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The governments of the U.S. and of the various States have from almost the first maintained a policy of State aid for the promotion and improvement of A. This first took the form of grants of money to be offered as premiums by societies organized to hold fairs and exhibitions of live stock, farm and garden crops, machinery, and the like. Later, agricultural schools and colleges were established, and still more recently large sums have been given for the investigation of problems by experiment stations and for the diffusion of knowledge through Farmers' Institutes.
Agriculture, DEPARTMENT OF. Branch of U.S. government, presided over by Secretary of Agriculture, who is a menber of the Cabinet. The first official action of the government in the way of aid to agriculture consisted in the collection and dissemination of seeds, plants, and cuttings of new or littleknown species and varieties. This work was done under the direction of the Commissioner of Patents. Later a separate commissionership was erected and the work greatly broadened, particularly in the application of the sciences of chemistry, botany, entomology, etc., to practical affairs. In 1889 the commissionership was erected into a secretaryship. The work of the lyepartment now includes investigation in all branches of natural and economic science having near or remote relation to agriculture, and its publications include many of the most inportant contributions to economic science. The work is administered through several subdivisions, the more important of which are Botany, Vegetable Pathology, Chemistry, Entomology, Forestry, Microscopy, Ornithology and Mammalogy, Pomology, and Statics, the Bureau of Animal Industry, the Weather Bureau, and the Office of Experiment Stations.
Ague Cake. Swelling noticed on pressing down upon the right side below the stomach in some cases of chronic malarial troubles, due to enlargement of the spleen.
Aguilar, GASPAR DE, ab. 1570–1650. Spanish poet and dramatist; translator of Tasso's Aminta.
Aguilar, GRACE, 1816–1847. English author; Jewess of Spanish descent.
Agulhas, CAPE. Southernmost point of Africa.
Ahab. Seventh king of Israel, 917–895 B.C.; son of the usurper Omri, and blindly obedient to his Baal-worshiping and persecuting wife, the Syrian princess Jezebel.
Ahasuerus. Title applied in Scripture to three kings of Persia. I. Astyages the Mede, father of Darius. II. Probably Cambyses, son of Cyrus, 529–522 B.C. III. Esther's husband, o's Xerxes, 486–465 B.C. The book of Tobit mentions a fourth.
Ahaz. Eleventh king of Judah, ab. 742–726 B.C.; a weak and idolatrous ruler. For help against his enemies he appealed to Tiglath-Pilesir of Assyria, who robbed the temple and made A. tributary.
Ahaziah. I. Eighth king of Israel. 897–896 B.C.; son of Ahab. II. Fifth king of Judah. 885–883 B.C.: named also Azariah and Jehoahaz; noison of Ahab and Jezebel, and of like character; off". Jehu, with his uncle Jehoram, king of Israel, whom he was visiting.
Ahmadabad. City of British India, on left bank of Sabarmati River, founded 1412. Pop., 1891, 145,990.
Ahmes, ab. 1700 B.C. Egyptian. Author of the oldest reckoning book, so far as known the beginning of rules for computation.
Ahn, Johann FRANz. 1796–1865. German grammarian. His helps to the easy acquisition of several languages followed a method of his own, often imitated since, and were very popular.
Ahriman. Principle of Evil in the Persian religion; opposed to ORMUZD.
Aidan, d. 651. of Lindissarne, 635.
Aidé, HAMILTON, b. 1830. English poet and novelist of Greek descent. Poet and Peer, 1880.
Aide-de-Camp. Officer selected by a general to assist him in his military duties. His functions are difficult and delicate. Attached to the person of the general, he receives orders only from him, enjoys his full confidence, and represents him in writing orders, in communicating them verbally upon battlefields and in maneuvers.
Aids. Incidents of feudal tenure, now abolished; to ransom the lord if captured, to knight the eldest son, and to provide dowry for the eldest daughter.
Aigret. Tuft of hairs attached to a seed or fruit, aiding in its dissemination.
Aiguillette. Decoration consisting of bullion, cords, and loops, worn with the full dress uniform by officers of the Adjutant-General's and Inspector-General's Departments, aides-decamp, and adjutants.
Aikin, ARTHUR, 1773–1854. British chemist and mineralogist; author of a Manual of Mineralogy, 1814, and a Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy, 1807–14.
Aikin, John, M.D., 1747–1822. English biographer, author, with his sister, Mrs. Barbauld, of Evenings at Home, 6 vols., 1792–95. His daughter LUCY, 1781–1864, wrote several memoirs.
Aikinite. CuPbBiS,. Sulphide of bismuth, copper, and lead, known also as needle-ore and acicular bismuth; found at Berezov in the Ural Mountains.
Ailanthus. Genus of Simarubaceae, composed of a single species, A. glandulosus, a large tree, native of eastern Asia. but now widely cultivated; called Tree of Heaven, and in China Ailanto. The leaves of A. glandulosus are the favorite food of the silk worm (Bombya: Cynthia). A decoction or tincture of the dry bark has been recommended in asthma, epilepsy, dyspepsia and dysentery. It has also been used for the expulsion of the tapeworm in dogs, as well as in man, when given in form of the bark or leaves.
Aileron. Buttress in the form of an inverted console, usually with a colute at the lower and wider, and often also at the upper and narrower end. It appears only in the architecture of the Renaissance, and is commonly of small dimensions, flanking free-standing doorways, dormer-windows, and the like, and connecting them with columns or pilasters or with a continuous
arapet. In Italy it was employed on a large scale, as in the §. Church in Rome and in Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, where it extends completely over the aisle.
Irish missionary to Northumbria; first Bp.
Ailli, PIERRE D', 1350–1420. French prelate; Chancellor Univ. Paris 1389, Abp. of Cambrai 1397, Cardinal 1411. At the Council of Constance he urged reforms, secured the abdication of Pope John XXIII., and presided at the trial of Huss.
Ailobranchia. Group of Nudibranchiata, including two sub-groups, Ceratomota (Triton) and Haplomorpha. , Triton is distinguished by having its gills in two rows along the back.
Aimard, GUSTAVE, 1818–1883. French novelist and traveler, long resident in America. The Adventurers. Aimé, GEORGES, 1813–1846. Pros. in the College of Algiers; first inventor of a nephoscope for accurate observation of the motion of clouds by reflection from a mirror; author of works on waves and terrestrial magnetism. Ainmiller, MAx EMANUEL, 1807–1870. painter of cathedral windows.
Ainos. Aborigines of Japan, now confined principally to Jeddo. They are Asiatics of doubtful origin, shorter in stature than Japanese, but broader-shouldered, of dark brown color, large head, retreating brow, full lips, oblique eyes, prominent cheek bones, excessively hairy bodies, hardy and long-lived. They are shy, friendly, but irascible when irritated. They go bareheaded and barefooted in the severest weather, live in tent-shaped huts of reeds, with one room. Dogs are constant companions; the women do most of the work; they tattoo and ornament themselves. The cooking is rude, the men hunt. The religion is ancestor-worship mixed with other superstitions. They have no written language. Polygamy is practiced. They number ab. 17,000, and are losing ground.
Ainsworth, HENRY, D.D.. ab. 1570–1662. English Brownist, pastor at Amsterdam. Annotations on the Psalms, 1612; On the Pentateuch, 1621.
Ainsworth, Robert. 1660–1743. English lexicographer. His Latin Dictionary, 1736, long held a high place. Ainsworth, WILLIAM HARRISON, 1805–1882. English novelist; ed. New Monthly, 1845. Jack Sheppard, 1839; Tower of Lomdon, 1840. Air. Between 1750 and 1800 this word was used by chemists as equivalent to gas in the expressions “atmospheric air,” “ dephlogisticated air,” etc., but this use is now obsolete. Also, the lightest movement of wind that is perceptible to an observer, as in the expressions, “light airs,” “gentle airs.” See ATMOSPHERE. Air. Melody or tune in a piece of music; specifically, an accompanied solo of certain form, either for the voice or an instrument. In this sense it is the English equivalent of the nore generally used Italian term ARIA (q.v.).
Air-bladder, or SwiMMING-BLADDER. Sac under control of a fish. used to maintain equilibrium. In highest fishes it is really a lung. Isinglass, made from this, is a variety of gelatine. Air-brick. Iron box or grating of the size of a brick, built into a wall to
polygonal cavities in the lung, about 1–100 of an inch in diameter, which communicate with the smaller bronchial tubes, and in the walls of which are numerous small blood vessels whose coats are so thin that the oxygen of the air is readily taken up by the blood.
Air-chamber. Vessel or reservoir so attached to a pump or to the pipe through which an incompressible fluid is moving. as to imprison a volume of air. The shape is usually an inverted cone, or less often a cylinder. The imprisoned air acts as a spring or cushion to absorb and equalize the shocks due to the inertia or momentum of the fluid mass when the driving force acts irregularly or the column is arrested suddenly. The shock or “water-hammer” (q.v.) is absorbed by the air-spring of a chamber on the suction-pipe to a pump, when the water flows to the pump under a head. Such an air-chamber is often and improperly called a “vacuum chamber.”
Air-compressor. Machine by which a volume of air at atmospheric pressure is forced into a much smaller volume at higher pressure. The air becomes heated by the work of compression. and the heat is eliminated either by a water-jacket on the compressing cylinder or by injecting water directly into the air. Compressors are driven directly by steam. the compressing piston being on the prolongation of the rod which carries the steam piston of an engine, or else are driven indirectly by belt or gearing from the source of power. Usual pressure of air for rock-drills, etc., 60 lbs. to the square inch. The most frequent
neling or underground machinery, for riveters for bridge and boiler work, in continuous train-brakes, and for displacing fluids in breweries and other works. Air-engine. Using the elastic tension of air as source of power. The air must be first compressed to a high tension, and will then be used partly by expansion in the cylinder of this engine. The air can be carried a considerable distance in pipes, so as to avoid the inconveniences of escaping steam and of products of combustion in contracted spaces underground, etc. It is impossible to carry expansion very far on account of the low temperature of the exhaust, which would be enough to freeze any moisture in the air and clog the engine. The combined efficiency of the compressor and air-engine is less than 40 per cent when the compressed air is cooled between the two machines to the temperature of the surrounding air and objects. At Vincennes, near Paris, on a passenger tramway 12 miles long, an air-engine is used, the air being compressed at the ends of the line, and carried in steel cylinders beneath the cars. The pressure is 45 atmospheres. The low temperature of expansion is obviated by injecting hot water. Ericsson's hot air engine for light powers, three or four horse powers, has been successfully used. The surnace is within the cylinder. Tests made in Paris showed that it consumes nine lbs. of coal per horse power, twice as much as a good steam engine.
Air Plants. See EPIPHYTES.
Air-pump. For displacing air, or exhausting the air from closed vessels. Invented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg ab. 1650. Many small air-compressors would be called air-pumps.
In a condensing steam-engine, the air-pump is an essential organ, whose duty is to maintain the vacuum in the condenser. It is a lifting pump, the lower end of the barrel being below the level of the floor of the condenser a n d separated from it by the foot-valve. When the bucket rises and the water in the condenser and in a the pump barrel has equally low pressures upon it, it passes by gravity into the pump through the foot-valve, together with any air which may have come in. When the bucket descends the soot valve closes, and the water and air pass up through the bucket-valves to be lifted and discharged to the hot-well. The
uses for compressed air are for driving rock-drills and other tun- pump is single-acting, and usually of + the volume of the steam
cylinders. With jet-condensers, the barrel and bucket aro usually of brass-composition.
Air Resistance. Resistance of the air to an object moving through it, approximately proportional to the area of the surface and to the square of the velocity. Smeaton's formula, much used in general discussions, is R = 0.005 S V*, in which R = total resistance, S – area of surface in square feet, and V = velocity of the moving body in miles per hour.
Air Sacs. Prolongations of the lungs of birds into different parts of the body cavity, as the interclavicular, thoracic, and abdominal; also into the bones. Analogous expansions of the tracheal breathing apparatus of insects are termed air vesicles.
Air-Ship. Much experimentation and considerable progress has been made toward air-transportation, but no navigable balloon, flying- or other air-machine has yet been perfected which is sufficiently reliable to effect the revolution of warfare, which such an accomplishment would cause. Maxim's flyingmachine is the most promising of the many tried: the French balloon, “La France,” has attained a speed of 15 m. an hour under favorable atmospheric conditions.
Air Thermometer. See GAS THERMOMETER.
Air Walve. Allowing the escape of the air which collects in a water pipe at a high point of the line. Under certain conditions the air collects at such a place and lessens the flow of water, unless the valve be opened periodically.
Airy, SIR GEORGE BIDDELL, 1801–1892. English mathematician and astronomer. Prof. Cambridge 1826, Astronomer Royal 1835–81. Calculus of Variations; Trigonometry; Mathematical Tracts; Mathematical Elements of Music; and many astronomical memoirs.
Aisle. In architecture, properly, the lateral subdivision of a church, separated from the central compartment, or nave, by the piers that support the walls of the clerestory. Also, the nave, as a three-aisled or five - aisled church, properly a church with a nave and two or four aisles. There is but one five-aisled cathedral in England, that of Chicester. On the Continent such cathedrals are numerous. Chartres and Rheims have five-aisled choirs. Amiens. Milan, Noyon, Bourges, and Cologne are five-aisled throughout, while Notre Dame of Paris is seven-aisled. The most extensive subdivision of an in= terior by pillars in Europe is that of the * of Cordova, which has nine aisles on each side of the nave. *-*A*Y. —Also, an ailey or passage-way be. tween rows of seats in a church, or audience-room of any kind, even when there is no structural subdivision.
Ajowan. Carum Ajowan, Indian plant of the Carrot Family, whose seeds are used in enormous quantities in the manufacture of thymol.
Ajutage. Conical tube attached to an orifice to increase flow of water. Also, cylindrical tubes, and tubes with curved profiles. The theoretical discharge of water can be much increased, in some cases more than doubled, by their use. See HYDROKINEMATICS.
Aka. Metrosideros scandens, epiphyte of the Myrtle family, native of New Zealand.
Akbar, MoHAMMED, 1542–1605. Mogul emperor, surnamed Jalal-ed-Deen; able in war and statesmanship; conqueror of Bengal.
Akee. Blighia sapida, tree of the order Sapindaceae, native of w. tropical Africa, cultivated in the West Indies for its nutritious fruit.
Akerne. See ACHENE.
Akenside, MARK, M.D., 1721–1770. English poet. Pleasures of the Imagination, 1744.
Akerblad, JAN DAVID, 1760–1819. Swedish scholar, famous for his work in Runic, Coptic, Phoenician and ancient Egyptian.
Akerman. At mouth of the Dniester; ceded to Russia 1812: treaty signed Sept. 4, 1826, by which Turkey conceded to Russia navigation of Black Sea.
Akerman, John Yonge, 1806–1873. English numismatist. Catalogue of Roman Coins, 1839; Numismatic Manual, 1840; Roman Coins Relating to Britain, 1844; Ancient Coins, Hispania, Gallia, Britannia, 1846.
Akiba, BEN JOSEPH, d. 135. Jewish rabbi, who taught at Jaffa, and is said to have had 24,000 pupils. Being involved in the revolt of Barchocheb, he was taken prisoner by the Romans and flayed alive.
Akinetes. Non-motile cells which, becoming detached from some of the green algae, propagate the species. Akron. City of Summit Co., Ohio, on three railroads, and the Ohio Canal. It has large manufactories of agricultural inno and stoneware. Buchtel College is located here. 'op., 1890, 27,601. Alabama. One of the southern States, first settled by the French 1710, ceded to England 1763, admitted to the Union 1819. Its area is 52,250 sq. miles. The surface is very level, with a general increase in elevation northward. Into the northern part, however, extend the foothills of the Appalachian system, in the form of narrow ridges and broad plateaus, which diversify the surface. It is drained mainly by the Mobile River, through its two branches, the Alabama and o which flow from the northern part of the State southward, emptying into Mobile Bay. The Alabama is navigable to Watumpka and the Tombigbee to a point beyond the limits of the State. The geological structure is varied. Into it from the north extend the Cumberland plateau, made up almost entirely of Carboniferous formations, the Appalachian valley with its succession of Silurian and Carboniferous beds, and the upper portion of the Atlantic plain, which is composed of Archaean rocks. Around the edge of this formation, which terminates near the middle of the State, sweeps the “Black Belt” of Quarternary beds, and this is succeeded southward by the Cretaceous, the Eocene and Neocene formations with the Quarternary, forming a narrow coast strip. The industries of the State are mainly agricultural, and cotton is the leading crop, to which all other interests are subservient. The value of farms in 1890 was $111,051,390, of agricultural products in 1889 $66,240,190, and the cotton crop in 1891 was 1,060,000 bales. The commerce of the State is centered in the city of Mobile, and consists chiefly of shipments of cotton. In 1892 915,296 tons of pig iron were produced. Manufactures are rapidly increasing. The mileage of railroads in 1891 was 3.611. Pop., 1890, 1,513,017, nearly one-half colored: density of population was 29.2 per sq. mile. The capital is Montgomery, on the Alabama River, near the center of the State. (See Map on next page.) Alabama River. In Ala. and Ga. Large left-hand branch of Mobile R., heading in the s. end of the Appalachian Mountains. Drainage area 23,820 sq. m.; length ab. 300 m. Alabama, THE. Confederate cruiser during the Civil War, which made serious havoc in the commerce of the North; built at Birkenhead 1862, and commanded by Capt. Semmes. She captured in two years 65 vessels, and destroyed $6,000,000 worth of property. She finally joined battle with the U. S. ship Kearsarge, off Cherbourg, France, where she had put in for repairs, and was soon disabled and sunk, June 19, 1864. The fact of her being built and fitted out in England occasioned bitter feeling and complicated relations, involving delicate points in international law; they were finally adjusted by the Geneva Convention of 1872, which rendered a decision in favor of the U. S. See GENEVA ARBITRATION.
Alani. Allies of the Goths and Vandals in their raids on the Roman Empire. They seem to have spread over the s. part of what is now European Russia as early as 100. They were horsemen: did not till the land; dwelt in wagons; used the lasso in battle; decked themselves with the scalps of their enemies: knew no slavery, and exulted to die in battle. They were found in Gaul and Spain ab. 510, and accompanied Genseric into Africa 429. The victory of Chalons 451, where they served under Theodoric against the Huns, was nearly lost by their defection. The name soon after disappeared.
Alargon, HERNANDO DE. Spanish navigator, who in 1540 ascertained California to be a peninsula, and sailed some distance up the Colorado.
Alargon, PEDRO ANTONIO DE, 1833–1891. Spanish novelist of marked ability, but clerical and anti-modern in tendency. El Sombrero de Tres Picos, 1868; Escandalo, 1875.
Alargon y Mendoza, DON JUAN RUIz DE, ab. 1590–1639. Spanish dramatist of Mexican birth. His works were reprinted 1857. o of his plays, Suspicious Truth, was drawn upon by Corneille.
Alaric, ab. 350–410. King of the Goths; he invaded Italy 402, conquered and sacked Rome 410.
Alary Muscles. Holding the heart to the walls of the space containing it in the back of Arthropods.
Alaska. Territory of the U. S., occupying the n. w. portion of N. America, and extending down the Pacific coast in a long narrow strip as far as lat. 54° 30'. Its area is 530,000 sq. miles. The s. portion is very mountainous, with a fiord coast, bordered by numerous large islands, between which are deep narrow channels. The Rocky Mt. system intersects the s. part with its numerous ranges, while the main axis of the range runs out in the Aleutian Islands. The n. half is mainly a great R.", containing near the coast considerable areas of tundra.
he Yukon, one of the great rivers of N. America, rising in British Columbia below lat. 60, flows n. w. and then s. w. across A. to its mouth in Behring Sea. The annual mean temperature at and about Sitka, in the s. e. part, is 45°. In this part the rainfall is excessive, amounting to 82 inches annually. In the north the climate is arctic and the country uninhabitable. Pop., 1890, 31,795, all but 4,303 being Indians, Aleuts and Esquimaux. The principal productions consist thus far of furs, including the fur seal, the sea-otter, fox, etc. The country was first explored 1741 by a Russian expedition under Behring, and was occupied chiefly by a fur company. Its charter expired 1863, and in 1867 the entire territory was purchased by the U. S. for $7,200,000. It was made a county of Washington Territory in 1872, is now independent, and has been a source of revenue to the government from the fur trade. (See Map on next page.)
Alaudidae. Family of Passeres, including the Larks. They have a conirostral bill, sentelliplantar tarsus, long secondaries, rudimentary first primary, sandy-brown plumage with dark longitudinal streaks, and a long, straight hind claw. More than a hundred species are included, nearly all belonging to the eastern hemisphere. The Shorelark (Otocoris) has a horn-like
crest over each eye. The European Skylark is celebrated for its song; it sings only while flying, and can be heard when so high
as to be invisible. It has been caught in past years, during the fall migrations, in some parts of the German Empire, by the million, being an esteemed table delicacy.
Alban, St. Protomartyr of Britain; suffered under, Diocletian, between 286 and 303, at Verulamium, now St. Alban's. His day is June 22.
Albani (ALBANO), FRANCEsco, 1578–1660. Italian painter of the School of the Caracci (q.v.); associate and pupil of Guido Reni. He has important frescoes at Rome in the Palace Torlonia (formerly Verospi); others in S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli: in Bologna, fine altar-piece in San Bartolommeo; others in the Gallery.
Albani, MME. Stage name of Marie Louise Cécilia, Emma Lajeunesse, b. 1850 in Canada; operatic soprano. She became Mrs. Ernest Gye 1878.
Albania. Region between Montenegro and Greece, inhab: ited by descendants of ancient Illyrians, mixed with Greeks and Slavs, who live in perpetual warfare with one another; many serve as mercenaries. The people were formerly Christians, but, after death of Scanderbeg, becoming subject to the Turks, many adopted Mohammedanism. The Suliotes, in the south, were famous for their long resistance to Ali Pasha; the Mirdites, in the north, are always ready to defend their freedom and religion (R. C.) with the sword. Pop. 1,200,000. See BozzARIs.
Albani Villa, RoME. It contains antiquarian collections made by Cardinal Alexander Albani ab. 1760.
Albanian Language. Spoken in Albania, parts of Greece and Sicily; a member of the Indo-European group, resembling in some respects the Slavonic. | Albany. Capital of New York, on w, bank of the Hudson, a few miles below the head of navigation, 145 m. n. of N. Y. | city. For communication it has 5 railroads and 2 canals. It has extensive manufactures, Polo of iron and steel. It was first occupied as a trading post by the Dutch 1914; actually settled 1624, when Fort Orange was built; named 1664 from the Duke of York and Albany,afterward James II.: and incorporated as a city 1686. The patroon system was introduced 1630, and partially abolished 1787. A., became the State capital 1797. The Capitol, begun 1871,290 ft. by 890, is an *; edifice, not yet completed, and has cost over $18,000,000. Pop., 1892, 97.120. Albany River. In Canada, tributary to Hudson Bay. Albatross. See DIOMIDIDAE. Albedo. Proportion of incident light reflected by a nonluminous body. Albemarle, DUKE of. See MoNK, GEORGE. Albemarle sound. Deep indentation from the Atlantic into the coast of N. Carolina. Alberoni, GIULIo, 1664–1752. . Cardinal 1717; b. in Italy; grandee and prime minister of Spain, which he involved in great difficulties by his ambitious projects; banished 1720. Albert H., 1248–1308. German emperor, 1298–1808; son of Rudolf I.