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Chaba, See KAABA.
Caaing Whale. Species of porpoise, often stranded on British and other coasts. They are gregarious and have a leader whom they follow often to destruction. They feed on
cephalopods and are from 16 to 24 ft. long. Also known as Pilot ale, Social Whale, Grindhval, etc.
Cabal. Clique aiming to gain political and party ends through indirection and intrigue; especially the ministry of Charles II., 1667–73, whose initials spelled the word; viz., Clifford, Ashley (Shaftesbury), Buckingham, Arlington and Lauderdale.
Caballero, FERNAN. Pen name of DONA CECILIA ARRON, or DE BAER, 1796–1877. Spanish novelist; daughter of Böhl von Faber, long German consul at Cadiz; thrice married., La Gaviota, 1849, and others of her tales, were read throughout Europe and America.
Cabanel, ALEXANDRE, 1823–1889. French history, genre and portrait painter. Prof. Ecole des Beaux Arts.
Cabanis, PIERRE JEAN GEORGE, 1757–1808. Physician, prominent among the literary and philosophic men who stimulated the French Revolution; prof. Paris 1797. Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme, 1802.
Cabbage. Brassica oleracea. Biennial herb of the Mustard family, native of the seashores of Europe; cultivated and brought into many forms as a garden vegetable. It is grown in field culture only in the vicinity of large towns, or occasionally by farmers as a cattle food. The seeds are sown in a seedbed early in May, and transplanted to the field in June, or July,
referably in moist, mellow, rich soil. Subsequent cultivation is given by horse and hoe to keep the land clear of weeds till the plants cover the ground. The cabbage-worm (Pieris rape), a great enemy to its culture, may be kept in check by the application of pyrethrum powder, either dry or in solution. It has marked antiscorbutic properties, and is largely used as a food, but of no great value, as it contains about 94 per cent of water. It is very indigestible when cooked, but less so when raw. The Kerguelen's Land Cabbage, Pringlea. antiscorbutica, is a plant of the same family.
Cabbage Insects. (1) Harlequin or Cabbage-bug (Murantia histrionica); feeds also on turnips, etc.; half inch long; luish-black with orange colored spots and stripes. . Eggs laid under-side of leaf, several broods in a summer. Feeds b sucking sap, and not affected by poisons. (3) Cabbage-butterfly (Pieris rapae. imported; P. protodice, native); measures two inches
across expanded white wings. Male of rapae has one, female two spots on upper side of fore wings; in protodice male has three, and female several, irregular spots. Tips of fore wings are black. Eggs laid under-side leaf; larva is green, with yellow stripes on back and spots on sides. These caterpillars are destroyed by the larvae of the Ichneumon-fly, which deposits its eggs in the caterpillars. Use pyrethrum, air slaked lime, arsenites, etc. (3) Cabbage-maggot (Anthomyia brassicae); very small larva of a small fly: infests crown or roots. Use sulphur and fertilize with kainite. (4) Cabbage-moth (Plusia brassicae); infests also turnips, tomatoes, clover, lettuce, etc. Larva differs from that of (2) in being largest posteriorly and looping. Adult is dark gray, nocturnal, with silvery spot near middle of forewings. Eggs laid in clusters on leaves. Use kerosene emulslon.
Cabbage Palm. Areca oleracea. Common palm of the W. Indies; the young leaves of this and other species are . as a vegetable. In New South Wales, Ptychosperma elegans.
Cabbala. Jewish system of religious philosophy by which the rabbins professed to be able to explain all the difficulties of Scripture; akin to Neoplatonism.
Cabeira. In Pontus, Asia Minor; scene of defeat of Mithridates by Lucullus 71 B.C.
Cabeiri. See CABIRI.
Cabet, ETIENNE. 1788–1856. French socialist, founder of a colony in Texas 1846, transferred to Nauvoo, Ill., 1849. Hist. French Revolution, 4 v., 1840; Journey in Icaria, 1841.
Cabinet. Ministers of a sovereign or of a State: unknown to British law, but necessary in any government not autocratic; formed in England 1693. In a republic they are advisers of the President, and each at the head of a department. In the U.S. there were in 1789 Secretaries of State, the Treasury, and War, an Attorney-Gen., and a Postmaster-Gen. ; a Sec. of the y was added 1798, of the Interior 1849, and of Agriculture
Cabin John Arch. Largest stone arch in the world,
Cabin John Arch. erected 1861 by Gen. M. C. Meigs to carry the Washington aque
Cable Railway. Railway in which the cars are propelled by a moving cable griped by two wheels, so that the velocity of a car may be lessened by relaxing the adhesion. The first one successfully operated on this plan was in San Francisco 1873; the system has since been applied to many lines in several large cities, one of the latest being on Broadway in New York. For steep so. where horse cars were drawn with difficulty, the cable lines succeeded, but are now gradually giving way to systems of electric traction. A speed of 10 m. or more per hour is usual on suburban cable roads. The principal defect of the system is in the breakages of the cable, which cause the stoppage of all traffic on the line.
Cable Towing. System of towing boats by the help of a cable lying in the bed of the river or canal, and wound on a drum which is turned in the boat; mainly used in France and Germany.
Cabling. Decorating a column with convex moldings in the direction of its length. The column thus decorated is said #. be cabled, while if the moldings be concave it is said to be uted.
Cabochians. Butchers in Paris; headed by Jean Caboche; devoted to the Burgundians; masters of Paris 1412–13 and 1418. The civil war ended with the assassination of John, duke of Burgundy, 1419.
Cabot, JOHN, d. ab. 1498. Venetian navigator who, under commission of Henry VII., embarked from Bristol 1497, discovered the N. American continent at Nova Scotia or Newfoundland, and sailed s. as far as Florida.-His son, SEBASTIAN, ab. #. reached Hudson's Bay 1517, and what is now Argentina 1526.
Cabral, or CABRERA, PEDRO ALVAREZ, ab. 1460–ab. 1526. Portuguese navigator who on the way to India discovered Brazil 1500.
Cabrera, RAMON, 1810–1877. Carlist leader in Spain.
Cabrera Bobadilla y Mendoza, LUIs GERONIMO FERNANDEz DE, Count of Chinchon, ab. 1575–1647. Viceroy of Peru 1629–39.
Cabs. Two- or four-wheeled vehicles for public hire, officially designated as hackney-carriages in England, under which name they have been in use since 1605. In 1662 in London 400 were taxed and licensed. Until 1790 they consisted chiefly of dilapidated É. carriages, and a few years later the adoption of the French form of “cabriolets de place” gave rise to the present name. The hansom, patented 1834, has been improved till it stands first in public favor. This form of cab was used in Paris as early as 1672. In all countries cabs are licensed and fares fixed by municipal regulations.
Cabul. Capital of Afghanistan, on right bank of Cabul R., at junction of the Loghar, in a valley nearly surrounded by
== The Bala Hissar and City of Cabul from the upper part of the Citadel.
mountains. Taken by Tamerlane ab. 1400; by the British 1839 and 1879. Pop. ab. 60,000.
Cacao. See CHOCOLATE BEAN.
dry climates, either climbing or erect; some attaining a height a musical composition. In instrumental music it was formerly
Cadalmalso, Jose, DE, 1741–1782. Spanish poet and dramatist.
Cada. Mosto, LUIGI DA, 1432–1480. Venetian navigator, who explored the w. coast of Africa to 13° n. lat. 1455–56.
Cadastral Surveying. Surveying which furnishes data and maps for the use of assessors of property; carried on in Europe on an extensive scale and with a high degree of preClSlon.
Cadaverine. Poisonous ptomaine, found in putrefying animal tissues; formed by the action of certain bacilli and supposed to be the cause of the symptoms occurring in Asiatic cholera.
Caddis (or CADDICE) Fly. Neuropterous insect of the family Phryogameidae, and it is known by its larvae (Cad-bait), of which anglers make great use. Called case-worms, from their living in a case covered with little bits of wood or sand, which they draw after them as they go. The eggs of the female are inclosed in gelatinous capsules which swell in the water and attach themselves to stones.
Caddoan Indians. N. American family of aborigines comprising (1892), Arikara, 416: Pawnee, 798; Wichita, 151; Towakarchu, 133; Waco, 41; Kichai, 51; Caddo, 530. Of these the Arikara are now settled on the Fort Berthold Reservation, N. D., and the remainder in the I. T. The Arikara group formerly lived on the Missouri, but were driven by the Dakotas to their present location. The Pawnees were settled on the Platte R., Neb., and were removed to I. T. in 1876. The Wichita, Tow. akarchu, Waco, Kichai and Caddo tribes inhabited e. and n. e. Texas, Ark., and La., between the Red, Sabine, and Brazos Rivers.
Cade, JACK. Leader of an insurrection in s.e. England 1450. With ab. 15,000 men he defeated the king's forces at Sevenoaks, June 18th, entered London, and beheaded Lord Say, the treas
urer. He was slain July 12. Cadell, FRANCIS, 1822–1879. Scottish explorer in Australia
1850–59. Cadence. In music, sequences of harmonies which bring
compositions, or parts of them, to a close. It is perfect when the effect is completely restful to the ear, as the progression from dominant to tonic harmony, interrupted when a progression which promises rest is departed from before completion, and imperfect when there is no interruption and the effect is yet unsatisfactory, as from tonic to dominant harmony.
Cadence. Measure regulating the length and time of the ace of the soldier in marching. The pace in quick time is 30 inches at the rate of 120 per minute; in double time, 36 inches and 180 per minute; in route step it is omitted, but the general alignment is preserved.
Cadency. Heraldic method of distinguishing individuals or branches of the same family all of whom bear the same arms. The marks of cadency charged on the shield are, for the eldest son, a label; for the second, a crescent; third, mullet; fourth, martlet; fifth, annulet; sixth, fleur-de-lys; seventh, rose; eighth, cross-moline; ninth, double quaterfoil.
Cadenza. Flourish introduced shortly before the close of
left to the fancy of the player (its place being indicated by a fermata, F), and is generally a sort of free improvization on the principal themes of the movement. Modern composers generally write out their cadenzas. Vocal cadenzas are merely passages designed to display flexibility of voice and skill in execution. Cadessia. See KADESSIA. Cadet. Orig., younger son; in the U. S., youth receiving instruction at U. S. Military or Naval Academy. Each Congressional district and Territory is entitled to one at West Point; ten are appointed at large. They must be between 17 and 22 years old and 5 ft. high, and pass a prescribed examination. They receive $540 per year. Since its foundation 1802 to 1894, 7,581 have been admitted and 3,616 graduated. Sixty-seven per cent of those appointed have been admitted. The course requires 4 years. U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., founded 1845, has similar rules for admission as the military academy, the age being 15 to 20 years, the course 6 years, the last two at sea, and the pay $500 per year. Cadiz., Fortified city of s. Spain, on a peninsula jutting into the Atlantic. It is an important commercial port, though less so than in the 17th and 18th centuries. Occupying an almost insular situation, it is much resorted to in the heat of summer. - H H.
Port of Cadiz.
It was founded by Phoenicians ab. 1100 B.C., taken by the Romans 206 B.C., and from the Moors by the Spaniards 1262; burned by the English 1596; blockaded by the French 1810–12, and held by them 1823–28; cradle of the Spanish revolution of 1868. Pop., 1887, 62,531.
Cadmia. Several zinc compounds, natural or artificial.
Cadmium. Cd. At. wt. 112, sp. gr. 8.6, sp. ht. .054. White metal, discovered by Stromeyer 1817. Occurs principally in zinc-blende, from which it is prepared by distillation and treatment of the distillate with charcoal. It is acted upon very slightly by air. If heated it burns with a brown smoke, forming the oxide. It dissolves with difficulty in hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, and readily in nitric acid. Its molecular and atomic weights are the same.
Cadmium Carbonate. CdCOs. White insoluble powder. Made by precipitating a soluble cadmium salt with a soluble carbonate.
Cadmium Chloride. CdCl2.2H2O. Mpt. 514° C. Made by treating the oxide or hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. Sublimes in scales.
Cadmium Cyanide. Cd(CN). White precipitate, formed by adding potassium cyanide to concentrated solutious of cadmium salts. It is soluble in excess of precipitant.
Cadmium Hydroxide. Cd(OH)2. White powder, precipitated from soluble cadmium salts by soluble hydroxides.
Cadmium, METALLURGY OF. Found in nature as a constituent of many zinc ores, but only in small proportion. Silesian calamine (zinc silicate) carries up to 5 per cent; Hungarian blende (zinc sulphide) averages almost 2 per cent; and similar * are found in zinc ores in many parts of the world. n the U. S. noticeable amounts are found on the zinc ore from Friedensville, Pa., and on blende from Missouri. The cadmium occurs as a thin, yellow incrustation, chemically consisting of cadmium sulphide, known mineralogically as Greenockite.
When zinc ore is being reduced in retorts, a yellowish-brown smoke coming off before the bluish-green flame of zinc appears indicates the presence of cadmium, the smoke being a mixture of the oxides and carbonates of zinc and cadmium, and its early formation being due to the fact that cadmium is more easily reduced and is more volatile than zinc. Zinc fumes from leadsmelting furnaces, as well as the accretions sometimes forming directly in the upper part of blast-furnaces (cadmia), frequently contain cadmium. Only in Silesia is metallic cadmium prepared. The process there used is based on the superior volatility of cadmium to zinc. Large receivers are adapted to the mouths of the zinc retorts, in which the brown fume coming off during the first part of the distillation is condensed. This fume will contain about 30 per cent of cadmium, and is put into a zinc muffle kept at a moderate red heat in another furnace. In the conical iron condenser attached to this the brown powder condenses in a much purer state. This concentrated brown powder is then mixed with charcoal and heated moderately in small cylindrical cast-iron retorts, fitted with condensers. The heat not being sufficient to reduce and volatilize zinc, the cadmium is distilled off and condensed in the pure metallic state. It is cast into small, cylindrical bars about the size of a lead-pencil. Selling price varies between $1 and $1.50 per pound. The amount produced yearly is not over two tons. Commercial cadmium usually contains five to ten per cent of zinc, and sometimes a little tin and iron. Pure cadmium is a white metal, with a sp. gr. of 8.7, in hardness and strength between tin and gold. Šišič at 320°C., volatilizes at 770° C. Its specific heat is 0.0567, conductivity for heat 577 (silver = 1,000), conductivity for electricity 221 (silver – 1,000). Both malleable and ductile. Cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Stromeyer and Hermann. Many years later a use was found for it, when Wood discovered its remarkable effect in reducing the melting-points of other metals. If ten per cent is added to Rose's fusible alloy (2 bismuth, 1 tin, 1 lead), the melting-point is reduced from 94° C. to 75° C. Wood's alloy is composed of 2 cadmium, 2 antimony, 4 lead, and 8 bismuth, and melts at 65° to 70° C. Lipowitz's fusible alloy contains 8 lead, 15 bismuth, 4 tin, and 3 cadmium; it softens at 55° C. and melts at 60° C. These fusible alloys are used for safety-plugs, which melt if overheated, and are particularly suited for the automatic fire-extinguishers or sprinklers. Cadmium is also used in reducing the melting-points of solders, common tin-man's solder melting at 136° when it contains 8 per cent. Cadmium amalgam is used by dentists for filling teeth. Cadmium Nitrate. Cd(NO3), t-4H2O. Straw-colored columns or needles. Mpt. 100° C. Wade by dissolving the metal or oxide in nitric acid and evaporating the solution.
CADMI UM NITRATE–CAESAR’S BRIDGE
Cadmium Oxide. CdC). Brownish-black powder, made by heating the nitrate.
Cadmium Sulphate. 3CdSO.8H,O. Made by treating the oxide with sulphuric acid. The salt crystallizes from water; crystals are efflorescent.
Cadmium Sulphide. CdS. Yellow powder, precipitated from soluble cadmium salts by hydrogen sulphide; insoluble in dilute acids; used as a pigment. See GREENOCKITE.
Cadmus. Son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia; founder of Cadmea, afterward the citadel of Thebes; sower of the dragons' teeth from which sprung the ancestors of the Thebans; said to have introduced into Greece, from Egypt or Phoenicia, an alphabet of 16 letters. Cadoudal, GEORGEs. 1771–1804. Leader of the Chouan revolt in Brittany 1794–1800; guillotined in Paris for plots against Napoleon. Cadran, LE. THE DIAL. Game of solitaire played with two packs of cards. Forty cards are dealt out face up in four rows one beneath the other. The eight aces form the foundation cards, and are built upon in sequences up to kings. Caduceus. sented in art. Caducibranchiata. DRINA. Caducichordata. See ASCIDIACEA. Caducous. Calyx or corolla of flowers when these parts fall away at the beginning of anthesis, as the calyx of the Bloodroot and Poppy. Cadwalader, John, 1742–1786. American general, active in the battles of 1776–77. Caecilius Statius, d. 168 B.C. Roman comic poet, once a slave; author of 40 plays, of which we have only fragments. The Romans ranked him with Plautus and Terence, and praised his skill in the arrangement of his plots. Caecina, AULUS, d. 79. Roman general, executed for treason.
See DEROTREMA and SALAMAN
Herald's staff borne by Mercury; often repre
Caecum. , Dilated extremity of the colon, on the right side of the body, into which the small intestine and the vermiform appendix open.
Caedmon, d. ab. 683. Anglo-Saxon sacred poet; monk of Whitby, near York. He paraphrased parts of Genesis and other Bible books.
Caen. City of n. France, on the Orne, near the Channel. It was held by the Normans from 912; taken by the English 1346 and 1417, and recovered by the French 1450; noted for stone-quarries. William the Conqueror and his queen are buried here. Pop., 1891, 45,201.
Caenozoic. All strata above the chalk.
Caere. Ancient Etruscan town near Rome, noted for its tombs and the antiquities found in them. The Etruscan Museum of the Vatican is rich in these objects. Especially imÉ. are those from the tomb called the Grotto Regolini alassi, opened 1829.
Caerleon. Ancient town of Wales, on the Usk; traditionary residence of King Arthur. It has many Roman antiquities.
Caesar. Orig., a family name, then a title borne by the Roman emperors and their heirs. “The Twelve Caesars,” whose lives Suetonius wrote, extend to Domitian; the Julian line ended with Nero.
Caesar, CAIUs JULIUs, 100–44 B.C. Founder of the later Roman monarchy. At 22 he had gained distinction as an orator. He was pontifex maximus 63, praetor 62, consul 60, when he formed with Pompey and Crassus the first triumvirate. In 59 both Gaul and Illyricum were assigned him with four legions; nine years were spent in the conquest of Gaul and Britain. Ordered by the Senate, Jan. 1, 49, to disband his army, he crossed the Rubicon and marched toward Rome. The forces of the Senate under Pompey deserted to him; cities flung open their gates. He defeated Pompey's adherents in Spain, and Pompey himself at Pharsalia 48, the King of Pontus 47, Scipio and Cato in Africa. 46, and Pompey's sons in Spain 45. In 46 he was made dictator for 10 years, celebrated four triumphs, and reformed the calendar. In 45 he was made imperator and dictator for life, and his person declared sacred. His plans for public works, improvement of the laws, and protection of the Empire, were cut short by his assassination in the Senate House. Of his writings only the Commentaries on the Gallic and Civil wars are extant.
Caesarea. City on coast of Syria, rebuilt by Herod and made Roman capital of Palestine. Gentiles were first received here by St. Peter into the Church: Acts x., xi. Here St. Paul was imprisoned, Origen dwelt, and Eusebius was bishop.
Caesarea Philippi. City in northern Palestine, under the spurs of Mount Hermon; now Banias.
Caesarian Section. Operation performed by cutting through the abdominal walls and into the uterus for the removal of a foetus when the mother is dead or when other methods are impossible. Julius Caesar is said to have been born in this manner. Formerly the procedure was resorted to only in desperate cases, but now a large proportion of those operated upon recover, provided the conditions are fairly favorable.
Caesar’s Bridge. Pile or trestle-bridge built by Caesar 55
C. Julius Caesar.