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For exact work and manufacturing in quantities, GAUGEs (q.v.), are often used instead. These may be standard gauges or simply templates of thin metal. For fine measurements a mi. crometer or vernier calliper may be used. These instruments read to the one-thousandth of an inch from a fixed or adjustable zero by the method which their name indicates.
Callisthenes, d. 328 B.C. Thracian comrade of Alexander, a history of whose exploits is doubtfully ascribed to him; fragments only survive.
Callistinenics. See CALISTHENICS.
Callistratus. (1) Athenian orator, d. ab. 360 B.C. (2) supposed, author of the hymn in honor of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, often tr.
Callography. Generic term applied to all the reproductive processes among the Graphic Arts, when the printed impression, in permanent ink, is obtained from a gelatinous film,
which, after suitable treatment, receives the image from a photographic negative, and is capable of yielding, on the printing-press, many prints of commercial and artistic value. Many names are given to the results obtained from the gelatinous base, as Albertype, Heliotype, and Indotint. See PHOToGELATINE.
Callorhinus. See OTARIADAE. Callosity. See IschiAL CALLOSITY.
Callot, JACQUES, 1594–1635. known by his etchings.
Callus. Vegetable tissue formed by the renewed growth of cells, whose maturity has been reached, on being wounded, as in cutting or bruising a stem. A similar tissue forms normally in the sieve-plates during periods of repose.
Callus. Material exuded between and around the ends of broken bones, by means of which they unite, it being converted into true bone.
Calm. Absence of wind. Total absence is called a dead calm. When anemometers are used, a velocity too small to call for record appears as a calm; the corresponding limiting velocity therefore depends on the delicacy of the instrunment.
Calmar, UNION OF. Act passed 1397 at Calmar in Sweden, by which Sweden, Denmark, and Norway agreed to be henceforth under one sovereign, who should govern each according to its respective laws and customs.
Calm-Belt. Region such as that under the equatorial belt of low pressure, or under the tropical belts of high pressure, where calms or light baffling winds prevail.
Calmet, AUGUSTIN, 1672–1757. Benedictine monk 1689; abbot of Nancy 1718, and of Senones, in his native Lorraine, 1728. Commentary, 23 vols., 1707–16; History of Lorraine, 1728. His Dictionary of the Bible, 1722–28, tr. 1732, was long and highly valued.
Calmucks, or KALMUCKs. Mongolian race, found in central Asia and s. Russia; nomadic in their habits, and mostly adherents of Lamaism. They entered Russia 1758, but in 1771 a large body of them went back to China. Russia in Europe has ab. 110,000, of whom many are Buddhists; Asiatic Russia, ab. 55,000; China an unknown number.
Calomel. Hg,Cla. Mercurous chloride; found as a native mineral associated with cinnabar. It is used as a cathartic, especially when a very thorough effect is desired.
Calonne, CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE, 1734–1802. French financier, who, by heavy taxes and lavish borrowing, helped to bring on the Revolution; banished 1787.
Calophyllum. Genus of trees of the natural family Guttiferoe. Some species produce timber resembling mahogany, others medicinal resins. The fruit of most are edible and from which an oil is expressed, used in lamps. climates.
Calorescence (CALOR). When a beam of radiant energy is passed through a solution of iodine in bisulphide of carbon, all non-luminous rays are absorbed; but if the transmitted radiation be brought to a focus by a lens, a piece of platinum may be rendered luminous and become a source of radiation for rays of all lengths. If the light emitted by the platinum be examined by a prism, it will give a continuous spectrum. Prof. Tyndale investigated and named this phenomenon.
Caloric. Quantity of heat necessary to raise one kilogram of water one degree Centigrade. The British thermal unit equals 0.251996 of the French caloric, or the B. t. u. for a pound of water is ; of the French caloric to the kilogram. Conversely, the caloric is 3.968 B. t. u.
Caloric Engine, or HOT-AIR ENGINE. One in which the motive power is supplied by the expansion of air by heat. A given volume of air is brought in thin sheets into contact with heated metal, and is instantly expanded by that heat. This expansive force is exerted against a piston to drive it outward. When the outward stroke is completed, the air is either exhausted, or, better still, is transferred to a cooling-jacket where its heat is withdrawn, and its volume diminished, so that atmospheric pressure may become greater than the inside pressure, and help to carry the working piston inward again. Most of the caloric engines have two .. at 90° with each other, so that the phase of the cranks may so influence the pistons as to give the maximum effect to the increase and decrease of volume of air. The best known are Stirling's, Wilcox's, Roper's, Shaw's, Ericcson's, Belou's, Laubereau's, Rider's, and Merrill's. In some of them the products of the combustion of the fire have been passed through the cylinder; in one the pressure of the air is
French genre artist, best
Natives of warm
kept up by compression above two atmospheres. One great Calotype. Photographic process invented by Dr. Fox limitation of the caloric engine is the fact that for large powers Talbot 1840; since known as the TALBOTYPE (q.v.).
Calovius, or Kalaj, ABRAHAM, 1612-1686. Lutheran theologian, prof. at Königsberg 1637 and Wittenberg 1650; opponent of CALIXTUS (q.v.), whom he accused of SYNCRETISM (q.v.).
Caloyers. Monks of Greek Ch.
Calpee. Town of India; taken by Sir Hugh Rose after defeating the Sepoys, May 22–23, 1858.
Calpurnius Siculus. Roman pastoral poet, imitator of Virgil and Theocritus.
Calthrops. Sponge spicules with four rays, so placed that any three being used for a tripod support, the fourth points upward; present in the genus Theonella.
Caltrop, or CROW'S-Foot. Sharp four-pronged piece of
Caltrops. Tribulus terrestris. Low plant of
exceedingly bitter root.
Calumba Root. Jateorhiza Calumba. Climbing shrub it becomes of great weight and bulk. Their theoretical efficiency of the Moonseed family, bearing large roots of officinal repute, is less than 50 per cent. See GAS ENGINE.
native of the e. coast of Africa. The False Calumba (Coscinum Calorific Power. Capacity of a body to give off heat fenestratum) of the same family is a native of Ceylon. when rapidly combined chemically with oxygen, or burned. It Calumet. Peace-pipe used by Indians after signing a is an exact measure also of the amount of heat necessary to de- treaty. The bowl is usually of red soapstone, and the stem of compose the combination with oxygen. The following table reed or painted wood, ab. 21 ft. long. gives the calorific power of a number of the ordinary combus
Calvaert, DENIS, 1555-1619. Flemish painter. tibles in British thermal units.
Calvary. Place of Our Lord's crucifixion; possibly the
skull-shaped eminence near Jeremiah's Grotto; often repreCombustible.
Power. sented in R. C. devotions.
ter. Hydrogen (H) 162,000 a Graphite
Calverley, CHARLES STUART, 1831-1884. English poet and Marsh Gas (CH) 23,513 a Coke
translator. His Fly Leaves, 1872, contain some excellent huOlefiant Gas (CH) 21,344 a Lignites
12,240 b morous verse. Literary Remains, 1885. Petroleum 21,000 b Peat
9,000 b Calvert, FREDERICK CRACE, 1819–1873. English chemist Turpentine 19,533 a Peat (20 per c. 1,0) 7,200 b
who succeeded in making known the disinfecting value of carSpermaceti 18,616 a Dry Wood
7,200 b bolic acid. Dyeing and Calico-printing, 1878. Ord. Ill. Gas
18,000 b (Wood (20 per c. H,O) 5,6001 b Ether 16,250 a C to CÒ
Calvert, GEORGE. See BALTIMORE, LORD. Anth'cite Coal,Fr'ch 15,689 b CO to CO,
4,325 a Calvert, GEORGE HENRY, 1803–1889. American dramatist, Carbon 14,544 a Sulphur
3,966 a poet, and journalist, descended from Lord Baltimore. Anthracite Coal, Pa 14,414 b Iron Furn. Gas 1,620 6 Bitu. Coal, mean 14,400 b
Calvert, LEONARD, ab. 1606–1647. Gov. of Md. from 1634;
brother of Cecil, Lord Baltimore. (a) From experiments of Favre and Silberman.
Calvi. Seaport of Corsica, surrendered to the British Aug. (b) Calculated from Morin and Tresca.
10, 1794, after 59 days' siege; retaken 1795. Calorimeter. Apparatus used in tests of boilers to deter- Calvin, JOHN, 1509–1564. French reformer. Driven from mine the percentage of water entrained with the steam in the Paris, he went to Basel steam-pipe. The most usual is the barrel calorimeter proposed | 1535, and in 1541 settled as by Hirn. A barrel containing a known weight of water at an pastor in Geneva, where observed temperature stands on a scale platform. Steam is he soon became all-powerblown into the water through a hose from the steam-pipeful, exerting also a wide where the observation is to be made until a given weight is and deep influence through condensed, and the new temperature is observed after the w. Europe by his books water has been stirred. Then from either of two formulæ, and letters. He was the U-Hx+(W-x)h or U-Wh + Lx, the per cent of steam in the foremost champion of exsample added to the barrel can be determined. In these for- treme Protestant orthomulæ,
U total heat units imparted to water; H — heat units doxy, and merciless towimparted per pound of steam; h - heat units imparted per ard heresy, as in Servepound of water; W – weight of steam and water added to the tus' case. His works in barrel; x = weight of steam alone, and L - latent heat of an incomplete tr. fill 52 steam at the pressure used. Such devices give unreliable re- vols. Most important are sults, except in the most careful hands, showing wide varia- the Institutes, 1536–59. tions where none exist. The continuous calorimeters proposed Calvin, SAMUEL, b. by Van Buren, Skeel, Hoadley, Kent, and Barrus avoid several | 1840. Prof. Univ. Iowa; elements of uncertainty in the barrel method. The term is State geologist. also applied in boiler practice to the aggregate area of the
Calvinism. System of openings in the tubes through which the hot gases pass,
doctrine developed by St. Calorimotor. Form of galvanic cell devised by Dr. Hare Augustine, revived by Calof Phila., in which the internal resistance is reduced to a mini
vin, and accepted in varymum. In one form large sheets of copper and of zinc, sepa- ing shapes by the Rerated by a layer of cloth, are rolled into a cylinder. Ordinarily formed churches of Switza few large plates of zinc, connected together, are combinederland. France, Germany.
John Calvin. with a few large copper plates, also connected. When the Netherlands, and in En. plates are immersed in acidulated water, the calorimotor, ow-gland and America by Presbyterians, Congregationalists, most ing to its low internal resistance, gives a large current, and is Baptists, and many Anglicans. Starting with the Divine Decapable of remarkably powerful heating effects.
crees, it proceeds logically through Effectual Calling to the Calottistes. Society of wits in the time of Louis XIV.; Perseverance of Saints. It has in all lands and periods pronamed from the Calotte (skull-cap), which they invited the voked vehement controversy, and is now held in modified objects of their satire to wear; dissolved by Fleury ab. 1720. forms by most of its professed adherents.
Calvinistic Methodists. Sect originating with Whitefield 1741, and now strongest in Wales.
Cam. In machine design, an organ by which a rotary motion is transformed into a reciprocating one. The rotar motion may be continuous or a rocking motion through a small angle. In this second case the cam is called a “wiper.” The usual cam is a non-circular disk rotating round a center, and imparting motion to a rod by pressing its edge against a roller on the end of the latter. Where the weight of the rod cannot be utilized to bring it back to its original position, a side-cam must be used, in which a projecting ledge passes between two rollers on the rod. A roller in a groove is objectionable on account of the wear at the opposite points, when the motion of the roller must be instantly reversed. Cams are much used for moving the valves of large steam engines, in printing-press and sewing-machine work, and in special automatic manufacturing machinery.
Cam, Diogo. Portuguese explorer, who discovered the mouth of the Congo 1484, and sailed to 22°s. lat.
Camaldolites, or CAMALDULIANS. Order of monks founded 1012 by Romuald, ab. 950-1027, at Camaldoli near Arezzo; removed to Venice 1212.
Natural family of flowering plants, of cuse 599 B.C.
Camarilla. Courtiers, in Spain and elsewhere, as against ministers of state.
Camarina. Ancient city of s. Sicily, founded from Syra
Camarosaurus. Most gigantic of land animals. A Dinosaur, described in 1878 by E. D. Cope, had both fore and hind limbs well developed, the tail long and large, one dorsal vertebra 3 ft. in diameter, and the femur 6 ft. long; the total length was 80 feet. In the lower cretaceous beds of Dakota was found a similar animal but of more slender build, Amphicoelias alatus, which, it has been estimated, could browse from branches 30 ft. high, and in length may have exceeded Camarosaurus. A vertebra has been found which was 6 ft. high; this must have belonged to a Dinosaur over 100 ft. long.
Étage C. of Bar
rande Primordial Fauna.
Regiones A and B of
Angelin and Regio fucoidaum.
dependent kingdom, it became tributary to Siam ab, 1545, later Christi 1352. It now has 17 endowed colleges and 3" hostels. » to Annam, and is now held by France, Area 32,390 sq. m.; pop. | The young women in Newnham and Girton colleges are adab. 1,500,000.
mitted to the Cambridge examinations, but do not obtain Cambon. JOSEPH, 154–1820. Financier of the French Rev- | degrees. There are ab. 3,000 students. The Univ. library conolution.
tains over 400,000 vols. and MSS., and some of the college
libraries are of high value. Cambray, BATTLE OF. See SPURS. Cambray, LEAGUE OF. Dec. 10, 1508, between Pope Julius
Cambro-Silurian. System or series of rocks formerly II., the Emperor Maximilian, Louis XII. of France, and Ferdi- called the Lower Silurian; now usually known as Ordovi
cian. nand of Spain, for the purpose of partitioning Venice.
Cambuskenneth. In Scotland, near Stirling; scene of a Cambray, PEACE OF. Treaty between Francis I. and
defeat of the English by Wallace, Sept. 10, 1297. Charles V., negotiated 1529 by Louisa of Savoy, Francis' mother, and Margaret of Austria, Charles' aunt; hence called Paix Cambyses. Second king of Persia, son of Cyrus the Great. des Dames.
He reigned 529-22 B.C.; conquered Egypt 525, and was detested Cambria. Wales; land of the Cimbri or Cymry.
for his cruelties. Cambrian. System or series of fossiliferous rocks lying Camden. City of Camden co., N. J.,on the Delaware oppoimmediately below the Ordovician. The term is derived from site Philadelphia. Pop., 1890, 58,313. N. Wales (ancient Cambria), where some of the strata were first
Camden, S. C. Scene of two battles of the Revolution. In studied by Sedgwick. Much difference of opinion exists as to
the first, Aug. 16, 1780, Cornwallis defeated Gates, mortally the extent and subdivision of these rocks; their general rela
wounding Baron De Kalb; in the other, April 25, 1781, Greene tionship is given below. The lowest Cambrian strata contain
| was repulsed by the English. the oldest undisputed fauna known. Even here, however, we find well represented almost all the groups of Ínvertebrates. Camden, CHARLES PRATT, EARL OF, 1713–1794. Chief-justice Trilobites are exceptionally well developed. These facts prove of Common Pleas 1762, baron 1765, lord-chancellor 1766-70, pres. a long preceding era, the life of which is totally unknown. | of council from 1782, earl 1786. N. America.
Bohemia. Sweden. Camden, WILLIAM, 1551-1623. English antiquary. BriPotsdam.
tannia, 1586. He is commemorated by the Camden Society, Knox (Tenn.) Tremadoc Slate.
founded 1838 to publish old documents bearing on British Tonto (Ariz.)
history. Belle I. (Nd.) Lingula Flags.
Camel. Genus Camelus. Ruminating animal, with outer St. John (N. B.)
| upper incisors present and tusk-like, as is also the first premolar. Braintree (Mass.) Menevian.
Canine teeth present, upper lip cleft, nostrils closable at will, 25 Avalon (Nid.) Solna.
neck vertebræ long, two toes functional, and with pads and nails, Georgia (Vt.) Caerfai Group.
One hump of fat on back of Dromedary (Arabian camel), and Placentia (Nfd.) Harlech Grit.
two humps on Bactrian species of Central Asia. Stomach has 30 ( Prospect (Nev.) Llanberis Slate.
no manyplies, the lumen has water-cells. A camel can travel Cambric. Finest linen fabric, first made at Cambray, n. 300 m. in 5 days without drinking. Color sandy, rarely white, France.
length 10 ft., height 7 ft. Wild camel, supposed to have escaped
from owners, is found in Asia and in Arizona. The camel has Cambridge. Town of England, on the Cam, 50 m. n. of
keen sight and scent, lives ab. 30 yrs., and brings forth one foal London; chartered 1200; seat of the famous university. Pop.,
at a time. The Arabian camel's load averages 500 lbs., the 1891, 36,983.
Bactrian can carry twice the weight, but only for short disCambridge City of Middlesex co., Mass., on Charles R., tances. Its gait is ab. 24 m. per hour. Some of the camels closely adjacent to Boston, of which it is in effect a suburb; bred for speed and known as dromedaries travel 100 m. a day. chiefly noted as the seat of Harvard University, the oldest Camels have been successfully imported into Australia for ex(founded in 1636) and in most respects the best equipped of ploration of the interior, and in 1857 the U. S. made a similar American institutions of learning. It has some manufacturing successful experiment in New Mexico and Arizona. The Civil interests and several publishing houses. It was founded as War prevented the extension of their use, but camels are still "Newe Town” 1631, incorporated 1633, and chartered 1846. employed in Nevada. See TYLOPA. For American camels see Pop., 1890, 70,028.
GUANACO, LLAMA, VICUNA. Cambridge, ADA. See CROSS, MRS. A. C.
Camel. Device for floating vessels over shoals. Cambridge Divinity School. Department of Harvard Camellia. Genus of showy-flowered shrubs of the natural Univ.; founded 1819; undenominational. It has 6 professors family Ternstroemiacere, natives of e. Asia, widely cultivated. and ab. 36 students.
The Chinese extract an oil from the seeds. Cambridge Greensand. See CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. Camelopardellidæ, or DEVEXA. Family of the section
Pecord of the sub-order Ruminantia. The Giraffe, the only Cambridge Platform. System of Congregational dis-ji
| living representative, is adapted for feeding upon the leaves of cipline adopted for their government June 1648 by the New
trees by having an extremely long neck and vertical develop England churches.
ment of the front of the body, which causes the back to slope Cambridge Platonists. Liberal theologians of Emanuel strongly toward the tail. There are but the normal number (7) Coll., Cambridge, ab. 1650. They included Cudworth, Which of cervical vertebræ. Short, persistent horns, consisting of cot, H. More, and J. Smith.
separate ossifications placed on the sutures between the frontal
and parietals, and covered by a hairy skin, exist in both sexes. Cambridge, UNIVERSITY OF. Originated 1110. The first
A central horn of similar nature is placed upon the sagittal suture. There are but two toes to the feet. The animal lives south of the Sahara, and is sometimes 18 ft. high, but is inoffensive. The name Camelopard is due to its being spotted like the leopard and having a long neck like the camel.
Camelot. One of King Arthur's capitals, by some identified with Queen's Camel, Somersetshire. Shakespeare's C. is Tintagel or Camelford in Cornwall.
Camenæ. Roman name for the Nine Muses. It originally designated certain fountain nymphs who presided over childbirth, and had the gift of prophecy.
Cameniata, JOANNES. Greek historian, who wrote on the capture of Thessalonica by the Arabs 904.
Cameo. Engraved gem in relief, generally cut from a stone like agate or onyx, with layers of different colors, so that the design appears in one or more colors on a background of another color. This art flourished in highest perfection during
the Alexandrian period and under the early Roman Empire, Large Quadrangle, Trinity College, Cambridge.
but was revived by the Renaissance. college, Peterhouse, was founded 1286, Pembroke 1347, Corpus Cameralist. Financier; a person skilled in the principles
Camera Obscura. Instrument invented ab. 1569 by Baptista Porta of Naples. It consists of a dark room or box, into which rays of light from without are admitted through a very small opening. If a screen be placed in the chamber opposite the opening, inverted images of outside objects will be obtained on the screen in their natural colors, but reduced in size. It was soon found that a convex lens placed in such an opening produced a much sharper and, because of the much greater quantity of light admitted, much brighter image. The chief use of the camera at present is for photographic purposes, in which case the screen is replaced by a sensitive plate upon which the image is thrown.
Camp. Any temporary location for troops in campaign, where, under tents or improvised shelter, they may sojourn for a brief period; when without shelter they are said to be in bivouac. Camps are also established to hold important military positions, and to invest or lay siege to a strongly defended work; e.g., at Petersburg, Va., 1864–65. The choice of location, form, arrangement, etc., are greatly influenced by the object of its ...t. and in time of war, owing to liability of attack by surprise, these must conform to tactical requirements for rapidity of formation and movement.
Campan, JEANNE LOUISE HENRIETTE, 1752–1822. French teacher, Memoirs of Marie Antoinette, 1823.
Campana Collection OF ANTIQUITIES. In the Louvre, Paris; especially rich in Greek vases and in Etruscan objects; purchased from the Vatican 1861.
Camp and Garrison Equipage. Articles issued by the quartermaster, relating to the domestic rather than the warlike purpose of the soldier, and carried by an army in the field or used in garrison, such as tents, fittings, camp utensils, shovels, axes, and clothing.
Campanella, ToMMAso, 1568–1639. Italian philosopher and poet, imprisoned at Naples 1599–1626, and seven times tortured. After some years at Rome, he went to France, 1634, to escape Spanish persecution. He was a Dominican monk, with opinions in some respects beyond his time. Spanish Monarchy, 1640; tr. 1658; De Semsu Rerum, 1620; Civitas Solis, 1623; Atheismus Triumphatus, 1631; Philosophia Rationalis, 1637; Philosophia Universalis seu Metaphysica, 1638.
Campania. Ancient province of w. Italy, s. of Latium; a favorite retreat of the Roman nobles in summer; originally inhabited by the Oscans, who were conquered by the Etruscans. The Campani of Roman times were a mixed race.