. In 1891 this Society obtained 2,761 convictions and rescued 3,683 children, relieving 1,697 others. There are now 13 similar societies in New York, 14 in Ohio, 10 in Indiana, and ab. 70 in other States. There are also foreign Societies in many of the large towns of Great Britain and Canada and in the British colonies. The Société protective de France has branches at the large manufacturing centers; and other Societies exist at Milan, Madrid, Puerto Rico, Havana, St. Thomas, Bogota, etc. Childs, GEORGE WILLIAM, LL.D., 1829–1894. American publisher; owner Phila. Ledger from 1863. His public and private benefactions were numerous. Chili. Republic of S. America, between the crest of the Andes and the Pacific, from Cape Horn to 16° 30's. lat. Length ab. 2,300 m.; average breadth ab. 130 m.; area ab. 293,970 sq. m. Most of the country is mountainous, consisting of the western slopes of the Andes, which leave but a narrow strip of level land along the coast. It is mainly deficient in rainfall, but has a great extent of sea coast, on which are several fine harbors. It has great mineral wealth, a fertile soil and a large commerce. Its railroads had an extent in 1890 of 1,700 m. The capital is Santiago; Valparaiso is the leading seaport. The Araucanians, who still occupy the s. part, repelled Almagro 1535, and were troublesome till 1722, though Valdivia had acquired most of the country by 1550. It was a Spanish viceroyalty till 1810: the
war of independence ended 1826. The constitution of 1824 was revised 1833. War with Bolivia and Peru, 1879–83, resulted in an extension of territory. Pres. Balmaceda, aiming at arbitrary power 1888, was opposed by Congress and the navy and overthrown 1891: this contest threatened to involve the U.S. Pop., in 1892, 2,867,375. Chilian Mill.
Ore-crushing machine, in which the work is accomplished by the rolling of heavy wheels over the ore.
table substances, and the genital openings are on the coxal joint of the second pair of legs. Iulis and Glomeris are examples.
Chilon, 6th century B.C. One of the seven sages of Greece.
Chilopoda (CENTIPEDES). Order of Myriapoda, characterized by a flattened body, each joint of which carries but one pair of legs. The head bears a pair of long, many-jointed antennae. and strong insect-like biting jaws. The segment just back of the head bears the poison glands in a pair of large appendages that terminate in perforated hooks. In the tropics centipedes may attain a foot in length and secrete enough poison to make a dangerous bite. Scolopendra and Lithobius are examples.
Chilostomata. Gymnolaemata, the aperture of whose cells can be closed by an operculum or a sphincter muscle. Avicularia. vibracula and ovicells are often present. Cellularia (Cellularina) forms branched colonies; Membranipora (Flustrina) forms encrusting colonies. In Retepora (Celleporina) the colony forms a reticulum. Escharina is a fourth group, of which Eschara is typical.
Chilostomellidea. Order of perforate Foraminifera, with calcareous shells consisting of many chambers, attached to each other in straight lines, new chambers being added in one, two, or three directions. The end chamber has a curved slitlike opening. Chiltern Hundreds. In Buckinghamshire. Their stewardship, once designed for protection against robbers, is now a merely nominal office, to which every member of Parliament must be appointed before he can resign his seat. Chimaera. Monster in Lycia, which vomited fire; in front a lion, in the hinder part a dragon, and in the middle a_goat; slain by Bellerophon; named perhaps from a volcano in Lycia, Asia Minor. Chimaera. A shark of peculiar appearance present in the Northern seas. It is ab. 3 ft. long and of a white color, spotted
with brown. In the U.S. it is known as the Sea Cat; in Gt. Britain as King of the Herrings. See HOLOCEPHALI.
Chimborazo. Peak of the Andes, in Ecuador; ht. 20,496 ft. Chimere. Black (formerly scarlet) satin vestment of a bishop.
Chimney. Body of ore extending downward in a vein, usually at a steep angle, but without great extension in any horizontal plane.
Chimneys. Vertical flues to remove hot or foul gases and products of combustion. In steam boiler practice they have usually a cross-section of oneeighth the grate area discharging into them. Draft is caused by the greater weight of the column of cold air outside the chimney and of the same height. Experience has shown that achimney 50 ft. high will burn 13 lbs. of coal under a steam boiler per sq. foot of grate per hour, and that each 10 ft. of added height will burn from 1.1 to 1.4 lbs. additional per foot of grate, up to 120 ft. in height (see ARTIFICIAL DRAFT). Chimneys are built of brick or iron lined with brick, or of brick with an iron skeleton, or of iron alone. Usual sections are round, square, or star-shaped. Many have an inner lining not bonded | to the outer shell, so that unequal expansion shall not tend to wreck the structure. High chimneys are designed to resist a Chimney at horizontal wind pressure of 40 to 50 lbs. per sq. foot.
highest chimney in the world is at Halsbrücke in Saxony: the base is 40 ft. sq. and 28 ft. high, and the chimney shaft on this is circular with an inside diameter of 15.7 ft.; the height is 453 ft. At Kearney, N.J., is a chimney 335 ft. high.
Chimpanzee. See TROGLODYTES NIGER.
China. Empire of s.e. Asia, embracing, besides China proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Thibet. The entire area is estimated at 4,414,000 sq. miles and its population at 410,000,000. China proper contains about 1,337,000 sq. miles and a pop. of 387,000,000, an average of about 289 inhabitants per sq. mile. There are 10,000 resident foreigners, chiefly at the 23 treaty ports. The capital is Peking. The greater part is mountainous, the mountains being highest in the w- and n., diminishing in elevation toward the coast, much of which is low, alluvial, and subject to inundation from floods in the rivers. The rincipal of these are the Yang-tse-Kiang and the Hoang Ho; §. these, several others are navigable for long distances. The soil is fertie and is cultivated with the utmost economy. Rice is raised in the south, and wheat, barley, maize and millet in the north. Opium culture is increasing, and sugar is produced in Formosa and the south. Tea is exclusively cultivated in Formosa and s. and w. provinces Fu Chien, Hu-pei, Hu-Nan, Chiang-ksi, Cheh-kiang, An-hui, Kuangtung and Szechowan, the four last also producing the best silk, though the mulberry grows everywhere. Coal is found in every province, but so far mines have only been worked under foreigners at Kai-p'ing, Keelung and Hankow. Iron and copper are plentiful but little worked. Manufactures are very extensive and varied; and, since the opening of certain ports in 1860, its foreign commerce has become of considerable magnitude. The imports (1892) amounted to $122,625,468, exports $123,079,360. Of the imports one-half consists of cotton goods and onequarter of opium, while tea amounts to one-third and silk to half the exports. The total revenue of the government, consisting of customs, transit-levy, licenses, rice-tribute, land and salt taxes, is estimated at ab. $79,000,000. It is governed by the Emperor and supreme council called Chun Chi Chu. The administration is by the Nei-ko, a cabinet of two Manchus and two Chinese assisted by two members of the Han-lin (Great College), who see that nothing is done in violation of the sacred books of Confucius. Under these ministers are the seven government boards of civil appointments, revenues, rites and ceremonies, army, public works, criminal jurisdiction, and admiralty. Each of these has a Manchu and a Chinese president. The army consists of the Eight Banners, numbering 323,000, of which 100,000 are reviewed at Peking once a year, and the National Army of ab. 650,000. The war of 1894 showed that this army only existed on paper, not one-tenth being brought into the field. The fleet, which was almost entirely captured or destroyed, consisted of 9 battleships, 9 port-defense vessels, 56 cruisers and 41 torpedo boats. Internal communication is by means of bad roads and innumerable good canals and rivers: there is not 50 m. of railroads in the whole empire. The early ancestors of the Chinese came from the westward, and settled in Shansé, displacing the aboriginal inhabitants. Confucius begins his history with the reign of Yaou, 2356 B.C.; but the Chinese believe that more than two million years had then elapsed since the creation of men in China. Yaou was a virtuous truler; established marts, and fairs. The Shang dynasty succeeded his, 1766 B.C., and then the Chow followed. Woo Wang, its first emperor, divided the empire into 72 feudal States. The Tartars, of whom we first hear ab. 936 B.C., took advantage of the internecine warfare that ensued to make raids into the country. The Wang dynasty arose 255. Its most illustrious emperor, Chi-Hwang-ti, constructed roads, built canals, and began the long wall as a defense against the Tartars. To protect himself against the unfavorable comparisons made by the enemies of change he ordered the destruction of historic books. The Han dynasty arose 206, inaugurating a |. of literary activity; many books were restored. The astern Han dynasty began 23 A.D. Buddhism was introduced from India 65. From 220 began a period of division and warfare, interrupted only by the reign of Woo, 265, till the Suy dynasty was founded by Yan Keen 590, who reigned with undivided authority. Under the Tang dynasty, 617–907, regarded as the golden age of literature, the empire extended to the Caspian. Ambassadors came from Rome; Nestorian missionaries found favor. Under the empress Woo How, the Thibetans and the Khitans in the n. e. suffered defeat, but their raids continued. Other dynasties followed in rapid succession. The Kin Tartars were invited to aid in expelling the Khitans, and having done so, remained, advancing their empire to the Yangtse-Kiang. Ab. 1150 the Mongols, under Jenghiz Khan, invaded the n. w. and defeated the Kin. Under Ogdai, successor of Jenghiz, the Kin emperor was besieged, and burned himself in his palace. Mangu Khan succeeded 1248, and Kublai 1259.
During his reign Marco Polo visited China. The Mongol dynasty was overthrown 1368, and the Ming, a Chinese, established. The Manchoos began their invasions 1616. Meantime rebel bands, enriched by plunder, increased in numbers and power, overrunning province after province, till finally the gates of Peking were opened to them. The emperor committed suicide. The Manchoos, being invited to dispossess the rebels, took Peking, but proclaimed their own emperor as head of the Ta-Tsing dynasty. Thibet was added to the empire, which now extended from Siberia to Cochin China, and from the China Sea to Turkestan. Under Keen-Lung, 1755–95, troubles began with the East India Co. War was declared by England 1840 on account of the opposition made by China to the importation of opium. As a result, four new ports were opened to foreign trade. The Tae-Ping rebellion broke out during the reign of Heen-Fung, 1850–59. Its leader declared himself a Christian, and professed to be called of Heaven to restore the Chinese Woo. He gained many followers, and soon took Nanking. ar broke out again with England 1857, ending in a treaty, and payment of large indemnity by the Chinese. Gen. Gordon now took the field against the rebels, and in July 1864 the imperialists re-entered Nanking. In 1875 Kwansen, not yet four years old, the present Emperor, came to the throne. Christianity has made some progress during the last 30 years; the telegraph and the railroad have been introduced to a very limited extent. The war with Japan 1894–5, originating in Corea, was disastrous on sea and land, and ended by the treaty of Simonoseki. Japan received Formosa and the Pescadores, the Liau-Tong Peninsula, and $200,000,000 indemnity. The independence of Corea was also recognized. By the intervention of Russia, France and Germany all continental territory was renounced for an additional $100,000,000, Port Arthur and Wei-Hai-Wei alone being retained until payment. See MANCHU INVASION.
China Blue. See COTTON BLUE. China Clay. See KAOLINITE. China Grass. See RAMIE.
China Sea. Part of the Pacific, bet. the mainland of Asia and Borneo and the Philippine Islands.
China, WALL OF. Barrier begun 214 B.C. by the Emperor Chi-Hwang-Ti, to protect the empire from invasion by the northern barbarians; ab. 25 ft. wide at base and 15 at top,
Great Wall of China. varying in ht. from 15 to 30 ft. The sides are of granite (at bottom) and brick, the interspace being filled with earth and rubble. Length ab. 1,500 m., in a straight line 1,255 m.
Chinch Bug. Blissus leucopterus. Sucking insect oneseventh inch long, black, with white win with black spot. Young are yellow and wingless, become darker with each molt. Two or three broods per season. One female lays 500 eggs on roots of wheat, etc. Flourish in warm dry season. In wet season are attacked by fungus (Sporotrichum globuliferum) which may be artificially introduced with beneficial results. When on the march a trench into which petroleum has been poured will stop them. A false chinch bug (Nysius augustatus) resembles true chinch bug in size and odor, is brown (wings not white), attacks mustard, turnips, radishes,etc. Use petroleum emulsion.
Chinchilla. C. lanigera. Small S. American rodent inhabiting the high mountain valleys. They are ab. 1 ft. long, with thick bushy tail, and nocturnal in their habits. Their gray fur is prized for its remarkably fine texture. See HYSTRICOMORPHA.
| Chinchon, ANA, CountEss of, 1576–1639. Twice vice-queen
of Peru; first to introduce Peruvian bark into Spain. CIN
CHONA (q.v.) was named from her.
Chinese Immigration. The coming of Chinese into California began soon after the discovery of gold 1849. Opposition soon sought expression in attempts to restrict them by local legislation. This was declared invalid by the U. S. Supreme Court, and an attempt was then made to enact a Federal law on the subject. In 1879 a bill was passed by both Houses, limiting the number of Chinese passengers brought by a vessel to 15. This was vetoed by Pres. Hayes as contrary to treaty stipulations, but a committee was subsequently appointed to negotiate a treaty with China giving to the U. S. the power to limit or regulate, but not to prohibit, the coming or residence of Chinese laborers, and to secure also to Chinese students, teachers, merchants, travelers, and laborers the right to come and go at pleasure, and the right to the privileges accorded to citizens or subjects of the most favored nations. This treaty was ratified by the Senate in March, 1881. It is asserted that the Chinese are an inferior race, incapable of understanding our political institutions or entering into our social life. On the other hand, they are said to be models of industry, thrift and docility. Doubtless one of the strongest reasons for opposing their coming is their willingness to work for very low rates, thus becoming formidable competitors for employment with other laborers.
Chinese in America. They all come from the Departments of Kwangchau and Shauking in the Province of Kwantung. They describe themselves as Pānti or Natres, as distinguished from the tribes called Häkká, and divide themselves into the people of the Sam Yup, Three Towns, and the Sz' Yup, Four Towns or Districts. The tract from which they come is little more than 100 miles sq., high and mountainous in the n. and w., while the coast is low, and studded with small islands. The people of the different districts show distinctive peculiarities in speech and customs. Those from Nánhai and Pw'anyū, the districts including Canton, agree in general with the people of the capital, and their language differs little from that of the city, as transliterated by Dr. S. Wells Williams (Tomic Dictionary of the Canton Dialect). The emigrants are much influenced by home, traditions, and those from the same section keep together. They establish separate shops, when their numbers warrant it, as well as assemblyrooms and guild-halls. The Six Companies in San Francisco, under which nearly all the Chinese in the U.S. are enrolled, are such guilds, formed by emigrants from different parts of the province. They exercise no authority over their members, and there is little intercourse or sympathy with the consular and diplomatic representatives of the Chinese government. The ties of kindred, preserved with so much care in China, are recognized here, and many of the immigrants claim relationship. Some 30 or 40 clans are represented; those bearing the names of Lí and Múi preponderate. On the completion of the Union Pacific Railway thousands of Chinese were thrown out of employment. In the absence of women in the mining camps, they found a remunerative occupation in the laundry business, and before 1869 they obtained almost a monopoly of that occupation in the West. Their establishment in the East dates from 1869. They have colonies in all the larger American cities, their shops, restaurants, gambling-houses and shrines usually being located in adjoining buildings, in the poorer quarter. The shops are the centers around which they organize, frequently going so far as to create a kind of self-government. Next to their almost universal employment in washing clothes, gambling is their chief avocation, being regularly carried on by organized companies. In their settlements may be found tailors, carpenters, painters, and various other artisans, as well as barbers, physicians, and fortune-tellers. . There are no priests of any of the recognized religions of China in their temples, except in San Francisco. Their public worship consists in praying and making offerings, before the shrine of the God of War, the divinity commonly appealed to. He is chiefly resorted to by those who desire to learn the future by the aid of divination. Their religious belief is a mixture of Buddhism and Taoism, with certain other native elements, while their theory of morals is based upon the Confucian, writings. In general, they have had more or less training in native schools, are peaceable, and extremely industrious ; not as thrifty as some other classes of immigrants, fond of luxurious living, and willing to give an equivalent in labor for all they receive.
Chinese Language. Monosyllabic, analytic language, without inflections, and dependent for meaning, as well as for syntactical purposes, upon the variety of verbal arrangement, peculiarity of accent, and addition of certain, words. There are many dialects, and the language is spoken by perhaps 400,000.000 people. As a written language, it is
capable of exact expression, and has a venerable literature.
Chinese Literature. Arranged under four divisions: 1. Classics; 2. Histories; 3. Philosophy and the Arts; 4. Poetr and Polite Literature. The Classics form the stem from whic the others are said to spring. They comprise the Book of Divination, the Book of History, the Book of Odes; the Rituals, of which two principal texts survive from antiquity; and the Spring and Autumn Annals (the only one of the Classics actually written by Confucius). Several other works, known collectively as the “Four Books,” and including the Analects of Confucius and the writings of Mencius, are also called classical. A series of dynastic histories, the first of which was written in the 1st century B.C., extend to the present line. Vast collections exist of works on lexicography, divination, astronomy, medicine, war, geography, and the fine arts. Philosophical writings consisting chiefly of expositions of the Classics and treatises on Buddhism and Taoism, are supplemented by an enormous popular literature, made up largely of romances. The cyclopedias, which embody many important works otherwise lost, are of great antiquariam value.
Chinese Music. Though sounding crude and noisy to Occidental ears, it has a history authentic and traditional, reaching back to the conquest of the country by Hoang-ti, 2637 B.C., and a voluminous theoretical literature. As an essential element in the drama, it still preserves the purposes set for it by the Greeks (see LYRIC DRAMA), and no play is complete without it. With the dance, it is also a necessary adjunct of the Confucian religious service. Chinese melodies are based on a five-note scale, the diatonic scale of Western music with the fourth and seventh tones omitted, thus: f, g, a, c, d, and in this show affinity with old Celtic music. Harmony is unused except when it results from twanging all the strings tuned in fourths or fifths on instruments of the guitar kind at the close of pieces.
Chinese Secret Societies. Apparently the direct out
rowth of the clan system. The most important, which flourishes in s. China and has branches in the Chinese colonies in various parts of the world, is political, aiming to overthrow the present dynasty and restore that of the Mings. According to its own records, it dates from ab. 1620. Its general name is Tin Tí úi, or “Heaven-Earth League.” Among the Chinese in the U. S. it is known as I Hing, or “Righteous Rising,” from the name of the Canton lodge. This society, which is vigorously suppressed by the government in China, practically dominates the Chinese in their foreign settlements. Its ceremonies resemble those of the Freemasons, and its members are popularly known as Chinese Freemasons. The traditions of the Chinese Society embody certain cosmical notions, possibly inherited from some older society, which are common to men everywhere.
have furnished many of the treasures now in the Vatican. Important mural paintings are still to be seen here, also an Etruscan museum. Pop. ab. 5,000.
Chivalry. Modern game of skill, played by two persons upon a board marked with squares, with 40 pieces; each player having eight knights and 12 men, the pieces on opposite sides being distinguished by their color. The object of the game is to get two pieces across the board upon two designated squares on the adversary's side.
Chivalry, AGE of. Ab. 1,000–1,500; age of the armored horseman, of the nobleman in his castle and the serf in his hut; of force and Feudalism. Chivalry was the redeeming factor of this age; it restrained violence, softened manners, and maintained an ideal standard of honor, fidelity and justice which partly made good the loss of public order and general government. Its origin is traceable to Teutonic delight in arms and personal loyalty. It became a complete system with its code of laws, definite aims, and ceremonial of initiation and degradation. The training of the knight occupied 7 years, first passing through the grades of page and squire. From the custom of the newly dubbed knight going forth to try his metal, arose knight-errantry, the practice of roaming abroad to defend the weak and avenge the oppressed. Its most brilliant phase, the tournament, determined the method of warfare of the age, which was a mere contest of strength between horsemen encased in armor. The Crusades were its crowning military achievement. The invention of gunpowder was its undoing. It overspread all Europe, and reached its highest perfection in France. Its virtues were gentleness, bravery, courtesy, truthfulness, hospitality, generosity, fidelity; it went to fantastic excess in its adoration of the ladies. Its dark side was the aristocratic spirit which it fostered, the excessive delight in war and the chase, its contempt for labor, and its love of personal display; but it greatly contributed to the elevation of woman. fostered a lofty conception of personal honor, and transmitted a general ideal of noble manhood.