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He paid tribute to the Normans 845 and 861, invaded Italy, and was crowned emperor by the pope 875. Charles II., “THE FAT,” 822–888. Son of Louis II.: emror 881; King of Italy 880, and of France 885–887. He alowed the Normans to besiege Paris and was deposed by Arnulph, 887. Charles III., “THE SIMPLE,” 879–929. King of France 893. The throne was disputed by Eudes of Paris till 898. Charles IV., “THE HANDsoME,” 1294–1828. King of France 1322, last of the elder Capetians. Charles W., “THE WISE,” 1337–1380. King of France 1364; son of John II., and regent 1356–60. He recovered much territory from the English, and established Royal Library of Paris.—His son CHARLEs VI., 1368-1422, became king 1380, and a lunatic 1392. His reign was full of wars and miseries.—That of his son, CHARLEs VII., 1403–1461, was signalized by the victories of Jeanne d'Arc and the recovery of Normandy.—His grandson, CHARLEs VIII., 1470–1498, the last of the Valois, came to the throne 1483, and began the Italian wars 1494.

Charles IX., 1550–1574. King of France 1560; son of Henry II. and Catharine de' Medici. His reign was disturbed by civil and religious wars, and is notorious for the massacre of St. Bartholomew 1572. Charles X., 1757–1836. King of France 1824–30; forced to abdicate.—Also, a pretender, Cardinal Bourbon, set up 1589 by the League against Henry IV. Charles IV., 1316–1378. German emperor from 1346; son of John of Bohemia. He issued the GOLDEN BULL (q.v.) 1356. Charles W., 1500–1558. German emperor 1519; K. Spain 1516. He fought the Turks, deprived the French of most of their Italian conquests, and took #. I. prisoner at Pavia 1525. His forces, under Charles of Bourbon, took Rome by storm and made the pope prisoner 1527. He overthrew the pirate Barbarossa at Tunis 1535, setting free 22,000 Christian slaves. His wars with the Protestant princes of Germany ended 1552; but his persecutions in the Low Countries pro the §§. for the revolt which broke out under his son. He resigned Naples to Philip II. 1556, abdicated 1558, and entered a Spanish monastery. Hough a sovereign of considerable ability and energy, his commanding position in history is due chiefly to the immense extent of his possessions; his policy was fatal either to the region where his power was greatest, or to the authority of his successors therein. Charles VI., 1685–1740. German emperor from 1711; son of Leopold I. His claim to the Spanish crown led to a war of succession there 1703–13, and he engaged in others with the Turks. The Pragmatic Sanction, 1733, aimed to secure Austria to his daughter Maria Theresa. Charles VII., 1697–1745. German emperor 1742; elector of Bavaria 1742. Hé was worsted in a contest for Austria, on behalf of his wife, a daughter of Joseph I. Charles I., of SPAIN. See CHARLEs V. (of Germany).

Charles II., 1661–1700. King of Spain 1665. He made Philip, son of the Dauphin and grandson of Louis XIV., his successor, whence the war of the Spanish Succession. Charles III., 1716–1788. King of Spain 1759; son of Philip W.; a wise and progressive ruler.—His son, CHARLEs IV., 1748– 1819, king 1788–1808, a fatuous monarch, was the tool and victim of his favorite Godoy, and later of Napoleon. Charles IX., 1550–1611. King of Sweden 1604. As regent 1592–94, and later as viceroy, he promoted Lutheranism, which contributed to the deposition of his nephew Sigismund, who was king also of Poland. He ruled well, and founded the Univ. of Gothenburg. Charles X. (GUSTAvus), 1622–1660. King of Sweden 1654; randson of Gustavus Adolphus. He defeated the Poles and anes.—His son, CHARLEs XI., 1655–1697, reformed the finances and the forces, and founded the Univ. of Lund.—His son, CHARLEs XII., 1682–1718, “a brilliant madman,” warred with Denmark, Russia, and Poland, whose king he deposed; was defeated by Peter the Great at Pultowa, July 8, 1709; was in Turkey till 1714; was attacked by Russia. Prussia, and Denmark; formed a wild plot to restore the Stuarts in Scotland; and fell while invading Norway. With him ended the prominence of Sweden in the affairs of Europe. Charles XIII., 1748–1818. King of Sweden, 1809. Charles XIV. (JEAN BAPTISTE JULES BERNADoTTE), 1764– 1844. French soldier, made a marshal by Napoleon 1804; elected crown prince of Sweden 1810; subjugated Norway 1814; commanded the allied army in n. of Germany; succeeded Charles XIII. 1818.-His grandson CHARLEs XV., 1826–1872, was king from 1859.

Charles I., OF ROUMANIA, b. 1839. A Hohenzollern; prince 1866, king 1881.

Charles, ARCHDUKE OF AUSTRIA, 1771–1847. Third son of Leopold II. As commander of the army of the Rhine 1796 and 1798 he defeated Moreau, Massena and Jourdan: effected a famous retreat from the Adige to Croatia 1805; won the battle of, Aspern, May 21–22, 1809; was defeated at Wagram July 5–6. e wrote a work on Strategy, 1814.

Charles Albert, 1798–1849. King of Sardinia 1831; defeated by the Austrians at Novara March 1849; succeeded by his son, VICTOR EMMANUEL.

Charles d’Orleans, 1391–1465. French er in England 1415–40; father of Louis XII.

Charles Edward, 1720–1788. Son of James Stuart, and grandson of James II. He entered Edinburgh Sept. 17, 1745, won a victory at Preston Pans Sept. 21, and advanced into En. gland; was defeated at Culloden April 16, 1746, and escaped after many perils. His later life showed him unfit to rule.

Charles Martel,689–741. Duke of Austrasia; mayor of the palage 714, with virtually royal power. He laid the foundation of the French kingdom, and won a decisive victory near Tours over the Saracens 732.

Charles, “THE BOLD,” 1433–1477. Duke of Burgundy 1467; a rash and fierce warrior, defeated by the Swiss at Morat 1476, and killed at Nancy. His regal possessions brought him into conflict with uis XI., who seized Burgundy on his death. Charles, MRS, ELIZABETH (RUNDLE), b. 1826, m. 1851. English poet and novelist. Three Wakings, 1859. Her Voice of Christian Life in % 1858; includes some useful translations. Her Schönberg-Cotta Family, 1863; Kitty Trecylran, 1864: Draytons and Davenants, 1866; Victory of the Vanquished, 1875, and other tales of religious history, have been highly valued. Charles, JACQUES ALEXANDRE CESAR, 1746–1823. French electrician and aeronaut. Charles, CAPE. S. point of eastern shore of Va., trance to Chesapeake B. of Va., at en Charles’ Maw. “The volume of a given mass of gas under a constant pressure varies directly as the absolute temperature,” or Vp - GT. Combining the laws of Boyle and Charles,

., PV we may write, + - R; where R is constant for each gas and

lyric poet, prison

is called the “modulus” of that gas. Though discovered by J. A. C. Charles ab. 1787, it was not known to the world until aster Dalton in 1801 and Gay Lussac in 1802 had independently discovered and announced the same law, which therefore frequently bears their names.

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Charlatan. Empiric or quack-doctor who often added astrology, palmistry and legerdemain to his other means of imposing on vulgar credulity. Greek vase-paintings caricature AEsculapius as an itinerant charlatan, and in Rome fashionable mountebanks amassed enormous fortunes. In the Middle Ages, despite papal bulls and repressive laws, the evil grew.

Charlet, NicoLAs Toussaint, 1792–1845. French painter, chiefly of battles.

Charlevoix, PIERRE FRANgois XAVIER, DE, 1682–1761. Jesuit traveler; teacher at Quebec 1705–9, and in France. In 1720–22 he went up the St. Lawrence and the Lakes, and down the Illinois and the Mississippi to the Gulf. History of New France, 1744, tr. 1865–72; also histories of Japan, St. Domingo and Paraguay.

Charlock. Brassica sinapistrum. Weed of the Mustard family, native of Europe, introduced into N. America.

Charlock, JointED. Raphamus raphanistrum. Weed of the Mustard family, native of Europe, introduced into N. America.

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Chart. Sea map showing soundings, coast line, lights, and the position of shoals, rocks and banks. They are officially prepared by the Government and sold under cost.

Chartaceous. Organs of a papery consistence or texture.

Charter. Formal writing by which a sovereign or a legislature grants special rights and privileges. In the U. S. charters are generally granted by the legislature. A State charter of a private corporation is a contract between the State and the corporation; it cannot be repealed or altered, unless the State has reserved the right to do so, without violating the U. S. Const., Art. 1, § 10.

Charterhouse. In London; , originally a Carthusian monastery, founded 1371; now a hospital, founded 1611 by Sir Thomas Sutton, with a school, removed to Godalming 1872.

Charter Oak. Tree in Hartford, Conn., in a hollow of which the colonial charter was hidden when its surrender was demanded by James II. in 1687. The tree was blown down 1856.

Charter Party. Contract, generally in writing, by which the owner, or in some cases the master, of a ship leases her, or lets her burden or a part, thereof, to a person for the transportation of goods, in consideration of payment of freight.

Chartier, ALAIN, ab. 1892—ab. 1440. French poet. Livre des quatre Dames. His prose works also have great merit. Le Curial and L’Espérance were in the interests of reform; and Le Quadrilogue Invectif was aimed against the English.

Chartists. Political reformers in England, who demanded a charter, to guarantee universal suffrage, vote by ballot, annual parliaments, with payment of the members, abolition of the property qualification (enacted 1858), and equal electoral districts. Some outrages were committed 1839 at Birmingham and Newport. The movement spent its force 1838–48.

Chartres. French city, 50 m.s. w. of Paris. Its cathedral

of Notre Dame dates from ab. 1200. The n. w. spire, 371 ft.

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Cathedral at Chartres. high, built 1507–14, is considered the most beautiful on the Continent. The cathedral is also famous for 130 windows of

13th-century, stained glass. The heir of the Orleans royal branch is styled Duke of Chartres. Pop., 1891, 23,108.

Chartreuse, LA GRANDE. Monastery in s. e. France, founded 1084, several times burned or despoiled. The green and yellow Chartreuse liqueurs are made here. They are sweetened, alcoholic decoctions of various roots and herbs, containing ab. 40 per cent alcohol.

Chartulary. Collection of charters, numerous in France, and dating from ab. 950.

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Chassepot. French infantry fire-arm, invented 1863, adopted 1867, and used in the Franco-German war 1870. It is a breech-loading rifle having four grooves, with a twist in 21.6 in., length with saber-bayonet 6 ft., weight with bayonet 10.3 lbs., and without 8.9 lbs; it fired a center-primed paper case cartridge, the obturation being imperfectly effected by a rubber packing at the end of the breech-bolt; initial velocity 1,380 f.s., range one mile, and rapidity of fire ab. 15 shots per minute. Chasseurs. French light cavalry, employed in Algeria from 1831; also light infantry. Chassis. That part of a sea-coast gun carriage which supports the top carriage and is traversed to the right or left on the traverse circles, in pointing. Chastelard, PIERRE DE Boscosei, DE, 1540–1563. French poet, whose love for Mary Stuart brought him to a Scotch gallows; subject of Swinburne's tragedy.

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1848. French author; Academician 1811; envoy to Berlin 1820, London 1822, and Rome 1828. Atala, 1801; Genius of Christianity, 1802; The Martyrs, 1810; Bonaparte and the Bourbons, 1814; Memoirs, 12 vols., 1849–50. #. was eloquent but inconsistent.

Châteauroux, MARIE ANNE, DUCHESSEDE, d. 1744. Young

est of four sisters who were successively mistresses of Louis XV.

Châtellerault. Town of France, 40 m. south of Tours, containing a government arms factory, and by the river Vienne, on which it is situated, a port for the district.

Chatham. Borough of England, on s. bank of the Medway, 15 m. above its mouth. It is a military and naval station and is elaborately fortified. It has dockyards 2 m. long and employs 5,000 men. Pop., 1891, 51,711.

Chatham Islands. 360 m. e. of New Zealand, to which they belong, 375 sq. m., discovered by brig Chatham 1791; § raising and seal fishing employ the inhabitants, 394 in

Chatham, WILLIAM PITT.EARL of, 1708–1778. English statesman, M.P. 1735. He led the Whig opposition to Walpole; became Sec. of State 1756; coöperated with Frederick the Great against the French; captured 8. drove the French from the seas; was ennobled 1766 and premier 1766–68. He opposed the treatment of the American colonies, and was denouncing the govfont when struck with mortal illness in the House of


Chatillon. Town of France, on the Seine. The Allied Powers held a congress here Feb. and March 1814. Pop., 1891, 5,127.

Chat Moss. The largest bog in England, in Lancashire, 10 sq. m. in extent, 20–30 ft. deep ; the first great bog to be reclaimed, 1800, by drainage.

Chatrian, ALEXANDRE, 1826–1890. French novelist, writing jointly with ERCKMANN (q.v.).

Chats. Some birds of families Tyrannidae, Turdidae, and Muscicapidae.

Chatsworth. In Derbyshire; seat of the Duke of Devonshire, built 1687–1706. The façade is 720 feet long. It has a noted library and a rare collection of pictures and sculptures. The conservatory is the finest in Europe, with 70,000 sq. ft. of glass, and its gardens only surpassed by Versailles. The park is 3 m. broad.

Chattahoochee. Upper water of the APPALACHIcola RIVER (q.v.). Chattanooga. City of Hamilton co., Tenn., on left bank

of Tennessee R., at s. border of the State. It has good communications and extensive manufactures. Pop., 1890, 29,100, since much increased. Here the Union forces under Gen. Rosecrans were blockaded after the battle of Chickamauga (Sept. 19– 20, 1863) by Gen. Bragg, who occupied positions on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain. General Grant assumed command, and by Oct. 28 had secured abundant supplies. Nov. 24th Hooker fought his way up LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN (q.v.). The decisive battle, including To. charge up Missionary §§ and the rout and retreat of the Confederates, occurred ov. 25.

Chattel. Any property not real estate. Movables, such as animals, grain, implements, etc., are chattels personal; determinate estates in land, e.g., a lease for 1,000 years, are chattels real. Movables so attached with freehold as to descend to the heir are not chattels. This classification is arbitrary, having its origin in the feudal system.

Chattel Mortgage. Instrument conveying a chattel upon condition that it shall be void if the mortgagor neglects a prescribed act, generally the payment of money. If the condition is not performed, the title at law becomes absolute in the mortgagee; but equity permits him to redeem. The abuse of chattel mortgages has induced legislation in many States, requiring them to be filed in a public office, unless the chattel is '... to and retained by the mortgagee.

Chatterton, THOMAS, 1752–1770. Author of the pseudoantique “Rowley” poems; called by Wordsworth “the marvelous boy, the sleepless soul that perished in his pride.” His case is one of the saddest in the history of letters. He committed suicide with arsenic.

Chaturanga. Ancient Hindu game of chess, in which the moves were made according to the throws with a die marked on four sides with the numbers 2, 3, 4 and 5. There were four players, each having his own set of men, which were ranged in the four quarters of the board of 64 squares. The pieces, which were distinguished on the four sides by the colors

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Chauvinism. Narrow, exaggerated, and pugnacious patriotism. French term, equivalent to the later English “jingoism.”

Chaw Stick. Gouamia domingensis. Climbing shrub of the natural family Rhamnaceae, native of tropical America. Its stems are used for tooth-brushes.

Chayroot. Oldenlandia umbellata. East Indian herb of the natural family Rubiaceae, cultivated for its roots, which yield a blue dye, changed by mordants to a variety of reds.

Chazars. Finnish or Tartar race, dominant in s. e. Russia ab. 700–1000. Astrakhan was their capital.

Chazy. Palaeozoic limestone, cropping out in New York and Canada, and lying near the bottom of the Trenton. See ORDOWICIAN.

Cheat. Crime of obtaining property by a deceitful and illegal practice which tends to affect the public, as by a false official certificate, a false token, false weights and measures, false personation, or by selling food known to be unwholesome. Modern legislation tends to enlarge the boundaries of this offense.

Cheat Grass. Bromus secalinus. Grass, common in wheat fields, erroneously supposed to be altered wheat; known also as Chess, in common with other grasses of the same genus.

Checa, ULPIANo, b. 1860. Spanish artist, who won the Pria: de Rome 1884. Invasion of the Barbarians, 1887; Roman Chariot Race, 1890: Attila, 1891; Redskins, 1892; Naumachia, 1894; Unlucky Meeting, 1894.

Check, or CHEQUE. Written order for money, drawn on a bank or banker, payable to a person named, or to his order, or to bearer. In legal effect it is a bill of exchange. A certi

fied check is one recognized by cashier or other competent officer by writing across the face that it is all right, or will be paid. If the holder gets it thus certified, he thereby discharges the drawer. If not presented for payment within a reasonable time, an indorser is {j but the drawer is not, except to the amount he has been injured by the delay, as by the failure of the bank.

Checkerberry. See WINTERGREEN. Checkers. See DRAUGHTS.

Checks to PopULATION. Causes that reduce natural increase of population, especially scarcity of the necessaries of life, disease, war, infanticide, and voluntary restraint from marriage or sexual intercourse.

Check-Walve. Valve to prevent any flow back of fluid. It

Locomotive Boiler Check-Walve.

lifts from its seat by excess of pressure below it, but closes when any reversal of current occurs. Smaller sizes are of brass or with special renewable alloys at the contact areas; they either lift straight, or open around a hinge-pin. They are fitted with a cap over the valve by which it can be reached for inspection or repair, and may be used either in horizontal or vertical lines of pipe.

Checquy. Division of the heraldic shield into an unlimited number of small squares by transverse horizontal and perpendicular even lines; sound in all countries and in all periods.

Cheeks. Inclosing walls of a mineral vein, when vertical or nearly so. Cheeks. Parts of the artillery carriage which support the

trunnions, and between which the gun is mounted.

Checse. When rennet is added to milk at a temperature of 86°F., or a little less, the casein assumes a solid form, and in so doing incloses a large part of the fat globules of the milk. The resulting mass is then heated, to further solidify the casein, separated from the whey, and pressed into solid form. In a few days certain fermentation processes begin and continue for several weeks, after which the casein is found to have become again more or less soluble. This is cheese, one of the most concentrated and nutritious forms of human food known. It consists of nearly equal parts of casein fat and water. Many varieties are known, varying greatly in flavor and texture, from variations in the quality of the milk and the foods producing it, and more especially in processes of manufacture, particularly of curing.

Cheddar cheese, the most common form, takes its name from a village in Somerset, and is largely made both in Great Britain and the U. S. Stilton is an English cheese, made from milk to which cream has been added. Camembert and Brie are soft French cheeses. Roquefort, also French, is largely made from goat's milk, and is cured in caves, where a peculiar fermentation is induced by certain vegetable moulds. The peculiar character of the Swiss or Gruyère cheese is supposed to be due to Alpine grasses upon which the cows feed.

Edam and Gouda cheeses are made in Holland, and are hard and intended for long keeping. In Limburger a putrefactive fermentation is induced and then checked when the desired flavors have been produced. In many European countries cheese largely takes the place of meat as an article of food, particularly among the poorer classes. See DAIRY PRODUCTs.

Cheeses. See MALLOW. Cheetah. See FELIDAE.

Cheever, EzekiEL, 1615–1708. One of three founders of New Haven, Conn., 1638; head of Boston Latin School 1671. His Latin Accidence was long in use.

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Cheiroptera (BATs). Order of deciduate-placental mammals possessing true powers of flight, to effect which a patagium, including the tail and limbs and the fingers of the hand (except the thumb), is always present. The chest is strong with a sternal keel, and the scapula is large for the attachment of the muscles principally concerned in flight. The bones of the arm are long, especially the radius, the ulna is rudimentary. The metacarpals and phalanges included in the web are extremely long, the index digit sometimes consists of the metacarpal only. The medius is the longest digit. None of these possess claws as do the thumb and toes. The fibula is incomplete. A long spur or calcar extends backward from the oscalcis for supporting the web near the tail. The organs of vision are not well developed, and bats fly usually at night. The ears are large, but touch is the sense most developed, blinded bats fly as well as others, avoiding obstacles. During the day they retire to caves and crevices, where they hang suspended by the hind feet. In temperate and cold regions they hibernate. They walk with difficulty, and are not as active in flight as most birds. They have one or two young at a time, which are carried with them during flight and are suckled by a pair of pectoral mammae. They first appear in the Eocene, but offer no special peculiarities. The dentition is complete. There are two groups. See BAT.

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| Cheever, GEORGE BARRELL, D.D., 1807–1890. Reformer,


Chelonia (TURTLEs). Sub-class of Reptilia, having short and stout body inclosed in a case consisting of a dorsal arched carapace and a flat ventral plastron united at the sides, but leaving anterior and posterior apertures for the protrusion of head, tail and limbs. The dorsal vertebrae have expanded spinous processes, are firmly anchylosed to one another, and bear broad ribs, also united, and the whole fused with the dermal plates of the case, which is again covered by horny or leathery epidermis. . There are eight neck vertebrae without ribs, and a skull of bones closely united, without teeth in the jaws, but with a horny beak instead. A urinary bladder is present; breathing is effected by swallowing air into the lungs. According to Agassiz, in N. A. Marsh Tortoises copulation is effected twice annually, and begins in the seventh year. Eggs are laid once annually, beginning in the eleventh year. The principal families are: Cheloniadae (Sea Turtles), Triomycidae (Mud Tortoises), Emydidae (Terrapins), and Testudimidae or Chersidae (Land Tortoises), Chelyalidae, Cinosternidae, Chelydridae, and Spargidae.

Cheloniadae (SEA TURTLEs). Family of Chelonia, having flat carapace and often cartilaginous plastron between which the flipper-like feet and huge head cannot be retracted. There are no nails or separate toes, and the fore feet are much the larger. The Green Turtle (Chelone midas) is much esteemed as food, with its eggs. It lives in or near the Gulf Stream, feeds on the roots of eelgrass (Zostera), comes ashore at night, during May, and lays nearly 100 eggs, which hatch in six weeks; the laying is usually repeated several times every two weeks, near the first nest. This Turtle may attain a weight of over 800

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