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mine-gallery floor and either on one side or at the extremity

of the gallery. Chamber. In coal mining, a working-place where coal is

excavated between pillars. See BORD and BREAST.

Chamber, IMPERIAL. Court instituted 1495 to decide questions arising between the independent members of the German Empire. It ceased with the Empire 1806.

Chambered Organ. Chamber in the center dorsal plate of Crinoids, which is inclosed in nervous tissue and sends prolongations down the stalk and along the axes of the arms. The nerves that accompany it are motor. The nerve strands of the ambulacral groove are perhaps mainly sensory.

Chamberlain. Officer, usually under a monarch; originally treasurer. His duties are chiefly domestic and social.

Chamberlain, DANIEL HENRY, b. 1835. Attorney-gen. of S. C. 1868–72; gov. 1875–76. Chamberlain, Joseph, b. 1836. Mayor of Birmingham 1873–76; M. P. since 1876; cabinet minister under Gladstone 1880 and 1886; Liberal-Unionist since 1886. Chamberlain, Joshua LAwRENCE, LL.D., b. 1828. General in the Civil War; Gov. of Me. 1867–71; prof. Bowdoin Coll. from 1856, and its pres. 1871–83. Chamberlin, THOMAs CRowder, LL.D., b. 1843. Prof. of Geology Univ. Chicago: chief of the Glacial Division of the U. S. Geological Survey; formerly pres. Univ. Wis. and State Geologist. Reports on Geology of Wisconsin, on the Kettle Moraine, and numerous papers on glacial geology. Chamber Music. Instrumental compositions in the severe forms, trios, quartets, quintets, etc. Formerly the term signified all music not intended for ch. or theater; royalty being the chief promoter of music, concerts took place in the king's chamber, the musicians being servants in the royal household.

Chambers. Place where judicial functions are exercised which are not required to be performed in open court. Whether an act is done “at chambers,” depends on its nature, not on the locality.

Chambers, John DAVID, b. 1805. Latin hymns.

Chambers, Robert, LL.D., 1802–1871. Scottish publisher, author of a paper on Glacial Phenomena in Scotland and Parts of England, and of a work on ancient sea-margins. His Vestiges of Creation, 1844, long anonymous for prudential reasons, but now acknowledged, was the first popular account of Lamark's doctrine of development, and its publication formed an epoch in the history of evolution.—His brother, WILLIAM, LL.D., 1800–1883, his partner from 1832, wrote several books. The firm pub. many useful works, among them Chambers' Journal, Miscellamy, and Encyclopedia. Chambers, SIR WILLIAM, 1726–1796. English architect, designer of Somerset House, “the greatest architectural work of the reign of George III.” Chambersburg. Capital of Franklin co., Pa.; burned by Confederates under McCausland, July 30, 1864. Pop., 1890, 7.863. Chambers of Commerce. See BOARDS OF TRADE. Chambertin. Red wine of Burgundy, famous as being the favorite of both Louis XIV. and Napoleon. The grape is grown on the hills of the Côte d'Or between Dijon and Chalons. See BURGUNDY WINES. Chambly. Canadian fort, on Sorel River, captured Oct. 18, 1775, by Continental troops. Chambord, HENRI CHARLES DIEUDONNE, COMTE DE, 1820–

English translator of

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who abdicated in his favor July 1830, when Louis ...P. was the choice of the people. He held the obsolete views of his ancestors and maintained a mimic court. The Comte de Paris succeeded to his claims; he is the grandson of Louis Philippe, of the Orleans, the younger branch of the House of Bourbon.

Chambre Ardente. French court, 1535–1680. Chiefly occupied in sentencing heretics to the stake; most active under Henry II.

Chambre Introuvable. French Chamber of Deputies, July 1815–16; so called from its excessive monarchical zeal.

Chamfer. In architecture, cutting off the square corner of a beam, or working of it into a moulding.

Chamfer-Stop. Termination of a chamfer, either by a plain face, by the section of its moulding, or by a carved ornament.

Chameleon Mineral. Potassium manganate; so called because under certain conditions it changes from green to purple, and vice versa.

Chamfort, NICOLAs, 1741–1794. French writer, best in maxims and anecdotes. Though he joined the Jacobins, his bitter wit roused their enmity, and to escape the guillotine he committed suicide.

Chamier, FREDERIC, 1796– 1870. English naval novelist. Ben Brace, 1836.

Chamisso, ADELBERT VON, 1781–1838. German lyric poet and novelist. Peter Schlemihl, 1813, tr. 1843.


Chamomile. Plants of the genera Anthem is and Matricaria of the Composite family; mostly natives of the Old World. Amthe m is mobilis produces the Chamomile flowers of commerce. —In medicine, used as a bitter tonic.

Chamomile, WILD. Herbs of the genus Matricaria, natural family Compositae, natives of the northern hemisphere.

Chamouni, VALE OF. Aline valley surrounded by Mont lanc, Mont Breven, and the Aiguilles Rouges, celebrated for its wonderful beauty, famous in literature, and especially as inspiring Coleridge's Hymn before Sunrise.

Champagne Wine. This wine is produced in department of the Marne, mentioned below, good wine only in the prefectures of Rheims and Epernay. It is said to have been invented by Dom Perignon, the cellarman of the Benedictine monastery of Hautvillers, in 1688. It is a mixture or cuvée of wines. The grape juice is cleared in vats and then fermented in barrels. At Christmas it is drawn off and the mixture of different wines made in a large vat. Four-fifths of black grape wine is mixed with one-fifth white grape wine. This requires great skill, as the quality of the finished wine depends upon the selection of the wines. The wine is now placed in barrels and the fermentation continued. In four weeks the wine is drawn off and fined or clarified in barrels with isinglass. It is drawn off again to casks and again fined, after which it is bottled, in March or April, and the bottles placed horizontally in racks, there fermenting for eighteen months to three years. The sediment from the fermentation collects on the lower side, and at the close of the fermentation is removed by inclining the bottles, corks downward, and by turning them, causing the sediment to settle upon the cork. In two months this is accomplished, the sediment disgorged and the dosage of sugar in old wine, brandy or alcohol injected. This gives sweetness and, by fermentation, carbonic acid gas. Brut wine has no sugar introduced. Champagne contains from 14 to 15 per cent alcohol, 24 to 28 grs. sugar per oz., and acid equivalent to 4 to 5 grs. tartaric acid per oz. This acid is mostly malic with a little tartaric and acetic. Of the 80,000,000 bottles of wine produced annually in the Marne, only one-fourth is used for effervescing wine, the rest being mostly used for red wine and some for white. In the year ending April 1, 1895, there were sold for consumption in France 4,908,281 bottles, exported 16,129,374, and sold to merchants in the department 3,402,293, a total of 24,439,748 bottles. There remained in the hands of merchants of Champagne 108,531,393 bottles. The importation of Champagne into U. S. in 1894 was 3,189,156 bottles.

Camomile (Anthemis).

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Champagne. Ancient province of France; part of the been to some extent preceded by the English Dr. Young, from Frankish Empire. After ab. 1100 its dukes were vassals of the his wholly original discovery that the language used was the French kings. It came to the French crown by marriage 1284, parent of the Coptic; hence, through the study of Coptic, the

possibility of reading old Egyptian. Grammaire Egyptienne,

3 vols., 1836–41; Monuments de l'Egyote et de la Nubie, 5 vols., Cwionary livet


Champollion-Figeac, JEAN JACQUES, 1778–1867. French hom

antiquary and librarian of Fontainebleau under Napoleon III. Chronicles of the Greek Kings of Egypt, 1819; Treatise on Archæology, 1843.

Chance. Causeless or, more properly, undesigned connec

tions between phenomena; opposed to the notion of purpose, ismer smbours.

| but not to cause. See PROBABILITY.

Chancel. Railed space surrounding the altar; also called


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was united to France 1328, and was the scene of warfare 1792,
1814, and 1870. It is now divided into the departments of Ar-
dennes, Marne, Upper Marne and Aube.

Champaigne, PHILIPPE DE, 1602–1674. Portrait painter of
Flemish birth, prominent at Paris.
Champ de Mars. Open space in Paris on left bank of the

Choir and Chancel of the Abbey of St. Denis. Seine. The Franks held their assemblies here. It has been the scene of notable gatherings and festivals, and of several Inter Sanctuary; much more jealously secluded from tbe laity in the national Exhibitions, 1867, 1878, 1889.

Eastern than in the Western Ch. Champerty. Maintaining a suit for one of the parties in Chancellor. High officer of a State, university, or other consideration of a bargain for a share of his recovery. At com- organization, with functions varied and partly legal. The mon law, such a maintainer was liable to a criminal prosecu- British Lord Chancellor is the most prominent surviving tion, and to a civil action for damages by the opposing litigant. example. The champertous bargain was unenforceable. In most of the

Chancellorsville. In Spottsylvania co., Va. Here, May U. S. it is neither a crime nor a tort.

2-5, 1863, the Union forces under Hooker were defeated, losing Champfleury. See FLEURY, J. F. F. H.

17,000 out of 132,000 men; Lee lost 13,000 out of ab. 60,000. Champion Hills. In Hinds co., Miss.; scene of a Union Chancery, COURT OF. Named from the chancellor or previctory by Grant and McClernand, May 16, 1863.

siding judge. It originated in the inability of the common law Champion Lode. Largest and most persistent of several

courts to do complete justice in many cases, and developed into lodes that had a common origin.

the most important judicial tribunal in England. See EQUITY. Champlain, SAMUEL DE; 1567-1635. French explorer. He

Chancre. Ulcerative process of the skin or mucous memfirst visited Canada 1603, began the settlement of Quebec 1608, | branes, which is the initial lesion of syphilis, and which may

nd was goy. 1612-28 and 1633–35. Voyages to New France. | appear at any time between ten days and two months after 1632.

exposure or inoculation. It is painless, has a hard parchmentChamplain, LAKE. Between N. Y. and Vt., projecting

like base, and its secretion gives rise to a similar process when

inoculated upon another, but not upon the individual from whom into Canada; drained into the St. Lawrence by Richelieu R. Area 488 sq. m.; elevation 101 ft. It was discovered by Cham

it has been taken. The neighboring glands usually enlarge, plain 1608, was the scene of Arnold's defeat Oct. 13, 1776, and

are painless, and do not as a rule suppurate. See SYPHILIS. of McDonough's naval victory near Plattsburgh Sept. 11, 1814.

Chancroid. Ulcer, contracted by impure sexual congress, Champlin, JAMES TIFT, D.D., 1811-1882. Prof. Waterville

which discharges pus freely, which latter, inoculated upon the Coll., Me., 1841-57; pres. 1857–72; author of classical and other

person from whom it is, or upon another, gives rise to a similar

sore. The neighboring glands enlarge as a rule, are painful, and textbooks.

generally suppurate. No constitutional symptoms follow this Champlin, JOHN DENISON, b. 1834. American editor of

disease, and it is only dangerous on account of the amount of cyclopædias and juvenile books. Painters and Painting, 1888 ; | tissue which may be destroyed if it is neglected. Music and Musicians, 1888.

Chandler, CHARLES FREDERICK, M.D., LL.D., b. 1836. Prof. Champney, JAMES WELLS, b. 1843. American genre of Chemistry, 'Union Coll. 1857; Columbia School of Mines 1864; painter, working largely in pastel.

Coll. Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y., 1872; Columbia Coll. 1877; Champollion, JEAN FRANCOIS, 1791–1832. French Egypt- College Pharmacy, N. Y., 1866; Pres. N. Y. Board of Health tologist, famed for deciphering the hieroglyphics in 1821. In | 1873-83; ed. with his brother, American Chemist, 1870–77.--His this we separate his reading of the characters in which he had brother, WILLIAM HENRY, Ph.D., b. 1841, has been prof. at

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Change of State. Passage of a body from one of the three states of matter to another; i.e., from the solid to the liquid, or from the liquid to the gaseous. It is always accompanied by thermal changes which vary in different cases, and are dependent upon the nature of the substance under consideration. E.g., water is formed from ice by the expenditure of 79.2 calories of heat for each kilogram. This is called the heat of liquefaction of water. The heat of vaporization in the case of steam is 537 calories. Changing-House. Place where miners change their clothing when going to work underground. Chank Shell. Favorite ornament of the Hindoo women, worn as bangles, etc. Enormous prices are paid for some varieties which come from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They are Turbinella species of mollusks. Chanler, MRs. AMELIE (RIves), b. 1863, m. 1888. Virginia


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novelist. The Quick or the Dead?, 1888; Barbara Dering, 1892; also dramas, Herod, 1889; Athelwold, 1893. Channel. Bed of a canal or trough for conveying water.

The most economic proportion for the rectangular cross-section of a channel is when its width is double its depth.

Channel, ENGLISH. Between England and France; in width from 21 to 140 m.

Channeling Machine. Apparatus for quarrying stone,

Channeling Machine.

consisting of vertical chisels which cut a narrow channel several feet in length and depth around the portions to be removed; used in excavating rock to form a canal or railroad cut; of recent introduction, but found very efficient when large masses of rock are to be excavated.

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Channel Iron. Rolled wrought iron or steel section consisting of two flanges connected by a web on one side; used in bridges and structural work. The heaviest channels are 15 in. in depth and weigh ab. 200 lbs. per linear yard.

Channel Islands. Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, and others, n. w. of France; belonging to England since the Norman conquest. Total area 65 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 92,272.

Channels, OFFICIAL. Those through which official correspondence is transmitted in the military service. Communications from an inferior to a superior, or vice versa, pass through the intermediate commanders. Official correspondence passes through the adjutant-gen. or adjutant of the command; chiefs of bureaus of the War Department correspond directly with their subordinate officers upon matters relating to the duties of the bureau.

Channel Tunnel. Partially executed work 23 m. in length between Dover and Sangatte near Calais, to avoid the horrors of the Channel passage. Begun in 1876 it has been stopped on account of possible military complications, only one-tenth being completed. It is estimated to cost $20,000,000.

Channing, WILLIAM ELLERY, D.D., 1780–1842. Pastor in Boston from 1803; most eminent pulpit orator of his school, and most saintly and revered of American Unitarians. Of that body he led the “orthodox” or “evangelical”, wing, as Theodore Parker did the radical side. He wrote little beyond sermons, but his influence was wide and deep.–His Memoir, 3 vols., 1848, is by his nephew, WILLIAM HENRY, 1810–1884. —Another nephew, named from him, b. 1818, pub. 5 vols. of verse, and Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist, 1873.

Chansar. East Indian game known as pachisi, played with three dice instead of cowrie shells. Two kinds of dice are used, consisting of square prisms of bone or ivory ab. 2 in. long, or similar prisms, much smaller and sharpened at both ends. These dice are marked on the sides with dots. “one,” “two,” “six,” and “five,” and are rolled from the hand. The game is of great antiquity, descending from the divinatory arrow games. It is one of the steps in the evolution of Chess.

Chanson de Roland. Anglo-Norman epic ab. 1090. author unknown; “greatest of Old French poems.”

Chansons de Gestes. Narrative É. of 11th century, on historical subjects; earliest form of French literature.

Chant. Melodic formula for the recitation of psalms and canticles; formerly consisting of three parts, Intonation, Mediation, and Termination, or closing cadence, separated by recitations on the dominant of the mode. The source of a chant is indicated by adjectives like Gregorian, Anglican, Gallican, etc. This form of Ch. music was developed by Ambrose and Gregory.

Chantilly. Estate and castle 23 miles n., n. e. of Paris, famed as the magnificent residence of the Princes of Condé where royalty was frequently entertained. Demolished during the French Revolution, it was afterward bought and rebuilt by the Duc d'Aumale, who turned it into an art-palace and presented it to the French nation in 1886. Chantilly. In Fairfax co., Va.; scene of a battle, Sept. 1, 1862. Union loss 1,300; Confederate, 800. Chantrey, SIR FRANCIS LEGATT, 1781–1841. tor, R. A. 1818, knighted 1837. Chantry. Small chapel forming part of a church, to provide masses for the dead. Originally a memorial containing the tomb of the founder. Chanute, OCTAVE, b. 1832. French-American civil engineer and writer on railroad construction and on aeronautics. Aerial Navigation, 1893. Chanzy, ANTOINE EUGENE ALFRED, 1823–1883. French general commanding 2d Army of the Loire Dec. 1870; defeated at Le Mons Jan. 1871; gov. of Algeria 1878–79; life senator 1875; ambassador to Russia 1879–81. Chaos. In mythology the infinite void which existed before the creation of the world, from which arose the gods, men, and all things. Chap-Books. Small volumes sold by peddlers, prevalent in Europe ab. 1600–1800. Chapeau en fer. French term, equivalent to the English gossan or gozzan, ferruginous quartz. Chapel. Smaller and subordinate house of worship, attached to and dependent on a parish church; or one used by dissenters from an established Ch.; also an apartment in a public or private building devoted exclusively to worship. Chapelain, JEAN, 1595–1674. French epic and lyric poet, satirized by Boileau. La Pucelle, 1656.

English sculp

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Chapin, EDWIN HUBBELL, D.D., LL.D., 1814–1880. Uni- | Americans under Gen. Scott, who entered the city of Mexico versalist pastor in N. Y. from 1848; one of the most eloquent the next day. preachers and lecturers of his time.

Char. See SALVELINUS. Chaplain. Clergyman attached to an army post or regi Characeæ. Class of plants of aquatic habit, placed in the ment, to a vessel, jail, college, or nobleman's household. In

system between Mosses and Algæ, usually regarded as be. the U. S. Army he has the rank of captain of infantry. The longing to the sub-kingdom Thallophyta. Many species gire law provides for 30 post chaplains and 4 chaplains for the 4 off sulphuretted hydrogen in decaying and are very offencolored regiments; viz., the 9th and 10th of cavalry, and the sive. They extract calcium carbonate from

sive. They extract calcium carbonate from the water and be24th and 25th of infantry.

come covered with it as an incrustation. Commonly called Chaplin, CHARLES JOSHUA, 1825–1891. French portrait brittleworts or stoneworts. painter and decorator, of English parentage.

Characin. Substance contained in the Characece and in Chapman, ALVAN WENTWORTH, M.D., b. 1809. American certain Algae and Palmellaceae, which has an extremely fetid botanist. Flora of the Southern U, S., 1860.

odor, resembling that of sulphuretted hydrogen. Chapman, GEORGE, 1557–1634. Eng. dramatist. More suc Character. Nature of a man, looked upon as a composite cessful in translating Homer. Iliad, 1598-1611; Odyssey, 1614-15. of moral qualities of special kinds and relative strength, and as Chapman, JOHN GADSBY, 1808–1889. American painter

the result of the whole series of influences and training to who spent much time in Italy. His Baptism of Pocahontas is

which he has been subjected. in the Capitol at Washington.

Character. In Biology, features of an organism or group Chapone, MRS. HESTER (MULSO), 1727-1801, m. 1760. of organisms which distinguish it from others. Eng. author. Improvement of the Mind, 1772; Works, 4 v., 1807. Characteristic. Integral part of a logarithm. In comChappe, CLAUDE, 1760-1805. French inventor of a tele

mon logarithms, adding one to the characteristic multiplies the

number corresponding to the logarithm by ten: the characterisgraph 1792. Chapped Hands. Inflammation or chilblain, caused

tic thus determines the order of the number in the general scale. by exposure to cold; sometimes eczema.

Charade. Puzzle which divides a word into syllables and Chappell, WILLIAM, 1809-1888. English music publisher;

| indicates each ("my first," etc.), and then the whole, by some ed. Popular Music of Olden Time, 1855–59. Hist. Music, 1874.

relation or resemblance. This may be dramatized in acted

charades. Chapsal, CHARLES PIERRE, 1788–1858. Author, with F. Noel,

Charadriidæ (PLOVERS). Family of Grallatores, having of a most successful French grammar, 1823.

| thick head, short neck, and hard edged beak of medium length, Chaptal, JEAN ANTOINE, COMTE DE CHANTELOUP, 1756–1832.

long legs with toes united at bases, the hind toe small and
above the ground-level, or wanting. The wings are well

Charadromorphæ. See GRALLÆ.
Charbon. The disease ANTHRAX (q.v.).

Charcoal. Made by heating wood in a closed vessel with-
out admittance of air, so that the water and volatile matters
it contains are driven off, leaving the fixed carbon and ash.
This may be done in large ovens or retorts and the products
of the distillation condensed; or else the wood is charred in an
open pile, the heat developed by the complete combustion of
part of the wood being used to char the rest. The latter
method is the original one used in the forests by the char-
coal burners, and is conducted as follows: a level piece of
ground is selected in a sheltered spot, and in the center a large
stake is driven. Around this the pieces of wood in ab. 4-foot
lengths are piled, either
on end or flat, the spaces
between the large pieces
being filled with small
branches, twigs,etc.(fig.

1). A pile may be 20 to 60 Jean Antoine Chaptal. diameter,and 5 to12 French chemist and manufacturer: Minister of the Interior | ft. high. The outside is 1801-4; ennobled 1811. Chemistry Applied to the Arts, 1806.

covered with wet leaves Chapter-House. Room or building in which the govern

and earth. The stake

in the center is then ing body of a cathedral or abbey-church transacted the busi

pulled out, leaving a ness of the corporation. In a cathedral it was often of elabo

chimney, into which rate design and costly workmanship.

some shavings and light Chapu, HENRI, 1833-1891. French sculptor. His Mercury wood are dropped and Fig. 1.-Charcoal Pile; vertical section. and Joan of Arc are in the Louvre.

fired. Openings to let in air are now made around the outside Chapultepec. Mexican fort, taken Sept. 13, 1847, by the edge of the pile against the ground.

The fire burns very slowly, at first giving off a thin, yellow smoke, which consists of the volatile matter from the wood. After several days the smoke becomes gray, and then the openings admitting air are closed and the pile left to burn slowly with a very small admission of air, such as leaks in through the cracks in the outer covering. The pile shrinks as the wood chars, and needs continual watching to prevent it firing and being entirely consumed. Toward the end of the charring the openings around the edge are again opened to draw the draft that way and char the outer layers of wood. Small piles are carbonized in 6 to 14 days; large piles require a month or more. Wood gives 15 to 25 per cent of its weight of charcoal, according to the slowness with which it is charred, and the care with which the pile is extinguished. Sometimes the pile is made rectangular, with stakes around the sides to keep it in shape (fig. 2). These methods of charring, while cheap and capable of being conducted out in the forest, have the

| disadvantage of allowing Fig.2.-Charcoal-burning; rectangular heap. Chapultepec

| all the volatile matter to escape. In the U. S. charcoal-burn

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ing is done in kilns connected with condensers. The ovens are either rectangular, cylindrical, or conical, with a capacity of 50 to 100 cords of wood, yielding 1,000 to 4,000 bushels of charcoal. The wood is fired and part allowed to burn in order to char the rest, as in an open pile, but the gases i..."; off are all condensed. Both rectangular and cylindrical kilns are hard to keep air-tight, and have :TITT

been j displaced by o -
the conical one (fig. 3). -
Sometimes the retorts
are made small and the
heat applied from with-
out, thus allowing a
more perfect condensa-
tion of the volatile mat-
ters, but producing an
inferior quality of char-
coal. In this case, the
gases coming from the
condensers are burnt to
heat the retorts. The
volatile matters c on-
densed contain tar, pyro-
ligneous acid, naphtha,

Fig. 3.-Charcoal Kiln; vertical section. wood spirits, acetic acid, and ammonia salts, and are often of more value than the charcoal obtained. Charcoal is very light because of the porous structure, but its density in powder is 14 to 2. Light woods give the lightest

charcoal. The chemical composition is 90 to 95 per cent of carbon and 5 to 10 of ash, when fresh, but it can absorb 10 to 20 per cent of moisture on standing in the air. Practical use has shown that an equal volume of hard charcoal produces a greater heat than soft coal, or, that charcoal is equal to about 14 times its volume of soft coal in heating power; also that it is 3 to 4 times that of an equal weight of wood. In evaporative effect, charcoal will turn into steam 8 to 12 times its own weight of water. When freshly burned and finely powdered, it is used to relieve accumulations of gas in the stomach and to correct the odor arising from offensive wounds, being incorporated in poultices or o in small bags which are loosely packed around the Wound. In the powdered state it is used for the manufacture of filters. It absorbs gases and coloring matter, and is used for the purification of alcoholic liquors, and as a disinfectant.

Charcot, JEAN MARTIN, 1825–1893. French physician, writer and investigator of nervous diseases, hypnotism, metallopathy and hysterical diseases.

Chardin, SIR John, 1643–1713. French traveler, resident in London from 1681. Persia and the E. Indies, 1686–1711.

Chareae. Order of Characeae.
Chares. Greek sculptor of the Rhodian Colossus, ab. 300 B.C.

Chares. Greek historical writer, from Mytilene; employed by Alexander ab. 320 B.C. Fragments of his book remain.

Charge. (1) Obligation put upon property or a person, as by a testator upon land which he wills, or upon a devisee. (2) Accusation of wrong-doing: in some jurisdictions confined to a formal, legal accusation by complaint, or indictment. (3) Instructions by a judge to a jury as to the rules of law which should govern them in deciding a case.

Charge. Amount of explosive compound required to produce the intended effect in military mining. The charge coefficient is a constant determined for each kind of explosive by experiment. It is obtained by dividing the weight of the charge which produces a maximum crater by the square of the radius of explosion.

Chargé d’Affaires. Diplomatist subordinate to an ambassador, and sometimes taking his place.

Chariot. Ancient two-wheeled, poled vehicle, curved in front and open behind, and with a this or dashboard of corresponding shape... It was adapted for standing; drawn by two or more horses. The only surviving example is that found in a Theban tomb ab. 1400 B.C., and now in Florence, but pictures of such vehicles are common in Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and Roman reliefs and paintings. There is also a marble chariot and pair in the Vatican. They were used mainly for war and §. †. The Celtic nations used them armed with scythes. e BIGA.

Charities, PUBLIC. Many of the States have Boards of Charities, who have charge of the State hospitals and who also recommend the State contributions to incorporated charities. Counties, cities, etc., also have commissioners of charity, who have charge of public hospitals and the poor-houses, and who also distribute aid to needy persons.

Charity. Gift to a general public use, which extends to the poor as well as to the rich. It will be sustained and pro

tected by the courts if consistent with local laws, provided it is

specific and the intention of the donor can be effectuated. Charity. Love for mankind or individuals, as it determines

the will toward benefiting them.

Charity Organization Society. This form of charity was inaugurated in London in 1869, and has extended over Great Britain and the U. S. Its object is to improve the condition of the poor, by investigation of the cases, suppressing professional begging, and securing co-operation among the charitable organizations and individuals.

Charity, SISTERs of. Order founded 1629 by Vincent de Paul and Mme. Legras; confirmed by the pope 1668; devoted to benevolent works, and universally esteemed.

Chariwari. Noisy and derisive demonstration common in France in past ages, usually against widows who remarried; surviving in the U.S. as “Callithumpian serenade,” “shiveree” or “skimmelton.”

Charlemagne, or CHARLES THE GREAT, 742–814. Son of Pepin the Short; ruler of the Franks from 772, founder of the Holy Roman Empire. He waged incessant wars with Saracens, Saxons and Lombards, promoted religion, learning, agriculture, commerce and the arts, and was crowned at Rome Dec. 25, 800. His empire extended from the Ebro to the Elbe; was securely i. valiantly defended, and sagaciously governed; it aimed to fuse the Latin and Teutonic elements of w. Europe by aid of the Church.

Charleroi. Town of Belgium, besieged by the Prince of Orange 1672 and 1677; taken by the French 1693 and 1794. Many battles were fought near it. Pop., 1891, 22,551. See FLEURUS.

Charles I. (STUART). 1600–1649. King of England 1625; son of James I. His exalted views of the royas prerogative involved him in a contest with Parliament; his arbitrary taxation, religious persecution, and constant duplicity, caused civil war; he was defeated, tried and beheaded as a “tyrant, traitor and

Charles I. of England.

murderer” by the Independents, who through the army had gained supremacy. His private virtues were obscured by his public vices; he was the victim of sincere, incorrigible, and fanatical devotion to theories which, largely by his means, were proved untenable.

Charles II. (STUART), 1630–1685. King of England 1660: son of Charles I.; in exile 1645; crowned in Scotland 1651; defeated by Cromwell at Dunbar and Worcester; restored 1660. He displayed, with more prudence, the absolutist tendencies of his family; truckled to France; and died in the R. C. faith. His court was notoriously dissolute.

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