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son is hollow, and into it compressed air is forced so as to expel the water and permit workmen to excavate the earth. Access to and from the caisson is effected through an air lock. Foundao - tions ab. 100 ft. deep - have been sunk by this - method.

- Caisson Disease. Disease peculiar to persons, such as divers, who are exposed to excessive pressure of air; characterized by severe * pains in almost any portion of the body, loss of feeling or paralysis in the legs, and retention or incontinence of urine; believed to be due to interference with a roper circulation of the lood in the spinal cord. It attacks workmen who remain too long in the compressed air of a pneumatic caisson. The chief engineer of the Brooklyn bridge, W. A. Roebling, has been an invalid for many years, owing to his too zealous devotion to the work of founding the towers of that great structure in


Caius, John, M.D., 1510–1573. Physician to Edward VI., Mary "-- and Elizabeth; founder - of Caius College, Caisson, Bridge of Kehl on the Rhine. Cambridge, 1557, and its master 1559. Sweating Sickness, 1552.

Cajeput. Oil derived by distillation from the leaves of Melaleuca minor, tree of the Myrtle family, native of AustralaSla.

Cajetan, THOMAS (DE VIO), 1469–1534. General of the Dominican order 1508; cardinal 1517, and pope's lo in Germany; encountered Luther at Augsburg 1518; Bp. of Gaeta 1519. Commentary on Aquinas' Summa, 1507–22.

Caking Coal. Bituminous coal that becomes pasty and runs together into a coherent mass when heated to a high temperature under proper conditions. To what this change is due is not understood. Coke is made from this coal. The coal fields of s, w. Pa. are rich in it. Westmoreland, Pa., coal contains 60 fixed carbon, 33 volatile matter, and 7 ash. See COAL.

Calaba. Calophyllum Calaba. Tree of the Gamboge family, native of tropical America.

Calabar Bean. Physostigma venemosum. Vine of the Bean family, bearing poisonous and medicinal seeds; native of tropical Africa. It is used by the natives of Africa as an ordeal poison and employed in medicine as an antispasmodic. Is highly poisonous and contains two alkaloids, eserine or physostigmine and calabarine, the former of which is used to contract the pupil and in the treatment of a number of diseases of the eye.

Calabash. , Large tree of the natural family Bigmoniaceae, Crescentia Cujete, native of tropical America. The shells of the fruit are applied to the manufacture of bowls, spoons, etc.

Calabria. (1) Ancient province of s. e. Italy. (2) S.w. Italy, anciently Bruttium.

Calais. Seaport of n. France, on Strait of Dover; taken after a year's siege by Edward III. 1347; held by England till 1558, and by Spain 1596–98. Pop., 1891, 56,867.

Calamander Wood. Diospyros quaesita. Large tree of the Ebony family, native of Ceylon. Its very hard wood is used in the manufacture of boxes, etc.

Calambac Wood. Aloeacylon Agallochum. Tree of the Bean family, producing highly odoriferous wood, used in perfumery; native of Cochin China.

Calamine. Zn,SiO,--aq. Several minerals that contain zinc.; especially the hydrous zinc silicate, one of the most valuable zinc ores. See SMITHSONITE.

Calamint. Fragrant, perennial herb of the Mint family, genus Calamintha. A decoction of the leaves is used as a medicine in chest troubles.


Calamites. Genus of Carboniferous plants closely allied to the modern scouringrushes (Equisetum), but much larger. Their remains occur abundantly in the Coal Measures, usually in the form of fluted casts of the central cavities of the stem. They flourished in Carboniferous and Triassic eras, forming large trees, whose trunks and foliage contributed largely to the material from which coal has been formed.

C a la modendron. Genus of fossil plants allied to, or identical with, Calamites; closely related to the scouring-rushes of to-day, but with stems more highly developed. Calamus. A c or us Calamus. Plant of the natural family Araceae, growing in swamps in the n. hemisphere. Called Sweet-flag, and planted for its officinal roots. Calamus. Tubular, horny quill of a feather; thence reedpen of the ancients. Calamus, SweeT. Grass of the genus Andropogon, native of India, yielding a perfumery oil. Calamy, EDMUND, 1600–1666. One of the Westminster divines, and one of the authors of the document signed, from their joint initials, “Smectymnuus,” 1641. He declined a bishopric, and was ejected 1662.-His grandson and namesake, 1671– 1732, was another eminent London Nonconformist. Caland, PIETER, b. 1826. Dutch engineer, noted for coastworks, as at Rotterdam. Calas, JEAN, d. 1762. Protestant tradesman of Toulouse, unjustly executed for murder. Voltaire vindicated his memory, protected his family, and made his case famous. Calathiform. Bowl-shaped corollas of certain plants. Calatrava, ORDER OF. Founded 1158 by Sancho III. of Castile. Calaverite. AuTei. Gold and silver telluride, named from Calaveras co., Cal. Calcar. Spurs of rasorial birds; also rudiments of hind limbs of certain snakes. Calcarate (SPURRED). Projections from the corolla or calyx of flowers.

Calcarea. See CALCISPONGLE. Calcareous Spar. See CALCITE.

Calceolate. Having the form of a slipper or shoe, as the flowers of Calceolaria and Cypripedium.

Calehas. Greek soothsayer at Troy.

Calciferous Glands. On the spinal root-ganglia of frogs, which secrete a chalky substance.


Calcispongiae, or CALCAREA. Calcareous sponges, i.e., those whose skeleton consists of separate, needle-like, or often six to eight-rayed calcareous spicules. There are three families: Asconidae, Leuconidae, and Sycomidae. o are the simplest and most regular sponges. A fossil family has been discovered whose spicules are interwoven like the strands of a rope. This group is named Pharetromes.

Calcite. CaCOs. Natural calcium carbonate containing 44 per cent carbonic dioxide; one of the most abundant minerals, occurring under diverse conditions and in a great variety of forms, many being known by independent names, as Iceland Spar. Dog-tooth Spar, Satin Spar, Argentine, Calcareous Spar, Calc-Spar, etc. When pure, it is colorless and frequently transparent. Its fundamental crystalline form, obtained by cleavage, is an obtuse rhombohedron. Transparent varieties exhibit the phenomena of double refraction. It is the essential mineral constituent of common limestone, and, with magnesium carbonate, makes the rock dolomite. It is common as a gangue in deposits of silver, copper, and lead ores.

Calcium. Ca. At.wt. 39.65, Sp. gr. 1.577, Sp. ht. 0.17. Prepared by Bunsen as an amalgam; afterward, 1856, in metallic condition by Matthiessen. It occurs in limestone, marble, chalk, coral, calc-spar, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, etc. It may be




obtained by electrolysis of the chloride, or by heating sodium with calcium iodide in a closed vessel. It is a yellow metal, tenacious and malleable. It is rapidly oxidized in moist air, and decomposes water with violence. Calcium Carbonate. CaCO. Widely distributed in nature, occurring chiefly as limestone, marble, dolomite, and chalk. It occurs as ICELAND SPAR and ARAGONITE (q.v.). It is made by treating a soluble calcium salt with a solution of ammonium carbonate; is insoluble in water, soluble in the ordinary acids and in a water solution of carbon dioxide, and is used as a flux for the manufacture of glass, for the preparation of lime, and in metallurgical processes.

Calcium Chloride. CaCl2. tion with other chlorides and in sea-water. It is made by dissolving lime or calcium carbonate in hydrochloric acid. It is extremely soluble in water, and is very deliquescent; hence it finds wide application as a drying agent.

Calcium Fluoride. CaF. Starting-point in the preparation of other fluorine compounds; used extensively as a flux. See FLUORITE or FLUOR-SPAR.

Calcium Hydroxide. Ca(OH)2. Made by treating lime with water. It is used for various purposes; for mortar, purifying gas, preparation of bleaching-powder, removing the hair from hides, etc.

Calcium Oxide. CaO. LIME. Made by heating limestone; soluble in water and the common acids. When exposed to the air it takes up the moisture and carbon dioxide, and thus becomes air-slaked.

Calcium Phosphates. Tertiary or normal calcium phosphate, Ca,(PO,), is found in nature as APATITE and PHOSPHORITE (q.v.). It is one of the chief constituents of animal bones. Not soluble in water, but can be converted into a soluble form by treatment with sulphuric acid. Its principal use is for the manufacture of artificial fertilizers. Secondary calcium phosphate, CaBHPO, H-2H,0, is sometimes found in guano, and made by treating a solution of a calcium salt with secondary sodium phosphate. Primary calcium phosphate, Cah,(PO,), is soluble in water and used extensively as a fertilizer. Made by treating the normal phosphate with sulphuric acid. The mixture of this phosphate and calcium sulphate is sold as “superphosphate of lime,” as an agricultural.

Calcium Phosphide. Casp. Made by passing phosphorus vapors over heated lime. Treated with water it yields phosphine.

Calcium Silicate. crystalline substance. See WOLLASTONITE.

Calcium Sulphate. CaSO4. Found abundantly in nature as ANHYDRITE and GYPSUM (q.v.). Gypsum contains two molecules of water, which it loses on being heated, forming a fine white powder, which when treated with water absorbs it and hardens; hence it is used extensively for hard finish of walls, molding figures, etc., under the name of plaster of Paris or plaster.

Calcium Sulphide. CaS. Made by heating calcium sulphate with charcoal. It is phosphorescent, and is used in the manufacture of objects that are luminous in the dark, match-boxes, clock-faces, etc.

Calc sinter, or CALC TUFA. Loosely aggregated concretionary mass of calcite, deposited by evaporation from calcareous waters. See TRAVERTINE.

Calculating Machines. The abacus, an apparatus for

Found in nature in combina

CaSiO3. Found in nature as a white It is a constant constituent of glass.

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devices and machines for multiplication have been proposed, as by Plato, Pascal, and Leibnitz. Napier's bones and Gunter's scale were invented for the purpose of abridging numerical operations. An elaborate machine, planned by Babbage 1822 to perform all kinds of numerical operations, was begun by the English government, but never completed. Calculating machines have not come into general use, on account of the skilled labor required to operate them, as well as on account of their high cost. A machine built by Scheutz in Denmark is owned by the Dudley Observatory at Albany, N. Y., which can calculate tables to fifteen places of decimals. Webb's adder is a simple apparatus for adding a column of figures none of which exceeds 100. Auchincloss's averaging machine is a scale on which weights can be moved to perform computations in the equation of payments. Thacher's calculating machine is a series of slide rules arranged in cylindrical form, and is useful when only four places of figures are required in a product or quotient.

Calculi. Concretions of various kinds which occur occasionally in the hollow organs and canals of the body. Disease of the organs acts as predisposing cause, and in the case of bladder stones limestone waters seem to produce them. In the bladder they are composed of ammonio-phosphates of lime and magnesia, oxalate of lime, uric acid, and rarely of cystine; in the kidneys, of uric acid or oxalate of lime; in the gall bladder, of cholesterine: occasionally in the salivary ducts and nasal passages, of phosphate and carbonate of lime; in the appendix coecum, of faeces, sometimes covered with carbonate and phosphate of lime and of albuminous mucus.

Calculus. Group of operations in the same general field, as Calculus of Radicals, and of Numbers.

Calculus, DIFFERENTIAL. This considers the simultaneous changes of related quantities at an instant. To reach the instantaneous change, various theories have been held: that of indefinitely small quantities, called “infinitesimals”; that of “rates of change"; that of “limit,” as the change in one element approaches zero. They give substantially the same results. The formal beginnings of the Differential Calculus were made, probably independently, by Newton in England and Leibnitz in Germany ab. 1670–75. The first adequate systematic statement was by Euler 1755. In recent discussions the terms and notation of Leibnitz are used, while the theories and processes of Newton are dominant. Newton called his analysis “Fluxions.”

Calculus, INTEGRAL. Complement of Differential Calculus. It seeks to determine from given differential elements and relations the functions from which these arose. It has a wide application in the measurement of lines, areas, and volumes, and in physical problems. While all functions may be differentiated, integration presents some of the most, puzzling problems in mathematics, and is not always possible with present knowledge.

Calculus OF FINITE DIFFERENCES. This deals with the ratios of simultaneous changes in quantities mutually related. The Differential Calculus deals with the limits of such ratios, as one element of the ratio approaches zero.

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merce, receiving nearly all the produce of the country on the Ganges and Bramapootra, and shipping it by sea. Fort William was built here 1696 with factories of the E. India Co. In 1756 the place was taken and sacked by Surajah Dowlah. See BLACK Hole. In 1757 it was retaken by the British under Clive. It contains several colleges, and a university founded 1857 and attended by nearly 3,000 students. Pop., 1891, including suburbs, 840,130, of whom ab. 20,000 are Europeans.

Caldara, ANTONIo, ab. 1670–ab.1736. Italian composer of opera and ch. music.

Caldas Barbosa, DOMINGOs, 1740–1800. Portuguese poet, b. in Brazil of a slave mother.

Caldecott, RANDOLPH, 1846–1886. English artist and illustrator.

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Caledonian Canal. Across Scotland s. w. from Inverness through a chain of lochs to the Atlantic. Its, whole length is 61 m., of which 23 are artificial. It is navigable for ships of 600 tons.

Calendar. Method of distributing time into epochs adapted to the purposes of life, such as years, months, and days. Many different systems have been and are now, emo all of which are based in some manner on the motions, real or apparent, of the earth, sun, and moon. As these motions are not commensurable, it is impossible to form a perfect calendar.

Calendar, GREGORIAN. The true length of the year is 365d. 5h. 48m. 47.8s.; the Julian year is therefore too long b 11m. 14s., or a little more than 3 days in 400 years. Accordingly, in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII. introduced the following changes: the error of 10 days, which had accumulated since the Council of Nice, was corrected; and it was provided that for the future all centenary years not divisible by 400 should be common years of 365 days. (The year 1900 is divisible by 4, but not by 400. It will therefore be counted as a common year of 365 days.) The outstanding error will amount to one day only after the expiration of 3,323 years.

Calendar, HEBREW. A so-called lunar calendar, the more important unit being the month, the mean value of which is assumed to be 29d. 12h. 44m. 34s. The year always contains 12 or 13 months, the length of the month being alternately 29 and 30 days, subject to adjustment by a somewhat complex system. The mean length of the year is 365d. 5h.55m. 25;}s.

he actual year of 12 months may contain 353, 354, or 355 days; the embolismic year of 13 months may contain 383, 384, or 385 days. The calendar dates from the creation of the world, assumed to be 3,760 years and 3 months B.C.

Calendar, JULIAN. Established by Julius Caesar 46 B.C., and made official for the Church at the Council of Nice A. D. 325; still used where the religion is that of the Greek Church. The year is assumed to consist of 365+ days. A common year contains 365 days, and a leap year, i.e., any year divisible by 4, 366.

Calendar, MoHAMMEDAN. Lunar, the year consisting of 12 lunations, the months beginning with new moon, approximately. The length of the year may be 354 or 355 days, the mean is 354}}.

Calendar OF SAINTS. Catalogue of such men and women as have o by the R. C. Ch., especially the Pope, to be certainly in Heaven, and capable, if invoked, of interceding ef

fectually with God for the faithful; this declaration being their ing the dye.

Canonization, or, if of only local effect, their Beatification.

Calendar, ROMAN. This formed the basis of the calendars used in European countries. Before the reformation by Julius Caesar the method was cumbersome, inconvenient, and subject to considerable uncertainty. These difficulties were obviated by the adoption of the Julian Calendar 46 B.C.

Calendarium. Ancient calendar, on the four faces of a shaft, with the zodiacal signs, length of days, and astronomical and agricultural information.

Calendering. Process of giving finish by pressure to the surface of linen, cotton, or other textiles. The material is passed between heated cylinders, or calenders, which revolve under great pressure. The machine, greatly improved in modern times, was originally introduced by the #.

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Calico Printing. This art can be traced to 2,000 years before the Christian era, the oldest known coloring matter being probably indigo. The name calico is derived from Calicut, in India, whence it was first imported into England 1627, was first manufactured in Switzerland 1689 and in 1746 at Mulhouse, France. The principal countries in order of importance enaged in the industry are England, U. S., France, Germany, ś. Austria, and Russia. The most primitive way of partially dyeing cloth was by previously binding it with cord. In those places where most firmly tied the color would not penetrate, and the result was a calico of a simple pattern of dyed and undyed spots. Next came the “resist,” in which some substance such as pipe clay, wax, etc., was applied, which would prevent the cloth from absorbing the dye and thus leave a colored cloth with uncolored figures. . This led to block printing, in which the dyestuff was applied by the “block,” a smooth piece of wood or metal which had the design cut or etched upon it. This was dipped into the color, the excess removed, and then pressed upon the cloth either by hand or press. The “Perrotine” was the most noted of block presses. Next came the roller printing-machine. In this the design is etched or cut in a smooth copper roller, each color requiring an individual roller. The largest machines have twenty rollers and can produce a design of twenty tints; usually four to six are used. In the calico printing machine the cloth enters the machine already bleached and singed, being backed by a piece of unbleached material and a blanket. The latter prevents injury to the etched roller from friction and aids the cloth in absorbThe rollers through which the cloth passes consist of the one with the design and a smooth roller working

Calendula officinalis.



parallel to it, which furnishes the pressure. From the first set the cloth passes to others similarly arranged, until the entire figure has been produced. The dye is applied by a color roll which works both against the etched roll as well as in the color pan. The dye is thickened with boiled starch, dextrine, and various gums. The excess of dye is removed from the printing roll by a blade known as the “color doctor.” It is next printed, and any loose lint which the roll may have gathered is removed by means of a flat blade known as the “lint doctor.” When completely printed the cloth receives such treatment as is needed for the fixation of the various colors. Of the operations involved in calico-printing some are peculiar to certain styles only, while others are common to all. Patterns are produced in various “styles,” among which are the following: 1. Madder Style—in which the nordant, such as aluminium acetate, ferrus acetate, etc., is printed in design and the color later developed in a dye-bath of madder, logwood, etc. 2. Padded Style—in which the cloth is uniformly dyed all over with one color and a design of some other color printed upon it. 3. Steam Style, or surface printing—the color is printed with the mordant or fixing agent, and rendered fast b steaming. Among these are mineral and aniline colors, aniline black, lake and pigment printing. Egg and blood albumen are often used as the fixing agent in steam colors, the albumen being rendered insoluble by the action of steam. 4. Resist Style, or “reserved "style—in which a substance is printed which prevents color from entering the yarn where it is applied. 5. Discharged Style—in which the dyed cloth is printed with a substance which removes the dye. Another class of dyes are developed by printing one colorless salt and then subjecting the whole to a process of reduction, oxidation or precipitation of that salt, forming a colored compound. Among these may be mentioned manganese brown, chrome yellow, iron buff, and aniline black.

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California. One of the Pacific States; area 158,360 sq. m. Its middle is a great valley stretching from n. to s., parallel to the Pacific Coast. West of this valley is the Coast Range, and on the east is the Sierra Nevada, which separates it from the deserts of Nevada, reaches an elevation in its s. part of nearly 15,000 ft., and at the s. end sweeps around and joins the Coast Range. Further s. the country is broken with irregular hills and low mountains, falling to the eastward into the Mohave and Soda Lake deserts, which extend to the Colorado River.

The industry which settled C. was gold-mining. With the exhaustion of its placers came the discoveries of quartz-mines and cement-deposits, and hydraulic mining took the place of the primitive methods of placer-mining. As these mines have come to yield less freely, agriculture, and particularly the raising of cereals, have become of far greater relative in portance, while in the south the production of wine and the raising of tropical fruits have become an industry of great importance. Its railway system is well developed; 4,336 m. were in operation in 1891.

The coast of Lower C. (Mexican), was discovered 1534 by Mendoza and Grijalva, two companions of Cortez. In 1542 the coast of Upper C. was explored as far as Cape Mendocino by Cabrillo; in 1578 Sir Francis Drake coasted along its shores and reached a point as far north as 48° n. lat. The Jesuit missionaries established permanent missions in Lower C.; in 1767 they were expelled by the King of Spain and their possessions turned over to the Franciscan monks, who established numerous missions in Upper C.

When Mexico became independent of Spain, C. was included in its dominion; already a considerable trade had sprung up with the Atlantic States, carried on by vessels making the voyage around Cape Horn. The possession of C. by the U. S. was effected partly by a bold stroke of policy. The attention of the country had been called to it as a desirable accession, and in 1846 Gen. Fremont, while engaged in C. in a scientific expedition, by verbal instructions from the Government, it is supposed, called his men together and counseled a declaration of independence. . A day or two preceding Fremont's nove a U. S. frigate had arrived at Monterey, hoisted the U. S. flag, and declared by proclamation of its commander that C. was a part of the U. § Some fighting with the natives followed, but the country was pacified in a few months, and at the close of the war then waging with Mexico over the accession of Texas, a treaty was signed ceding to the U.S. all of Upper C., in addition to New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah.

This cession was almost immediately followed by the news of the discovery of gold, which brought settlers into the Territory from all directions.


Discussion in Congress as to what should be done with C. began two years before its acquisition. The conflict was intense over the question of slavery, and continued for some time after the cession. In 1849 the people of the Territory framed a constitution in which slavery was prohibited, and in 1850 it was admitted as a State. The capital is Sacramento, and the chief city San Francisco. Pop., 1890, 1,208,130, of whom 366,309 were of foreign birth, and 12,355 were Indians.

California, GULF OF. Arm of the Pacific, between Mexico and Lower C.

California, LOWER. Peninsula of Mexico, between the Gulf and the Pacific, ab. 750 m. long, 30 to 150 m. wide; first jo by Europeans 1534. Area 58,328 sq. m.; pop., 1890,

California Jack. Game usually played by two or four persons with a pack of 52 cards, which rank as in whist. The game is usually ten points, and the points score in the following order: 1. High, the ace of trumps. 2. Low, the deuce of trumps. , 8, Jack, the knave of trumps. 4. Game. It is similar to All-Fours. After dealing six cards to each and cutting for a o card, the pack is turned face up and the winner of a trick takes the top card, the others following him. The points go to the player who takes them in playing.

California, UNIVERSITY OF. Chartered at Oakland 1868; transferred to Berkeley 1873; successor of the College of Cal., which was founded 1855 at Oakland, opened 1860, and graduated classes till 1869. In addition to the Colleges of Letters, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Mechanics, Mining, Civil Engineering, and Chemistry, it has connection with the State Agricultural College, the Lick Astronomical Observatory at Mount Hamilton, and Colleges of Law, Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy at San Francisco. It has (1895) a total of 133 members of the various faculties, with 1,000 undergraduate students at Berkeley, ab. 700 more in the professional schools, and a library of 56,000 vols. It is supported in part by a State tax.

Caligula, 12–41. cus and Agrippina. His real name was Caius Caesar; he was nicknamed Caligula (little boots) when a boy by the soldiers. He was believed to have hastened the death of Tiberius; came to the throne 37, and reigned 3. a few months, but afterward as a cruel and licentious madman; exhausted Italy b extortions, and plundered o W. built a temple to himself as Jupiter Latiaris, and was murdered.

Caliph, or KHALIF. Title assumed by those who after Mohammed exercised temporal and spiritual authority over his followers. The principal caliphates are: (1) that of the East, founded by Abu-Bekr at Mecca, and transferred to Bagdad § the Abassides 632–1258; (2) that of Cordova, founded by Abdurrahman I. 756–1031; (3) that of Egypt under the Fatimites 909–1171. and Turkey date from 1502 and 1517.

Calisaya Bark. See CINCHONA.

Calisthenics, or CALLISTHENICs. adapted to girls. Calixtines. More moderate followers of Huss, content to yield much to Rome, if allowed the communion in both kinds; opposed to the more violent Taborites. Calixtus I. Bp. of Rome 219–223. He had a controversy with HIPPolytus (q.v.).-II. Guido of Vienne, Count of Burgundy, pope 1119–24. He excommunicated Henry V. 1119, and ended the contest about investitures nearly on his own terms 1122.-III. Alfonso Borgia, b. 1379, pope 1455–58.-Also an antipope 1168–77. Calixtus, or Kallisen, GEORGE, 1586–1656. German divine of views and temper too liberal for his age; he tried to mediate between Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics, and in consequence was suspected and disapproved by all; prof. at Helmstedt from 1614. He was the first to separate ethics from dogmatics. Calk. See BARITE. Call. Signal given by drum or bugle, to announce an intended movement in military evolutions, or to assemble troops for drill or parade. Call, RICHARD KEITH, 1791–1862. Gov. of Florida 1835–40 and 1841–44.—His nephew. WILKINSON, b. 1834, has been U. S. senator from Fla. since 1879. Calla. Richardia ABthiopica. Large plant of the natural family Araceae, native of e. Africa; cultivated as a house-plant.

Third Roman emperor, son of Germani

The caliphates of Persia

Gentle gymnastics,

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