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CHEMICAL AFFINITY –CHENOPODIACEAE

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neath the carapace. Chelyara serpentina is type of the family. It may attain a length of 3 ft. It lays 24 or more eggs in the

- o Snapping Turtle (Chelyara serpentina).

sand in the early morning, excavating the nest with its hind feet.

Chemical Affinity. Force which holds together the smallest particles or atoms of chemical compounds.

Chemin-de-Ronde. Beam from 4 to 12 ft. broad, between foot of exterior slope of parapet and scarp wall.

Chemistry. The history of Chemistry, including Alchemy and Iatrochemistry, extends back to the beginning of our era. The doctrine of the Alchemists and the Iatrochemists were accepted for centuries, and not until ab. 1650, was Chemistry in a position to stand forth as a true science—science meaning classified knowledge; even then many chemists still clung to the alchemistic and iatro ideas. There was a slow period of transition, in which men gradually gave up the old ideas and accepted the doctrine that Chemistry was to teach concerning the composition of substances, and had nothing in common with the search for the Philosopher's Stone or Elixir Vitae. The first book on Chemistry, by Libavius 1595, defined it as the art of making healing remedies. Diseases were to be conquered by medicines which the Chemists were to discover and prepare. Among the most enthusiastic of the Iatrochemists was Paracelsus, 1493–1541. He was successful in making a large number of remarkable cures by the use of chemicals. This gave him

reat prominence and led to his ideas being widely accepted. #. was the first to use corrosive sublimate, copper sulp ate, sugar of lead and certain compounds of antimony as medicines; he seems also to have made a judicious use of laudanum. Another prominent Iatrochemist was Van Helmont, 1577–1644. He enriched Chemistry by many valuable observations, especially in regard to gases. He taught that the same element was always present in its compounds and could be recovered by proper means. He examined carbon-dioxide with great care, showing how it could be made, giving its properties, etc. The period of Iatrochemistry closed with Lemery, 1645–1715. With Robert Boyle, 1626–1691, a new era was introduced. He vigorously opposed the views of the Iatrochemists. He had the genius of invention, and pointed out the path which Chemistry was to follow and did follow. His services were manifold; he defined the term Element with sharpness and precision, gave the word Compound its present meaning, and accounted for the differences in the properties of Elements as being due to differences in size, shape or weight of the smallest particles of the Elements. It was his endeavor to learn the composition of substances which laid the first foundations of Analytical Chemistry. Next to guide the Science was Stahl, 1660–1734. To explain the phenomena of Combustion, he proposed the Phlogiston Theory, which was almost universally accepted and regarded as true for ab. 150 years. In terms of this theory, all substances capable of burning contain something (Phlogiston), which escaped during the process of combustion. To explain the fact that simple substances became heavier when burned, it was assumed that Phlogiston conferred a principle of Levity. This idea of Combustion was the only one which was held until the correct explanation was given by Lavoisier, 1743–1794, who established many facts himself, and gained others by the discoveries of Priestley, Cavendish and Scheele, the most impor

tant being the discovery of Oxygen by Priestley. Thus far chemists had investigated the qualities of substances, but in

the latter part of the 18th century the quantitative method came into use, and the proportions of substances that combined

together to form compounds became an object of study, and Quantitative Chemical Analysis was introduced. Early in the 19th century it was established that Chemical Compounds have a fixed composition, and Proust, who contributed much to prove this, also showed that two bodies may combine in more than one proportion, and that for each combination the relative proportions are fixed. These two facts being established, the next important event was the proposal of the ATOMIC THEORY (q.v.) by John Dalton, 1804. It has been called the guiding star of modern Chemistry, and is the basis for the explana. tion of all chemical phenomena. This theory assumes that matter is composed of indivisible Atoms of definite weights and that a Chemical Compound contains a definite number of Atoms of its constituents. The determination of the weights of the Atoms now became the object of study and the im3rovement of the balance a matter of importance. Dalton, Wollaston and Berzelius contributed much to this subject. In 1808 Gay Lussac and Humboldt discovered the simple constitution of gaseous compounds, and Avogadro in 1811 announced his hypothesis, that all Gases contain in equal volumes the same number of Molecules. This led to the discovery that there was a fixed relation between the Atomic Weight and the specific gravity of gaseous elementary and compound substances. In 1819 Dulong and Petit established the law that elementary Atoms have the same capacity for heat, and in 1831 Newmann and Regnault a similar law for Molecules of Chemical Compounds. The Atomic Weights, now in use, are based upon these various laws and hypotheses, and constitute the foundation of Chemistry as an exact science. Supplementary to these is the theory of Valence, which adds to the properties of elementary Atoms the power of attraction of one or more Atoms of other elements, depending upon the relative Valence of the various Elements. The most important contribution to the science in recent years were two papers, one published by Mendeleēff 1869, the other by Lothar Meyer 1870, which it is claimed were anticipated by Newlands in 1864. They pro|. a classification of the Elements in a manner which rought to light many hitherto unrevealed similarities and differences, and by means of which the existence of other Elements may be prognosticated. It has been called the Periodic Table, ins is based on the PERIODIC LAw (q.v.). This classification is the most perfect one we have, and is justly regarded as the greatest recent achievement of the science. In 1828 Wöhler discovered accidentally that Urea could be made artificially, and this was the birth of Organic Chemistry. This was the first organic compound which had been made in the laboratory. Since then the number of chemical compounds, formerly considered to be only obtained from animals and plants, which have been prepared artificially is very large; these must not be confused with organized animal and vegetable matter, such as animal or vegetable cells or tissues, which have never been produced except through animal and vegetable life. 1.É. upon the development of the science of Chemistry is the great progress made in the useful arts and industries, all of ... have derived great benefits, in new products and processes, in the reduction in cost of production and in the utilization of hitherto waste

products. See ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, ALCHEMY, PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. Chemnitz. City of Saxony, on the Chemnitz, at foot of

the Erzgebirge; noted for its manufactures of woolen goods. It was a free city of the Empire 1125. Pop., 1890, 138,955. Chemnitz, MARTIN, 1522–1586. German theologian, placed next to Luther by Bossuet. He wrote 4 vols. on the Council of Trent, 1565–73, and Loci Theologici, 1591. Chemosh. Moabite god, identical with Baal and Moloch. Chemung. One of the Devonian strata in New York, so named by Prof. Hall. It consists, principally of shales, and lies above the Hamilton and below the Catskill. See DEVONIAN. Chenery, THOMAs, 1826–1884. English orientalist, O. T. reviser; prof. at Oxford 1868–77; ed. London Times from 1877. Cheney, CHARLEs EDwARD, D.D., b. 1836. Rector in Chicago 1860; Bp. Ref. Epis. Ch. 1873. Cheney, John VANCE, b. 1848. American poet.

Chénier, ANDRE MARIE DE, 1762–1794. French |. of great romise, whose career was cut short by the guillotine.—His rother, MARIE Joseph BLAISE DE, 1764–1811, wrote three influential plays: Charles IX., 1789; Caius Gracchus, 1792; and Timoleon, 1794, and many songs, annong them Chant du départ. Both were born of a Greek mother at Constantinople.

Chenomorphae. Order of Birds, equivalent to the Lamellirostres in part. Swans, Geese, Ducks, and Goosander are examples.

Chenopodiaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermae, and sub-class Dicotyledones, compris

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Cherokees. Tribe of N. American Indians who ranged from N. C. through Tenn. to Ark., including the north of Ga., Ala., Miss. and La. In the French and Revolutionary wars they sided with the English, and fought for the South in the Rebellion. The Cherokee Nation in the I.T. now includes 11,531 pure bloods, and the Eastern Cherokee Agency in N. C. contains 2,885.

Cherokee War. In N. C. and Tenn., 1760. The Cherokees captured Fort Loudon and massacred the garrison, but were soon subdued.

Cherry. Trees of the genus Prunus, natural family Rosaceae, natives of both hemispheres; introduced into Italy from Cerasus in Pontus by Lucullus ab. 66 B.C. The cultivated sorts are mainly derivatives from P. cerasus and P. avium, indigenous in Europe and w. Asia. The Bird Cherry of Europe is P. padus; there are several related species in N. America. Cherry, AUSTRALIAN. Eacocarpus cupressiformis. Small tree of the natural family Samtalaceae, native of Australasia, producing a very hard wood, used for ax-handles, etc. Cherry, BARBADOEs. Malpighia glabra and M. punicifolia. Small trees of the natural family Malpighiaceae, natives of tropical America, used for hedges. Cherry Coal. Free-burning, non-caking, lustrous bituminous coal, found in England. Cherry, CoRNELIAN. Cornus mas. Small tree of the Dogwood family, native of n. Europe and Asia. Its fruit is translucent, red and oblong. Cherry Laurel. Prunus laurocerasus. Evergreen shrub of the natural family Rosaceae, native of Armenia, and extensively cultivated. Cherry Slug. Selandra cerasi. Larva of small jet-black sawfly, is two-thirds in. long, green and slimy, defoliates fruit trees; two broods per season; arsenites and air-slaked lime kill them.

Cherry Walley Massacre. In Otsego co., N. Y., Oct. 11, 1778, by Indians and Tories. 16 soldiers and 32 villagers were killed, and the rest carried into captivity.

Chersidae. See TESTUDINIDAE.

Chert. Impure flint occurring as nodules in limestone, as the true flint occurs in chalk.

Cherubim. Winged creatures of Scripture, represented by figures guarding the Ark of the f Covenant in the Holy of Holies.—Al- to lied to the griffins and winged sphinxes of Phoenician art, and the humanheaded bulls of Assyria.

Cherubini, MARIA LUIGI CARLO ZENOBIO SALVATORE, 1760–1842. Italian composer in nearly all forms, but chiefly successful in opera and church music. He lived in Paris from 1784, and became director of the Conservatoire. Beethoven admired his operas greatly. Lodoiska, 1791; Medée, 1797; Les Deua Journées, 1800 (his masterlo Famiska, 1806; Les Abencêrages, 1813.

Chervil. Anthriscus cerifolium. Herb of the Carrot family, native of Europe, introduced into N. America.

Chesapeake. American frigate of 38 tons, commanded by Capt. James Lawrence; boarded by the British frigate Shannon June 1, 1813, six leagues east of Boston harbor.

Cherub. All its officers were killed or disabled.

Chesapeake Bay. Deep indentation in e. coast of U. S.,

in Md. and Va. Into it flow the Susquehanna, Potomac, James, and other rivers. At its mouth the British Admiral Graves was worsted by De Grasse, Sept. 5, 1781.

Chesbrough, ELLIS SYLVESTER, 1813—1886. American civil and sanitary engineer, designer of the sewage systems of Chicago and other cities.

Cheselden, WILLIAM, F.R.S., 1688–1752. English surgeon. Anatomy, 1713–33.

Cheshire. See SWINE.

Chesney, CHARLES CORN wallis, 1826–1876. British officer, prof. at Sandhurst 1858. Campaigns in Va. and Mal., 1863–65; Waterloo Lectures, 1868; Military Biography, 1874.—His brother, Gen. SIR GEORGE. ToMKYNs, 1830–1895, pub. The Battle of Dorking, 1871, and The Private Secretary, iS81.—Their uncle, Gen. FRANCIS RAwdoN, 1789–1872, was a military explorer in Asia. Survey of the Euphrates and Tigris, 4 vols., 1850.

Chess. Bromus secalinus. Weed of the Grass family, very troublesome in wheat fields. It is an annual; clean culture and the sowing of absolutely clean, seed are the only means of keeping it in check. It is believed by ignorant people that the wheat plant under unfavorable conditions will produce or turn into chess; but repeated standing offers of large rewards have failed to produce a single authentic specimen of chess produced from the seed of wheat. , Chess has a slight value as a forage plant, if cut and cured before it has ripened its seed. See CHEAT-GRASS.

Chess. White pine or spruce planks, each 18 ft. long, 4} in. wide and 14 in. thick, used as floor-covering for a pontoon bridge.

Chess. Most renowned game of skill known to the civilized world, usually played upon a square board marked with 64 squares, by two persons, each with 16 men, consisting of 8 awns, 2 castles or rooks, 2 bishops, 2 knights, and a queen and [. the latter being the object of attack. Its invention has been attributed to the Persians, and its names in European and Asiatic languages are derived from that of the principal piece, the shah or king. From internal evidence, th. game could not have been a direct invention, but appears to be a modification of an ancient method of divination. It retained its divinatory charactor in Europe till the 10th century. Its immediate ancestor was a game of dice chess, played by four persons, of which the Hindoo o is a significant type, and probably in the direct ancestral line. This may be regarded in turn as having been preceded by a dice game played by four persons, each with 4 men, not differentiated, except by color, around the arms of a cross, as in the existing Hindoo game of pachesi or chausas. Another step backward, and the cross is found to have been derived from a circle with an internal cross. At this stage 4 slaves were used instead of dice to regulate the throws, as in the Korean game of nyout. A rudimentary game, the product of the same course of change or evolution, occurs among the Indians of the s, w. U. S. The chess-board may be regarded as symbolizing the world and its 293

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CHESSY COPPER—CHIABRERA

quarters, and the men or pieces, the people of the several directions. Chess occurs in China under the name of ts'éung ki, in Korea as tz yang ki, and in Japan as shozi. These ames differ from that of ndia and Europe, and from each other, and preserve certain features of the games which preceded chess, from which it appears that they were not derived directly from the existing game of India. The modern game was developed ab. 1500 by increasing the powers of the queen, bishop, and pawns, and by castling the king. In 1474 Caxton From Caxton's Game of Chess, 1474. printed an English version of a work on chess written by Cesolis, a Dominican friar, ab. 1200. Masters of the game became famous in the next century, Spain, Portugal, and Italy producing experts whose gambits or openings are still in common use. Treatises were written among others by Damiano 1512, Ruy Lopez 1512, Gianutio, 1597, Salvio 1604, Carrera 1617, and Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, 1617. Other famous players of the 17th and 18th centuries were Greco, Bertin, Cunningham and Philidor, who in 1795 reintroduced blindfold play which had been exhibited by Bucega, a Saracen, ab. 1550. More modern authorities of the game were Sarralt, Cochrane, Lewis, Walker, Jaenish and Staunton. Chess tournaments as the best means of settling international championships were instituted 1851. In 1858 Paul Morphy of New 8. defeated the best European players, and at Hastings, Eng., 1895, H. N. Pillsbury of Brooklyn proved himself superior to the experts of the Old World. Morphy could ". twelve simultaneous games blindfold, a feat now surpassed by Blackburne and others. Chessy Copper. See AZURITE. Chest. Portion of the body bounded by the ribs and the vertebrae with which they are connected, the breast-bone, diaphragm, and lower part of the neck, and containing the heart and lungs and the large blood vessels connected with them.

Chest, AMMUNITION. Box placed on the limber of a field gun to contain ammunition for the service of the piece. It is made of wood for lightness, and is divided into three compartments: the joi. are placed upright in the end divisions, and the cartridges in the middle division; the lid opens up. Each chest carries 42 rounds, and is interchangeable with those on the caisson. In rapid movements the cannoneers are mounted on it. Chest, MILITARY. Money and negotiable securities carried by an army to pay its current expenses. The expenditures are made by officers of the quartermaster, subsistence and pay departments. Chester. stone as it occurs in the Mississippi Valley. IFEROUS. Chester. Ancient city of England, capital of Cheshire, on the Dee, 22 m. from the sea; irregularly laid out and surrounded by walls; rebuilt 908. It resisted William I. till 1070, and was besieged by a parliamentary army from July 1643 till Feb. 3, 1646. Pop., 1891, 37,105. Chester. A city of Delaware co., Pa., on right bank of the Delaware, 18 m. below Philadelphia; noted for its extensive shipbuilding interests. Pop., 1890, 20,226.

Chesterfield, PHILIP DORMER STANHoPE, EARL OF, 1694– 1773. English statesman noted for his polished manners. Letters to his Son, 1774. Chester White. See SWINE. Chestnut. Forest tree of the natural family Fagaceae, native of the n. hemisphere. The European species is Castamea sativa, and the American, Castamea dentata. Chestnut, CAPE. S. African tree, Calodendron capense, bearing a prickly fruit; species of the natural family Rutaceae. Chestnut, EARTH. In England, nut-like tubers of Bunium bulbocastanum, herbs of the Carrot family, natives of Europe. Chestnut, HORSE. See HoRSE CHESTNUT. Chestnut Street Bridge. Cast-iron highway bridge over the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia, formed by two arches of 185 ft. span and 20 ft. rise. Each arch has six ribs ab. 8 ft. apart and 4 ft. in depth. The structure is remarkable for its beauty, and was completed in 1866.

Chestnut, TAHITI. Inocarpus edulis.

Uppermost division of the Carboniferous limeSee CARBON

Large tree of the

natural family Leguminosae, common in the S. Sea Islands; esteemed for its seeds, which are used as food. Chestnut Timber. When dry, its weight is 41 lbs. per cubic foot, its tensile strength ab. 12,000 and its compressive strength ab. 6,000 lbs. per sq. inch. Chestnut, WATER. Trapa natans. Aquatic plant of the natural family Hydrocaryaceae, native of s. Europe. The seeds contain much starchy matter, and are an important food roduct. The fruits bear horn-like projections, and are also nown as Water Caltrops, and in Italy as Jesuit Chestnuts. Chetifera. See CHAETIFERA. Chettle, HENRY, d. ab. 1607. English dramatist. Chevalier. Title of younger sons of some French houses, of the Stuart Pretenders to the English throne, and often of other adventurers.

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director of the dye works of Gobelin 1824; prof. in Paris 1829. His most important work was on the fats. Chevron. Arrow-headed stripes or other designated devices, worn on the coat sleeves, indicating rank of non-commissioned officers in U. S. army, and of cadet officers at West Point. They vary in color and material, to indicate the arm of the service. A diagonal half chevron of gold lace for each enlistment and one for war service is also authorized for enlisted men. Chevron Bones. Wedge or arch-shaped bones on the ventral side of the tail in lizards, turtles, and crocodiles. Chevrotain. See TRAGULINA. Chevy Chase. Ballad founded in part on the battle of OTTERBURN (q.v.). Cheyenne. Capital of Laramie co., and of Wyoming, near e. base of Rocky Mts., founded 1867. Pop., 1890, 11,690. Cheyenne River. Right hand branch of the Missouri, draining the Black Hills of Dakota. Drainage area 24,117 sq. m. Cheyennes. Indian tribe of the Algonquin family, originally living on the C. branch of the Red R. Dak. Tall, strong, and brave, their history is one of constant war with their neighbors and the whites. There are now in Montana 865 Oklahoma 1,091, and S. Dakota 517. Cheyne, THOMAs KELLY, D.D., b. 1841. commentator on Isaiah and the Psalms.

Cheyney, Edward P., b. 1861. Prof. History Univ. Penna. Chézy, ANTOINE LEONARD DE, 1773–1832. French Orientalist, prof. Paris 1814.

Chiabrera, GABRIELLO, 1552–1637. of the Greeks.

Prof. Oxford 1885;

Italian poet, imitator

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Chianti. Dealers call all Tuscan wines by this name, because the best vintage is that of the hills of Chianti 15 m. n. of Siena. It is an overrated wine, losing much of its native excellence by transportation.

Chiaroscuro. Treatment of lights and shadows, especially in paintings in which the contrasts are especially pronounced and the shadows unusually dark. Da Vinci first developed this method; his greatest Italian follower in this direction was Correggio. Rembrandt was the great master of this art in the 17th century.

Chiasmodontidae. Family of Acanthopterygian fishes, of which the type is Chiasmodon niger, or the Black Swallower, living at a depth in the ocean of nearly a mile. It has a gape extending far back of the eyes; the jaws are beset with teeth like those of the Python, and it frequently swallows a fish whole, containing ten times its own bulk. Its stomach and bellv are so distensible that their walls will stretch to accommodate this enormous meal; becoming so transparent that the species of fish swallowed may be discerned. . Sometimes gases are generated by the decomposing morsel which float the gaptor, and thus several museum specimens have been secured.

Chiastolite. Variety of Andalusite, occurring in stout crystals and showing in cross section marks that resemble the Greek letter Chi (x) in form. Also called Macle. Chiastoneura. See TAENIOGLOSSA. Chicago. City of Cook co., Ill., second largest of the U. S.; on w. shore of Lake Michigan near its head. The site is nearly level, and raised but a few feet above the lake. It is traversed by C. River, a sluggish, crooked stream, but navigable for lake vessels. A breakwater has been constructed in the lake, forming a fairly good harbor. It is the principal port of the Great Lakes, has a large commerce, and is one of the most important railroad centers of the country, more than 30 lines intersecting there. It has very large manufactures of a varied character; among the more prominent are iron and steel, clothing, furniture, and agricultural implements. Slaughtering and meat-packing is among the most prominent of its industries. The city covers an area of 180 sq. m. Ab. one-fourth of its streets are paved, mainly with wood. Water is supplied by pumping from Lake Michigan, the point of supply being at some distance from the shore. It has a comprehensive sewer system, the sewers emptying into C. River. The sewage thus accumulated in the river and harbor causes much anxiety and trouble, and a project is in process of carrying it into the Illinois River. The population in 1890 was 1,099,850, of which fully one-half were of foreign birth. Maro: visited the place 1673; Fort Dearborn was built 1804. he city was laid out in 1830, and chartered 1837. Its growth has been phenomenal in its rapidity. Oct. 8–10, 1871, it was visited by a fearful conflagration, which destroyed the entire business center and a large part of the residence portion, involving a loss of $200,000,000. A bomb, thrown by Anarchists, May 4, 1886, killed 8 and wounded 60 policemen; 4 of the Anarchists were hanged Nov. 11, 1887, and others imprisoned. The Columbian Exposition was held May 1 to Oct. 30, 1893.

Chicago Ship Canal. Under construction to connect Lake Michigan with the Mississippi R., and to carry the sewage of Chicago away from the city and lake. The canal proper will be ab. 30 m. long, from 110 to 210 ft. wide, and from 22 to 36 ft. deep, 10 m. being in solid rock. Work was begun 1893. The estimated cost, including harbor outlet and river improvements, is ab. $28,000,000. It has a pitch of 1 ft. in 7 m., and will discharge 300,000 cubic ft. a minute.

Chicago Theological Seminary. Congregational; opened 1858; has 8 professors, 11 instructors and lecturers, and ab. 200 students in English, German and Scandinavian departments.

Chicago, UNIVERSITY OF. The first institution of this name was chartered 1857 and ceased to exist 1886. The present University was incorporated Sept. 1890, the first subscription, of $600,000, being that of John }. Rockefeller, who has since increased his gifts to over $4,000,000. The total property already exceeds $6,500,000. The pres. and two-thirds ...} the trustees must be Baptists. Instruction began Oct. 1892. The site covers 25 acres. The dormitories are intended to accommodate 2,000 students. It is always in session, the college year being divided into 4 quarters, and attendance required for any three. It comprises graduate schools of arts and literature, schools of science, divinity, law, medicine, technology, fine arts, and music, the last five not yet in operation. There is also a department of “university extension,” designed to meet the wants of non-residents. The libraries contain 260,000 volumes. In 1894 there were 162 professors and 1,100 students.

Chickahominy. River of Va., tributary to the James; scene of battles in June, 1862. See FAIR OAKs and GAINES’ MILL.

Chickamauga, BATTLE OF. Sept. 19–20, 1863, 12 m. e. of Chattanooga, Tenn., Gen. Bragg attacked Rosecrans, and after severe fighting routed the Federal right and center; but

Thomas, with the left, repulsed the Confederates, and earned the title “Rock of Chickamauga.” Confederate loss was 18,000, Union loss, 16,000 and 36 guns. This was the most desperate and critical western action of the war: its result was disastrous to the South, for Bragg's plans were foiled and e. Tenn. held by the Federals. National parks were established here and at Chattanooga by an act of Aug. 1890. Chickara. See ANTILOPIDAE.

Chickasaw Bluffs. Near Vicksburg, Miss.; unsuccessfully attacked by Gen. Sherman Dec. 29, 1862.

Clnickasaw Nation. One of The Five Civilized Tribes of the I.T., owning 7,267 sq. m., pop. 57,329, of whom only 6,800 are tribal Chickasaws. Originally of Muskhogee stock, they lived in n. Ala. and Miss.

Chicken Cholera. Very fatal disease of fowls of microbic origin in which there are enlargements of the glands and ulceration of the digestive organs; not found in the U. S.; source of great losses in Europe. By the successful treatment and prevention of this disease by inoculations with its modified virus, Pasteur gained a very considerable reputation.

Chicken-Pox. Contagious, febrile, eruptive disease, rarely attacking those above ten years of age, and by itself almost never fatal. Successive crops of small vesicles filled with a clear fluid appear upon the head and body, occasionally leaving small scars. It is erroneously believed to inflict permanent injury upon the sight.

Chiekweed. Species of the genera. Alsine and Cerastium. Low plants of the natural family Caryophyllaceae, widely distributed.

Chickweed, FoRKED. Anychia dichotoma. Insignificant plant of the natural family Caryophyllaceae, native of e. N. America.

Chickweed, INDIAN. See CARPET-weFD,

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Chief. Ranking officer of a corps or body of army officers, on whom additional or special duties devolve by virtue of his position; as, Chief of Engineers, of Ordmance, Chief Commissary of Subsistence, etc. Chief of Staff, though not provided for in time of peace by the Army Regulations, is appointed by a commanding general of an army during war. Chief-Justice. Presiding judge: in Gt. Britain, of Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice; in the U. S., of the Federal Supreme Court, and of the court of last resort in some of the States. Chief of Asia, or Asia RCHs. Wealthy citizens of w. Asia Minor, presidents of the public games; mentioned Acts xix. 31. Chiger, or CHIGOE. Sand-flea or jigger, Puler penetrans. Minute tropical insect which burrows into the skin of the feet, causing swelling and suppuration. See APHANIPTERA. Chi-Hwang-Ti, d. 210 B.C. Emperor of China from 246 B.C.; vigorous but despotic. He destroyed most of the Chinese writings, and executed nearly 500 men of letters.

Chilblain. Superficial inflammation of the skin, not unlike erisypelas, commonly affecting the toes and fingers, and due to exposure to cold. It occasionally leads to ulceration, and is best treated by applications of iodine.

Child, FRANCIS JAMES, LL.D., b. 1825. Prof. Harvard since

Chicory (Cichorium intybus).

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