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parrot's beak, and a radula having medium teeth flanked by Ceratophyllaceæ. Natural family of Aowering plants, three hooks on each side. Around the mouth is a circle of of the class Angiospermae and sub-class Dicotyledones, includ. arms, bearing suckers, or of tentacles. A funnel, made from ing 1 genus and ab. 5 species, all aquatic, found in all parts of the fusion of structures homologous with the epipodium (or the world; the Hornwort family. fins) of Pteropods, is present on the ventral side. The posterior Ceratosa. See KERATOSA. surface is ventral and contains the mantle cavity, in which are two (or four) gills, and the openings of the excretory organs, characters, a skin like that of a crocodile, and carnivorous

Ceratosaurus. Horned reptile having some bird-like A shell may be present and external, or may be rudimentary habits; found by Marsh in the Upper Jurassic of the w. States. and internal. The skin contains chromatophores. The ganglia are supported by cartilages. The sexes are separate; fertiliza

Cerberus. Three-headed dog with serpent's tail, which tion is effected by means of a hectocotylized arm of the male, guarded the entrance to the under world. Fetching this mon. bearing spermatophores. Some are used for food. They are often of large size. Two orders are included, the Tetrabranchiata and the Dibranchiata. In a broad sense the above term also includes the Pteropoda.

Cephalostegite. Part of the Branchiostegite lying in front of the cervical groove, in the carapace of lobsters.

Cephalota. Group of Dendrocolous worms, possessing distinct heads.

Cephalothorax. Anterior and main part of the body of crabs and lobsters, in which the head and thorax are solidly anchylosed together.

Cerambycidæ. See TETRAMERA.

Ceramiaceæ. Order of red Algæ, comprising many of the more delicate and beautiful species.

Ceramics. Art of pottery-making, and oldest of all the arts; for the rudest savage must soon have artificially applied the natural process of rain-softened and sun-burned clay. The potter's wheel appears on the Theban monuments, having probably traveled westward from China. In historical research the evidence afforded by ceramics is invaluable since it was the means by which antiquity honored its dead. By the pottery of the tombs we learn the life of forgotten nations, and trace the geographical limits of successive races and empires. The potter's art was highly honored: there was a potter to the King of Judah, Numa established a potter's college in Rome and the Chinese Emperors multiplied decrees for the production of impossible porcelains and richly rewarded new varieties. European royal patronage came much later. Majolica was introduced by the Dukes of Urbino, and we owe

Cerberus. the ware of Palissy to the encouragement of Henry II., Diana of Poitiers and Catherine de Medicis. In the 18th cent. Maria i ster to earth without force of arms formed the 12th labor of

Hercules. Theresa, Frederick the Great, Elizabeth and Catherine II. established at their own expense porcelain manufactures in

Cercaria. See DISTOMUM. their respective dominions; by the influence of Pompadour Cercopithecidæ. See CYNOPITHECIDÆ. and Dubarry over Louis XV., Sèvres was brought to perfec Cerci. Appendage borne by the 10th abdominal seg. tion and Wedgwood produced Queen's Ware under the patron- ment of the grasshopper. They lie on the external side of the age of Queen Charlotte. See POTTERY.

podical plates. Ceramidium. Sacs containing the spores in certain of the

Cerdic. Founder of the kingdom of Wessex 495, and of red Algæ.

the royal house of England; opposed by Arthur. Ceraospongia (CERATOSPONGIA). Sponges with a skeleton Cere, or CEROMA. Membrane at the base of the upper of horny fibers like the common bath sponge (Spongia and Eu- mandibles of birds, in which the nostril opens. spongia). Sand-grains may be imbedded in the fibers. They are all marine, and found in warm seas, as in the Mediterranean

Cerealin. Nitrogenous body found in the bran or husk of and the West Indian seas. Sponges are prepared for market many cereals, which has the property of converting starch by being torn from the bottom by tongs and exposed out of into dextrin 40° C. to 70° C. water until death ensues; then the sponge is replaced in salt

Cerebellum. Portion of the brain in the hinder and water until the animal matter is removed; then they are taken lower part of the skull, beneath the cerebrum and behind the up, dried, bleached, and trimmed. The bleaching is best ef- medulla oblongata, consisting of two connected lateral halves, fected by peroxide of hydrogen or permanganate of potassium. indented with transverse, somewhat curved, closely placed Cerargyrite (HORN SILVER). AgCl. Silver chloride con

furrows. It consists internally of white nerve tissue, and extaining 75 per cent of silver; highly valued as an ore.

ternally of gray, so arranged that its sections resemble the Cerasin. Gum of the cherry. Little soluble in water, but foliage of the Arbor-Vitæ. A now abandoned view was that it

was the seat of the sexual instinct, but all that is known of it swells to a viscous condition.

is that it controls the balancing of the body and possibly assists Cerata. Division of Arthropods, including the groups in the co-ordination of muscular movements. usually classed as Tracheata or Insecta, i.e., Hexapoda, Myria

Cerebral Ganglia. Masses of gray nerve matter at the poda, and Peripatus. Have one pair of antennæ, true pro- base of the brain, which are supposed to store up or modify cesses of the procephalic lobes, and not homologous with the nerve force. Term also applied to head ganglia of Invertebrates. antennæ of Crustacea, which originate as post-oral appendages.

Cerebritis. See ENCEPHALITIS. Cerata. Gill-like processes on the back of certain Opistho branchs into which the intestine also often sends processes.

Cerebro-Pedal Commissures. Nerves which unite

the cerebral to the pedal ganglia in molluscs. Ceratium. See CILIOFLAGELLATA.

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis. Inflammation of the Ceratobranchial. External and middle parts of the membranes covering the spinal cord and brain, characterized branchial arches, articulating with the epibranchials above by fever, severe pain, and paralysis of various portions of the and the hypobranchials below.

body, the two latter depending upon the portion of the nervCeratodus. Crossopterygian Lepidoganoid fish of the ous centers affected. A contagious and very fatal variety has Trias, with tubercular teeth covering the surface of its mouth prevailed in an epidemic form at various times, and on account and a fringed tail extending on both sides of its body. With of the occurrence of an eruption in many cases has been Ctenodus and Dipterus, it belongs to a group allied to the termed Spotted Fever. modern Dipnoi (Mudfishes); they were herbivorous, and probably Cerebro-Splanchnic Commissures. Nerves which breathed through lungs as well as gills. See MONOPNEUMONA. unite the cerebral and the splanchnic ganglia of clams, snails,

Ceratohyal. Part of the hyoid arch corresponding with and other molluscs. the ceratobranchials.

Cerebrum. Larger portion of the brain, most intimately Ceratonota. These Opisthobranchs have cerata on the connected with all the phenomena of life and thought. It back, and the ctenidium is not developed. See AILOBRANCHIA. I consists of two lateral halves, the hemispheres, each reseni

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bling an ovoid flattened on one side, united together and con is trivalent, resembling aluminium; in the other quadrivalent, nected with the cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The outer resembling silicon. surfaces are divided in a complicated manner by a number of Cernuous. Drooping structures, as flowers of the Fuchsia fissures, between which are the convolutions, and in the in- and branches of the Weeping Willow. terior are several cavities, the ventricles. Internally it consists principally of white nerve tissue, with several collections ly in France. Mechanism of Exchange, 1865; Silver, 1878.

Cernuschi, ENRICO, b. 1821. Italian bimetallist, living mostof gray matter, and externally of gray tissue made up of a number of microscopic layers, the extent of which depends

Cerotic Acid. C,,H,O,. Mpt. 78° C. Solid, fatty acid, largely upon the number and complexity of the convolutions, main constituent of beeswax, and present in combination in and is believed to determine the intelligence. See BRAIN.

Chinese wax; prepared from beeswax by means of alcoholic

solution. Ceremonies, MILITARY. Prescribed by regulations, and intended to enhance the pride and esprit de corps of the troops,

Cerro Gordo. In Mexico; scene of defeat of Santa Anna as well as to improve discipline; among these are Parades, with a force of over 12,000 by Gen. Scott with 9,000, April 18, Reviews, Inspections, Escorts of the Colors, Escorts of Honor, 1847. Funeral Honors, and Guard Mounting.

Certainty. Absolute assurance in conviction; distinCeres. Roman goddess of the earth, protectress of fruits guished from both probability and possibility. and farms; same as Demeter of the Greeks; sister of Jupiter Certificate. Written statement of facts by one duly au.

thorized; often required to be authenticated in a particular



Certificates, In the military service a certificate of merit may be awarded to a soldier by the President for extraordinary acts of gallantry in the presence of an enemy, which confers on the soldier $2 extra pay per month. Medical certificates are required before sick leaves are granted to officers, and certificates of disability for the discharge of enlisted men. All vouchers for expenditure of public money require the certificate of an officer.

Certiorari. Writ issued by a Superior Court to an inferior tribunal or officer, commanding a return of the records of a cause there depending, for review. It is generally regulated by statute, and is often employed to correct illegalities in tax and assessment levies. See APPEAL.

Certosa di Pavia. Secularized Carthusian monastery with church adjoining, whose fagade is the finest work of the

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Ceres (Vaticano). and mother of Proserpine, who was stolen from her by Pluto. The Eleusinian Mysteries were held in her honor.

Certosa di Pavia. Ceres. Asteroid first discovered; found by Piazzi at Palermo, Jan. 1, 1801. Distance from sun 257,000,000 m.; period kind in the 15th century; begun by Ambrozio Borgognone 4.604 years; diameter ab. 200 m.

1473. The Dukes of Milan founded it 139. Ceresine. See OZOKERITE.

Ceruminous Glands. Wax glands that secrete the Ceresuola. In n. Italy: scene of defeat of Imperialists by powdery or woolly substance surrounding certain insects, e.g., Francis de Bourbon, April 14, 1544. Cereus. Genus of Cactece, including both diurnal and noc

Cerussite. PbCO3. Lead carbonate, valuable as an ore of turnal bloomers, generally bearing showy flowers, natives of

lead, and frequently argentiferous. tropical America.

Cervantes, VICENTE, 1759–1829. Mexican botanist. Cerianthidæ. See MALACODERMATA.

Cervantes Saavedra, MIGUEL DE, 1547-1616. Spanish Ceriferous. Wax-bearing; organs covered with wax, as

novelist and dramatist, wounded at Lepanto 1571, captive in the fruit of the Bayberry.

Algiers 1575–80. His immortal Don Quixote, 1605–16, was

written in prison ab. 1599, “to render abhorred of men the Cerignola. Town of s. Italy; here the Spaniards under false and absurd stories” of chivalry. His other chief works Gonsalvo da Cordova defeated the French under the Duc de

were two pastoral romances, Galatea, 1584, and Persiles and Nemours, April 28, 1503. Pop. ab. 25,500.

Sigismunda, 1616; 12 short tales, 1613; and over 20 plays, of Cerinthus. Jewish Christian, ab. 100; founder of a Gnostic which few are extant. His tragedy, Numancia, has won high sect. Legends bring him into collision with St. John.

praise. Cerite. Mineral found in Sweden, containing the rare chem Cervical Groove. Crossing the carapace of the lobster ical elements, cerium, lanthanum, and didymium.

near its middle part, and running forward on each side to the Cerium. Ce. At.wt. 139.28, Sp. gr. 6.72, Sp. ht. .0448. Mpt. edge of the branchiostegite. bet. 450° C. and 950° C. Discovered by Klaproth 1803; rare Cervidæ. Deer family, of the group Pecora; characterelement, occurring in cerite; prepared by electrolysis of its ized by having the feet two-toed (with rudiments of two other chloride. It forms two series of compounds, in one of which it toes). Horns are present in the males (also females in Rein

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CERYL ALCOHOL-CEYLON deer), which are bony throughout and solid, and are annually , of which .Venus's Girdle" is typical. The body is greatly shed after the close of the breeding season. They first appear elongated in the stomach plane, the oral and aboral poles lying in the second year as simple prongs, and each time they are re- in opposite margins at the middle of the band. The tentacular produced they are larger, and add branches and tynes. While furrow extends on the sides toward both ends of the body, and growing they are covered by vascular skin (velvet). This forms in it the tentacle is attached, leaving the lateral tentacles free. a burr or ridge, separating a pedicel from the outer beam, Cestoda (CESTODES, TAPEWORMS). Elongated, usually seg. and serves to cut off the blood supply of the beam, which then mented, Platyhelminthes, with no mouth or intestines, and ceases growth; the skin dries up and peels off. Upper canines having organs for attachment, at the anterior end. The body are generally absent (exceptions are in males of some species), is really a chain of proglottides, which, as fast as they become and there is a brush of hairs on the inside of the hind foot, sexually mature, usually become detached. See TÆNÍADÆ and which is one feature distinguishing Deer from Antelopes. The BOTHRIOCEPHALIDÆ. females have four mammæ, but usually bear only one young. There are no Deer s. of the Sahara, nor in Australia. See DEER.

Cestracion. See CESTRAPHORI. Ceryl Alcohol. C,H,OH. Cerotine; in combination with

Cestraphori, or HETERODONTIDÆ. Group of selachian cerotic acid in Chinese wax; obtained from it by saponification. fishes, characterized by a pavement of plate-like crushing

teeth. The Port Jackson Shark (Cestracion) from the Pacific Cesalpino, ANDREA, 1519-1603. Italian botanist. De is the only living representative. Numerous fossil representaPlantis, 1583.

tives of the family are known, especially from the Carboniferous Cesari, ANTONIO, ab. 1750–1838. Italian critic and novelist. strata. Cesari, or Arpino, GIUSEPPE, ab. 1568–1640. Italian painter. Cestui Que Trust. He for whom a trust is created;

Cesarotti, MELCHIORE, 1730–1808. Italian poet, prof. at que use, he for whom a use exists;—que vie, he for whose life Padua from 1750; tr. Ossian 1763, Homer, and Juvenal. * Philos- an estate is granted. ophy of Language, 1785.

Cestus. Girdle of Greek and Roman women; also, boxer's Cesnola Collections. Cypriote antiquities in N. y. gauntlet. Metropolitan Museum. Collected by Gen. Luigi Palma di Cetacea (CETACEA-CARNIVORA, WHALES, etc.). Order of Cesnola, b. 1832._U. S. Consul to Cyprus 1865; director of the adeciduate placental Mammals, with fish-shaped, hairless body, Museum 1877. The collections consist of statues, terra-cotta the fore limbs modified as fin-like flippers, the hind limbs idols, and figurines from temples, shrines, and tombs; of glass, absent, a horizontal caudal fin, and sometimes a dorsal fin. pottery, gems, and jewelry, also from tombs; and of other mis- The eyes are placed near the gape; the head is large, and no cellaneous antiquities. The archæologic value of all these neck is present. The nostrils open on the top of the head as objects is due to the peculiar position of Cyprus in ancient his- the "blow-holes” or spiracles. But one set of teeth is present, tory as one the connecting links between Greek and Oriental and this usually lost in foetal life. The lungs are very long; civilization. No other collection so conclusively demonstrates the mammæ are situated in the groin, and but one young is the Oriental origins of Greek art. Their value as museum ex- born at a time. They are carnivorous and often of great size. hibits is, however, damaged by confused arrangement, having They are hunted for the oil which a heavy layer of sub-cutane. no reference either to chronology, style, or locality of finds. ous fat affords. They are viviparous and warm blooded.

Cespedes, PABLO DE, 1536–1608. Spanish painter, poet, and Three sub-orders are included: Archæoceti, Mystacoceti, and architect.

Odontoceti. Cespedes y Borges, CARLOS MANUEL DE, 1819–1874.

Cetacea Herbivora. See SIRENIA (Placentalia). Leader of a Cuban insurrection 1868.

Cetyl Alcohol. C, H,,OH. Mpt. 50° C. Ethal. White Cessation of Arms. Armistice or truce, agreed to by the solid. Combined with palmitic acid as cetyl palmitate, it is the commanders of belligerent forces, as for capitulation or bury- main constituent of spermaceti. ing the dead.

Cevennes. Range of mountains in s. France, w. of the Cessions to the United States. 1781, by New York the Rhone. Elevation between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. territory from lower side of the Great Lakes across the Ohio Ceylon. A large and populous island s. of India, separated Valley to the Cumberland Mts.; 1784, by Va. that n. w. of the Ohio; 1785, by Mass. that west of w. boundary of N. Y.; 1786, by Conn. that e. of the Mississippi between 41° and 420, and

CEY LON w, of meridian drawn 120 m. w. of the present w. boundary of

O N D I A Pa.; 1800, by Conn. that within the same n. and s. limits to the

English Miles present w. boundary of Pa.; 1787, by S. C. that forming the n. portions of Ga., Ala., and Miss·; 1789, by N. C. that forming Tenn.; 1782, by Ga. that between w. boundary of Ga. and the Mississippi; 1803, by France the Louisiana Purchase: 1819, by Spain e. and w. Florida; 1828, by Texas, Texas; 1848, by Mexico, Cal., N. Mex., and Arizona; 1852, by Mexico, Gadsden Purchase; 1867, by Russia, Alaska, acquired by purchase.

Cesspool. Subterranean vault for receiving and storing
sewage, the contents being emptied at stated intervals. When
the bottom is open so that the contents soak away into the
soil, it is called a sinkhole. Cesspools in cities or large towns

Gulf of Aripo
Man aar

Trincomalee are a source of danger to health.

Karastivo in Cestidæ (TÆNIATÆ). Band or strap-shaped Ctenophores,

Anaradhapura Mihintate'sKantno Tank

kinge Aar or
S Virger

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enus's Girdle (Cestus Veneris).


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from it by the Gulf of Manaar and Palk Strait. It belongs to Chætopterus. Tubicolous Annelid, living in a parchmentGreat Britain. The s. interior is mountainous, but most of it I like tube. Several dissimilar regions is fertile and very productive. Length 270 miles, maximum can be distinguished in its body. breadth 140 m., area 25,400 sq. m. It was known to the ancients | There are two or four long tentacuas Taprobane. The Portuguese established a factory here 1517. | lar cirri on the head, and lobed, The island was seized by the Dutch 1603, who subdued it ab. wing-like processes on the back. 1658; seized by the British 1795, and ceded by the peace of Amiens 1802; the King of Kandy was overthrown 1815. Pop., bractlets which subtend flowers on

Chaff. Glumes of grasses, and 1891, 3,008,466.

the receptacles of plants of the ComCeylonite, or CEYLANITE. MgA1,0,+FeAl,0,. Variety of posite family. spinel containing iron.

Chaffseed. Schwalbea ameriC. G. S. System. Absolute system of units, in which the cana. Plant of the natural family fundamental units are the centimeter as the unit of length, Scrophulariaceve, native of s. e. N. the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit | America. of time.

Chagres Fever. Malarial fever, Chabaneau, CAMILLE, b. 1831. French writer on Proven- dangerous and difficult to relieve, gal languages and literature; prof. Montpellier 1879.

prevalent in tropical countries;

named from the Chagres River, in Chabas, FRANÇOIS, 1817–1882. French Egyptologist.

Isthmus of Panama. Chabazite. One of the zeolite group of minerals.

Chailletiaceæ, or DICHAPETChablis. One of the white wines of Burgundy; for rich

ALÆ. Natural family of flowering ness and delicate flavor it is highly esteemed. It is grown in plants, of the class Angiospermo the Department of Yonne. See BURGUNDY WINES.

and sub-class Dicotyledones, com

prising 3 genera and ab. 54 species, Chabrias, d. 357 B.C. Athenian commander.

growing in the tropical regions of Chabrier, ALEXIS EMMANUEL, 1841-1894. French musical both hemispheres. composer. Espana, a rhapsody for orchestra; Gwendoline, an

Chaillu, PAUL DU. See Du opera.


Chætopterus. Chacarnac, JEAN, 1823–1873. Astronomer at Paris Ob

Chain. Linear measure used by surveyors, either 66 or 100 servatory from 1854. He constructed a series of charts of small ft. in length, consisting of 100 links, so that it can be folded as stars near the ecliptic, which have been useful in searching for in the figure. For town or city work Asteroids.

a steel tape is now generally emChaconne, or CIACONNA. Stately dance of French or ployed instead of a chain. Spanish origin, generally in 3-4 time and slow movement. As a

Chain Bridge. Suspension musical form it belongs to the class of variations, its foremost bridge in which the cables are example being found in Bach's 4th violin sonata.

formed of chains instead of wire. Chad, or TSAD. Large lake of central Africa, s. of the The system is but little used in Sahara. Into it flow many large streams; it has no outlet. modern suspension bridges, al

though a few have been built with Chad, Sr., d. 672. Bp. of York 664, and of Mercia 669.

the cables made of eye-bars. Chadbourne, PAUL ANSEL, D.D., LL.D., 1823–1883. Pres.

Chain-Fern. Ferns of the genus Univ. Wis. 1867–10; pres. Williams Coll. 1972–80. Instinct, Woodwardia, a widely distributed 1872.

group. Chadwick, GEORGE WHITEFIELD, b. 1854. American composer; author of three symphonies, chamber music, cantatas, uring a line with a surveyor's chain,

Chaining. Processes of meassongs, the Columbian Ode for the dedication of the Chicago A pin is placed to mark the end World's Fair 1893, and a comic operetta, Tabasco.

of the chain while it is moved on Chadwick, JOHN WHITE, b. 1840. Unitarian pastor in to the next position. As horizonBrooklyn since 1864. Aspects of Religion, 1879.

tal distances are always required,

the chain should be held nearly level. Chæremon. Athenian dramatist of 4th century B.C.

The precision of chaining is low, the Chæremon. Writer on Egypt in 1st century.

uncertainty in the length of a line Chæronea. Town of Boeotia, where Greece lost her liber- thousandth part.

being usually greater than one one

Surveyor's Chain. ties through defeat of Athenians by Philip 338 B.C. Here Sulla defeated Mithridates 86 B.C., and Plutarch was born A.D. 50. Chain-Mail. Flexible armor formed of interlaced rings;

four hammered being connected by one riveted. Adopted by Chætifera (ARMATA, ECHIUROIDEA). Gephyrean worms, the Crusaders from the Saracens, it was universally in favor in having a terminal anus and two strong, ventral hooks. The Europe during the 14th century and gave way to plate armor. præoral lobe is developed into a proboscis, which is long and It is still used in the East. forked in Bonellia. The larva shows segmentation of the body. The male Bonellia is a small Planarian-like organism, para

Chain Pump. Pump having a chain to which buckets are sitic in the oviducts of the female. Thalassema lives in attached, whereby water is drawn up through a tube in which Echinoids.

the chain works. Chætocladieæ. Small family of Fungi of the order Chain Riveting. Rivets placed opposite to each other in Mucorini.

parallel rows, as distinguished from staggered riveting, where

they are placed alternate; it is not an advantageous arrangeChætoderma. See ISOPLEURA.

ment when the riveted piece is subject to tension. Chætodontidæ. Family of Acanthopterygian fishes, comprising a number of brilliantly colored tropical fishes, in inches long; formerly used on naval vessels to destroy the sails

Chain-Shot. Two shot linked together by a chain 8 or 10 shape somewhat similar to our sunfishes. They frequent coral reefs, and some of them are excellent for food. The Angel or rigging of the enemy's vessels. Fish of the Bermudas and West Indies attains a wt. of 4 lbs., Chair. Cast-iron support placed under the ends of the rails but most of the species are smaller.

on a track. In the U. S. railroad chairs are now but little used, Chætognatha. Class of Vermes including SAGITTA (q.v.). the rails being supported by wooden cross-ties and connected

by fish-plate or angle-bar joints. Chætonotus. See NEMATORHYNCHA.

Chalarothoraca. Order of Heliozoa, in which the enChætophoraceæ. Order of filamentous green Algæ, velope consists of loosely-aggregated silex spicules. occurring in fresh water. Chætopoda. Free-living Annelids, with paired tufts of

Chalaza. Base of the ovule, or seed, of flowering plants. setæ on the segments, with distinct head, and with tentacles, Chalazæ. Whitish, twisted strings in each end of the cirri and branchiæ. They form the orders Polychweta and hen's egg, floating in the white and proceeding from the yolk. Oligochota.

They serve to steady the yolk.




Chalcanthite. Cuso, +5aq. Copper vitriol as it occurs Chaldeans. Semitic inhabitants of s. Mesopotamia; Babyin nature.

lonians. Abraham emigrated from “Ur of the Chaldees.” Chalcedon. City of Bithynia, opposite Byzantium; colo! Chaldee Language. Usual name of that form of Aranized from Megara 685 B.C., birthplace of Xenocrates; taken by mean, or Eastern Semitic, used in parts of Ezra and Daniel. Romans 74 B.C., and a free city under their rule; plundered

Chalice. Cup used in the Eucharist. by Goths 259; taken by Chosroes 616 and by Turks 1338. The 4th general council was held here 451, and condemned the stone forming the uppermost of the Mesozoic strata in Europe.

Chalk. CaC0g. Carbonate of lime. White, earthy limeMonophysites.

No true chalk occurs in N. America, though some strata closeChalcedony. Broadly, all uncrystallized varieties of ly resembling it have been reported from Texas. Chalk conquartz, or quartz mixed with opal, that are transparent or sists of minute foraminiferal shells, some of which are perhaps translucent and somewhat waxy in luster; commonly the identical with forms now living in the N. Atlantic.' Chalk white or delicately brown or blue kinds.

comes mainly from England; · French chalk” is a variety of Chalchihuitl. Greenish or bluish stone found in New talc. Mexico and Arizona, and prized by Indians; variety of turquois, Challenge. (1) Words or signs conveying an invitation to jadeite, or emerald.

engage in a fight; an offense at common-law and generally by Chalcis. City of Euboea, colonized from Athens; anciently statute. (2) Formal objection to a voter, the grounds and of strategic and commercial importance; held by the Venetians manner of which are regulated by statute. (3) Formal objec1205–1470, when the Turks took it. Also, two cities of Syria. tion to a jury panel or to an individual juror or judge, also

Chalcocite, or COPPER GLANCE. Cu S. Mineral of copper regulated by statute. Challenge to fight a duel is a military and sulphur, with 79.8 per cent copper.

offense in the U. S. army service, which by the 26th Article of

War is punishable with dismission is the offender be an officer, Chalcondylas, DEMETRIUS, 1428-1500. Greek teacher in and, if a soldier, by corporal punishment. Italy from ab. 1450; ed. Homer, Isocrates and Suidas. Chalcopyrite, or COPPER PYRITES. CuFeS. Mineral

Challenge. Demand of a sentinel upon halting a person containing copper, sulphur and iron, in nearly equal propor- approaching his beat or post, until he be recognized as having tions. One of the most abundant of the copper ores.

authority to pass. Challenge to a member of a military court

is the right conferred upon the accused about to be tried, to Chaldean Art. The name of s. e. Chaldea or Babylonia object to a member of the court-martial. was Accad or Akkad, as distinct from Sumir, the n. w. portion. There was also a Chaldean city of Accad. The adjective Ac-Government 1872–76, for the scientific exploration of the At

Challenger Expedition. Undertaken by the British cadian therefore signifies the oldest known and non-Semitic lantic, Pacific and Southern Oceans. The vessel cruised over Babylonian (Chaldean) population and culture. Recent discov: 68,900 nautical m., and made observations at 362 stations. The eries of Prof. Terrien Delacoupérie and of Rev. C. J. Ball point Reports were pub. in 37 vols., 1880–89. to this population as having had an influence on Chinese culture, or even tend to show that the latter is an offshoot from

Challis, JAMES, 1803–1882. English astronomer, prof. Camit. The researches of the former point rather to relations of bridge 1836. culture (see Oriental and Babylonian Record), while those Challoner, RICHARD, D.D., 1691-1781. English R. C. Bp. of Ball tend to establish an identity of language. The Accadian of Debra in partibus, 1741, Ch. History, 1737; Garden of the language is being deciphered with great difficulty by means of Soul; Britannia Sancta, 1745. Assyrian word-lists (dictionaries giving Accadian equivalents), Chalmers, ALEXANDER, 1759–1834. Scottish compiler. preserved on the baked-clay tablets which served as records in Biographical Dictionary, 32 vols., 1812–17. Assyria. The CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS (q.v.) of the Assyrian inscriptions are inherited from the Accadian, although the lan-donia, 3 vols., 1807-10-24.

Chalmers, GEORGE, 1742–1825. Scottish antiquary. Caleguages are different. The same holds of the culture at large, as regards origins at least. The distinction lies in language

Chalmers, GEORGE PAUL, 1833–1878. Scottish portrait and in race, the Assyrians being Semitic. The remains of this and landscape painter. old Chaldean culture are scanty, consisting mainly of enormous Chalmers, THOMAS, D.D., D.C.L., 1780–1847. Scottish mounds of brick construction (sun-dried), so degraded, and so preacher of highest rank; prof. St. Andrew's 1823; Edinburgh ancient even as ruins, that no outlines or plans can be made out. 1828; chief founder of the Free Ch. 1843; author of a plan of Names of kings inscribed on these bricks are however deciphered. charity organization practiced in his (St. John's) Ch. in Glasgow Many of these mounds are ruins of temples which had a general 1819-23, and since generally adopted. The fame of his eloquence resemblance to the form of the Tower of Babel as described in spread through western Christendom, and is perhaps best supGenesis. The Chaldean cylinder-seals are also an important ported by his Astronomical Discourses, 1817. His works fill 34

vols., 1836-49.

Châlons-sur-Marne. Ancient city of n. e. France. Here Aurelian defeated Tetricus, the last of the “ Thirty Tyrants," 274, and the Romans and Visigoths overcame Attila 451. It was a camp of instruction 1856–70. Pop., 1891, 25,863.

Châlon-sur-Saône. Town of e. France, 80 m. Lyons, capital of Burgundy in 6th century. Pop., 1891, 24,686.

Chalybæus, HEINRICH MORITZ, 1796–1862. Prof. Kiel 1839-52. Hist. Speculative Philosophy, 1848, tr. 1854; Ethics, 1850.

Chalybeate Waters. Containing iron. Schwalbach

Spring, Nassau, contains 6.9 grs. carbonate of iron. Other Signet cylinder of King Urukh.

Chalybeate springs from 2 to 8 grs. field of antiquarian study. These were talismanic roller-shaped

Chalybes. People mentioned by ancient writers as dwellsignets of bard and semi-precious stones, used by the owner to ing on the s. shore of the Black Sea and in the mountainous place his sign on the damp inscribed clay tablet before it was regions of Armenia and Mesopotamia. They were workers in baked. Many of these tablets of the Assyrian period are in the iron, and are sometimes identified with the Chaldeans. N. Y. Metropolitan Museum of Art, as well as a large collection Chalybite. FeCO3. Ferrous carbonate; also called siderite of cylinder-seals, some of them old Chaldean or Accadian. and spathic iron ore. These cylinders are inscribed with cuneiform characters, gener Cham. Pseudonym of Amédée de Noé, 1819–1879. Parisian ally giving the name of the owner, with figures of deities and caricaturist. with mythologic scenes. The most important recent discov

Chamæleon. See VERMILINGUIA. eries of Accadian remains are those of the French Consul De Sarzec and of the American exploring expedition now working

Chamber. To give the cartridge in smooth bore guns a for the museum of Univ. Pa. De Sarzec's excavations at Tello, more manageable form in loading, and to make the surface of whose results have been recently placed in the Louvre, discov- the bore at the seat of the charge a minimum, as regards the ered diorite statues, both sitting and standing, of remarkably volume, the diameter of the bore at this place was reduced to fine execution, supposed to date ab. 3,809 B.C. There is a gap form a chamber: the forms most in use were cylindrical in of about 2,900 years between these works and the oldest works guns firing small charges, such as mortars, and conical, called known of Assyrian art. This shows the labor which remains to the Gomer chamber after its inventor, in guns firing large be done for archæology in the Tigris-Euphrates valley and the charges. very limited extent of present knowledge and excavations. See Chamber. That part of a military mine designed to ASSYRIAN ART.

receive the charge. Its center is placed on a level with the

n. or


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