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the sun are brought to a focus at the principal heat focus of the lens. The term is also applied to those concave mirrors of quicksilvered glass, or burnished metal, which condense the sun's rays into a similar focus. A passage in Aristophanes' Clouds shows that the ancients used the refracting burningglasses; Pliny and Lactantius also mention them. The burning-mirrors of Archimedes and Proclus are famous: the latter burned the navy of Vitellius, who was besieging Byzantium. and the former set fire to the Roman fleet at the siege of Syracuse. In mediaeval and modern days the most notable burningglasses have been made by Settala, Vilette, Tschirnhausen, Buffon, Trudaine and Parker. The latter fused 10 grains of slate in 2 seconds.

Burnley. Manufacturing borough of Lancashire, on the Brun, 20 m. n. of Manchester. Pop., 1891, 87,058.

Burnouf, EUGENE, 1801–1852. French orientalist, author of valuable studies in Hindu and Persian. Hist. Buddhism, 1845.—His father, JEAN LOUIs, and his cousin, EMILE LOUIS, also distinguished themselves by philological researches.

Burns and Scalds. Injuries inflicted by fire, heated bodies, corrosive substances, and hot water or steam, the latter causing scalds, and consisting in the carbonization of the tissues or coagulation of their albuminoids. Death results from the shock, exhaustion of the healing of a large amount of surface, destruction of enough surface to interfere with the excretion by the skin of the waste products of the organism, or ulceration of the stomach or intestines—a phenomenon not well understood. Deforming scars nearly always result, and the principal part of the immediate treatment consists in protecting the parts by oleaginous bodies. Slight burns may be simply covered by cloths dipped in a strong solution of baking soda.

Burns, ANTHONY, ab. 1830–1862. Fugitive slave, whose arrest in Boston, May 25, 1854, caused great excitement.

Burns, JABEZ, D.D., 1805–1876. English Baptist; prolific writer.

Burns, JAMEs DRUMMOND, 1823–1864. Scottish sacred poet.

Burns, John, b. 1858. English labor organizer, leader in the London dock strikes of 1889, M. P. 1892. He visited the U. S. 1894.

Burns, Robert, 1759–1796. Greatest of Scottish poets, precursor of Wordsworth, and a powerful agent in reforming English taste. His first volume appeared 1786. . His poetry has a wide range, lyrical, satirical, humorous, and descriptive, but his songs strike the deepest and truest note.

Burnside, AMBROSE EveRETT, 1824–1881. General of U. S. Vols. 1861–65; defeated at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862, while commanding Army of the Potomac; Gov. of R. I. 1866– 69: U. S. Senator from 1875.

Burnt-Offering. Jewish sacrifice, answering to the holocausts of paganism, the victim being wholly consumed.

Burr, AARON, 1756–1836. U.S. Senator from N. Y. 1791-97, Vice-Pres. 1801–5. He killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel 1804; formed mysterious o: probably involving an attempt on Texas or Mexico, with the s. w. Territories; was arrested Jan. 1807 in Mississippi, tried for treason at Richmond in May, and acquitted. After years of wandering, he returned to N.Y. 1812, but public life never reopened to him.

Burr, ENOCH FITCH, D.D., b. 1818. Pastor at Lyme, Conn., from 1850. Ecce Caelum, 1867; Pater Mundi, 1869; Ad Fidem, 1871; Aleph, 1891.

Burr, GEORGE LINCOLN, b. 1857. Prof. at Cornell 1892. Literature of Witchcraft, 1890; Charlemagne, 1892.

Burr, WILLIAM HUBERT, C.E., b. 1851. Prof. of mechanics in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1876–84; prof. civil engineer ing in Lawrence Scientific School 1891–93, and in Columbia College since 1893. Roof and Bridge Trusses, 1879; Materials of Engineering, 1883.

Burrage, HENRY Sweetser, D.D., b. 1837. American author and journalist. Anabaptists in Switzerland, 1883; Baptist HymnWriters, 1888.

Bur-Reed. Plants of genus Sparganium, natives of the northern hemisphere, growing in swamps.

Burrill, ALEXANDER M., 1807–1869. Practice of Sup. Ct. of N.Y., 1840; Law Dictionary, 1850; Assignments, 1853.

Burritt, ELIHU (“LEARNED BLACKSMITH"), 1811–1879. American lecturer. Sparks, 184*; Chips, 1878.

Burroughs, JoHN. b. 1837. American author. Walt Whit man, 1867; !o. Robin, 1871; Birds and Poets, 1877; Fresh Fields, 1884.

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Bushel. Measure of capacity adopted in England 1826 and in N. Y. 1829, containing 8 gallons and known as the Imperial bushel. It contains 80 lbs. of water (temperature 62°F., barometric pressure 30 in.), or a capacity of 2218.2 cubic inches. The old Winchester bushel, adopted as the U. S. standard, contains 2150.42 cub. in., or 35.327 liters. The weight of a bushel of wheat is fixed at 60 lbs. in most of the States, but the weight of other staples locally varies. Bushel of beans weighs 62 lbs. in N. Y. W. peas, clover-seed, potatoes, 60 lbs., Indian corn, 58 lbs.; rye, 56 lbs.; flax-seed, 55 lbs.; buckwheat, barley, 48 lbs.; timothy-seed, 44 lbs.; oats, 32 lbs.

Bushel. Game played in n. England by two persons, each with three men or pieces, upon a diagram in the form of a square or rectangle, divided into eight equal triangles by intersecting lines. The object is to block the opponent's pieces. jor games are played by children in e. Asia from Korea to

la IIl.

Bush-hammered Masonry. Composed of stones dressed with the workman's bush-hammer, so that the surface appears covered with fine points.

Bush-Honeysuckle. Diervilla trifida. Shrub of natural family Caprifoliaceae, native of n. e. N. America.

Bushings. In pipe-fitting, device by which a hole in a large fitting can be so reduced as to make it possible to screw in a smaller pipe. In machine construction, ring or cylinder fitted into a |. which is thus reduced in size and caused to fit a rod or pin which is to work there. The advantages of this construction are that the bushing can be easily and cheaply renewed, as it wears, without necessitating the renewal of the whole organ, which has not worn at all; and, secondly, the bushing can be made of some metal peculiarly adapted to withstand wear. Machinery bushings are made of steel, or of brass or of bronze. Sometimes they are so made that, as they grow larger by wear, the lost motion can be taken up by compression between nuts in a tapering hole.

Bushmen (SAAN). Aborigines of the Cape Colonies of Africa; perhaps originally they covered much of S. Africa. They are spare and short, averaging 44 ft. high; those near Lake Ngami are taller. In color they are a clear brown; their hair is sparse, short and coarse. Grease and dirt are used as a covering for the body in place of clothes. They are nomadic and troglodytic, construct no dwellings, except sometimes rude nests in the bushes, whence the name. A few pelts of sheepskin serve for bed-quilt. The only implement is a stone with a hole in it, through which passes a stick, used for digging up roots. Tattooing is not practiced. They eat reptiles and vermin, and go for days without eating, §. gormandize for a while. They hunt and war with poisoned arrows, which they shoot with great precision. They have spears, and use them in hunting Targe game, which they drive into covered pits.

Bushmen's Encampment.

The principal weapon is a club. There are no chiefs; women are courted and mated temporarily, much as among certain monogamous animals. The strongest males secure the finest women, leaving the old women to the boys. They are crafty and cruel, have a gift for music, and ornament their caves with painting. They are passionately fond of dancing, accompanying it with drumming. They believe in magic, and worship the dead. In their language there are no verbs, scarcely nouns, and no way of counting. Words are monosyllabic, guttural and gurgling, with clicks and smacking sounds similar to those made by apes in a menagerie. Each locality or tribe has a fundamentally different language from its neighbors. They are inferior, though related, to the Hottentots, and to be

compared with the Australians, who, like them, represent the survivors of primitive races.

Bushnell, DAVID, 1742–1824. American inventor of submarine explosives 1776–78.

Bushnell, HoRACE, D.D., LL.D., 1802–1876. New England theologian. Christian Nurture, 1847; God in Christ, 1849; Nature and the Supernatural, 1858; Vicarious Sacrifice, 1865; Forgiveness and Law, 1874. His influence was in line with that of Maurice and F. W. Robertson, in turning religious osht from a traditional and legal to a moral and spiritual aSIS.

Bushwhackers. Guerillas and predatory deserters in Mo. and the s. w. 1861–65.

Business Colleges. Institutions where people are fitted to enter upon a business career. Business transactions are made between the students themselves and with the different fictitious departments of the college, such as the college bank, broker's office, etc., so as to familiarize them with the principles and formalities of real business. Students also occupy the different positions in these departments, such as teller, cashier, bookkeeper, etc. Telegraphy, stenography and typewriting are also taught.

Bussu. Manicaria saccifera. Palm, native of n. S. America. The leaves are used for thatching huts.

Bussy-Rabutin, RogFR, Count DE, 1618–1693. French writer of memoirs. Histoire Amoureuse des Gaules.

Bustamente, ANASTASIO, 1780–1853. Vice-pres. of Mexico 1829, pres. 1830–32 and 1837–41; defeated by Santa Anna and banished 1833 and 1842. –His relative, CARLOS MARIA, 1774–1848, É. books on Iturbide and Santa Anna, and a Hist. Mexican volution, 6 v., 1823–32.

Bustards. Birds of the family Otidae, of large size, resembling the American Turkey, and esteemed as much for food. They have rather long, stout legs with three toes, the hind one absent. o run and o well. Their food is vegetable, gathered on the steppes. They are becoming extinct in many parts of Europe; 35 species have been described from Africa, two occur in Europe, many in Asia, and some in Australia. Otis tarda is the Great Bustard of Europe. It has a large pouch of the oesophagus, beneath the chin, which is inflated during the breeding season. O. tetras is the Little Bustard of Europe, about as large as the Grouse. Houbara macqueenii of western Asia is hunted by means of camels circling round a flock until within shooting-distance. The plumage harmonizes so perfectly with the sand that they are hard to see.

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Butler, WILLIAM ALLEN, b. 1825. American satirical poet. Nothing to Wear, 1857; Two Millions, 1858; also a Life of Van Buren, 1862.

Butler, WILLIAM ARCHER, 1814–1848. Prof. Trinity Coll., Dublin, 1837. His Sermons, 1849–56, and Ancient Philosophy, 1856, are highly rhetorical.

Butte City. Capital of Silver Bow co., Montana, center of a rich mining region; settled 1864. Pop., 1890, 10,723.

Butter. Chemically a mixture of triglycerides of fat acids, mainly butyric, capronic, caprylic, and caprinic acids, which are volatile, and myristic, palmitic and stearic acids, which are non-volatile. If milk or cream be agitated at a temperature between 47 and 64°F., the globules of fat will gather into lumps or grains, carrying with them some water and a small amount of the albuminous matter of the milk. If the temperature is too low, butter will not form, because the fat globules are then too hard to stick together; if too high, agitation serves only to break the globules up into still ...i. size. Butter of the best quality should be of a golden-yellow color, of granular texture when broken, and of a mild, pleasant characteristic flavor. The moisture in it should be free from milkiness and contain no undissolved salt. Butter should contain about 85 per cent fats, 12 per cent moisture, and 3 per cent ash, salt, casein, etc. It melts at from 92° to 95° F.

Butter-and-Eggs. Linaria vulgaris. Yellow-flowered plant of the natural family Scrophulariaceae, native of Europe, but widely diffused as a weed; known also as Toad-flax and Ransted-weed. See SNAPDRAGON.

Buttercup. Large-flowered species of the genus Ranunculus; widely distributed group of plants.


Butterfly-Pea. Showy-flowered plants of the genera Centrosema and Clitoria, natural family Leguminosae; natives of e. America.

Butterfly-Weed. Asclepias tuberosa. Red-flowered Milkweed, native of e. N. America; called also Pleurisy Root.

Butterine. Mixture of OLEOMARGARINE (q.v.), neutral lard, and cotton seed oil.

Butter Machines. Recently invented, to separate the cream from the milk and make it into butter at one operation by means of centrifrugal force. They are still in the experimental stage of development. One form is called the butterextractor, the other, the butter-accumulator.

Buttermilk. Fluid which separates in the process of churning; used extensively as an article of diet; useful in Bright's disease and diabetes, and for infants. It contains ab. 11 per cent of solids, ab., one quarter being lactic acid, which renders it easy of digestion.

Butternut. Juglaus cinerea. Large tree of the Walnut

family, native of e. N. America; also, in British Guiana, Caryocar nuciferum, a large tree of the Camellia family, whose seeds are an article of commerce and known also as Souari nuts.

Butter of Antimony. See ANTIMONY TRICHLORIDE.

Butter-Tree. In India, Bassia butyracea and B. latifolia. Trees of the natural family Sapotaceae, whose seeds yield a thick oil. In w. tropical Africa, Butyrospermum Parkii and Pentadesma butyracea; in s. e. Africa, Combretum butyraceum.

Butterweed. ... Senecio lobatus. Yellow-flowered plant of the natural family Compositae, native of the s.v. States.

Butterwort. Species of the genus Pinguicula, small plants of the natural family Lentibulariaceae, widely diffused.

Butterworth, HEz EKIAH, b. 1839. American author, long an editor of the Youth's Companion. Zigzag Journeys, 12 v., 1878–90.

Butt-Joint. Formed by two iron or steel plates which butt squarely against another and are connected by one or two cover-plates riveted upon them. It is more efficient than the common lap-joint.

Butt on, SIR THOMAs. English navigator who sailed to discover the N. W. passage May, 1612, wintered in Hudson's Bay, and explored the coast of Southampton Island.

Button. Studs and buttons were worn as ornaments in the 14th century.

Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris).

In the 16th century, the use of buttons was extended, but they were hand

made and expensive. Cloth covered buttons were used earl in the 17th century, and inlaid and steel buttons in the 18t century, to be succeeded by gilt buttons. Boulton in 1745 improved the manufacture of these metallic buttons by machinery, and Sanders, early in the present century, made metallic buttons, covered with cloth, É. son in 1825 introducing the canwas tuft instead of the metallic shank. Horn buttons were made in 1777. Buttons are now made of a great variety of materials, wood, metal, vulcanized rubber, porcelain, motherof-pearl, vegetable ivory, etc. In England, Birmingham has the largest trade. France, Germany and Austria by their cheaper labor have become large producers. At Prague, glass and porcelain buttons are largely made. Great ingenuity has been exercised in the machinery by which they are produced. In U. S. Williston made cloth covered buttons at Easthampton, Mass., in 1848. The chief manufactories are in New York and Philadelphia. Button-Bush. Cephalanthus occidentalis. N. American shrub of the natural family Rubiaceae, growing in swamps.

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obasic acid, prepared by the saponification of its glyceride, and by the butyric fermentation of glucose; occurring in butter. Liquid of offensive odor. Used in making its ethers.

Butyric Ether. CHA.C.H.C.H.COOC.H. Bpt. 120° C. Ethyl butyrate, prepared by the action of alcohol and 'sulphuric acid upon butyric acid; main constituent of the artificial essence of pineapple. Liquid of agreeable odor.

Butyrines. Compounds formed by the mutual action of glycerine and butyric acids. See GLYCERIDES. Tributyrine is one of the components of butter.

Buxtorf, Johann, 1564–1629. German Hebraist, prof. at Basel 1591. His Hebrew Lexicon, 1607, and other works, were enlarged by his son JoHANN, 1599–1664.

Buys-Ballot, CHRISTOPH HEINRICH DIEDRICH, 1817–1890. Prof. Utrecht 1847–87; director Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands; inventor of the Aeroklinoscope, the first apparatus used to announce by signals the expected wind.

Buys-Ballot’s Law. Theorem announced 1860, according to which “if on any morning there be a difference between the barometrical readings at any two stations in Holland, a wind will blow on that day in the neighborhood of the line joining those stations, which will be inclined to that line at an angle of 90° or thereabouts, and will have the station where the reading is lowest on its left-hand side.”. This name is frequently but mistakenly applied to the law that “if you stand with your back to the wind, the lowest pressure will always be on your left hand in the northern hemisphere,” Buchan's Law.

Buzz. An almost universal toy, made in a great variety of forms, one of the simplest being a dish of wood or metal pierced with two holes, through, which a cord is passed, by means of which the buzz is whirled first in one direction, and then, when the cord is twisted, by unwinding, in the other. It is common as a toy among the American Indians, and the Eskimos. The latter make a buzz of ivory with a cord of sinew identical in form with that of Japan.

Buzzards. Hawk-like birds, of the Falcon family, and genus Buteo, characterized by having wings more than four times as long as the tarsus, the tail more than two-thirds the length of the wing, the tip of upper mandible not strongly hooked, the tarsus naked in front, covered by transverse seutellae. These birds generally feed on mice, but also attack poultry and are known as Henhawks. B. borealis is the Redtail, and B. lineatus the Red-shouldered Hawk. They breed in

Mouse-buzzard (Buteo vulgaris).

heavy timber, sometimes raising two broods in one season. There are several allied species in N. America, the sub-tropical forms having handsome plumage. They are slower and more awkward than Eagles and other Falcons. The lines distinguishing Buzzards are so loosely drawn that some members of allied genera are so-called; e.g., Archibutes lagopus, the Rough-legged Buzzard. Most of the Buteones are known as Hawks. See ACCIPITRIDAE.

Buzzard’s Bay. An indentation in s. coast of Mass., inclosed in part by the Elizabeth Islands.

Buzz-Pianer. Machine for planing or smoothing wood, in which a revolving cylinder carrying planer knives is so placed as to come just tangent to the plane behind it. The part of the table in front of the cylinder is lower by an amount equal to the thickness of chip which it is desired to remove,


the difference in height of the two halves being adjustable. The piece of wood to be planed is held in the hands upon the table, and fed over the slit between the front and back of the table where the knives revolve.

By-Bidding. Bidding at an auction with no intention to buy, but ... to run up the price. The British Common-law Courts hold that such bidding is fraudulent, and gives to the purchaser the right to avoid the sale; the British Chancery Courts allowed the practice to some extent. In the U. S. the former view prevails in most jurisdictions.

Byerly, WILLIAM ELwood, Ph.D., b. 1849. Prof. Math. Harvard 1876. Differential Calculus, 1879; Integral Calculus, 1881–89; Fourier's Series and Zonal Harmonics, 1894.

By-Laws. Rules of a corporation, authorized by its charter, or those of an association, authorized by its members, for the government of its affairs.

Byles, John BARNARD, 1801–1884. Queen's Sergeant, 1857; Justice of Common Pleas, 1858. Bills of Earchange, 1830.

Byles, MATHER, D.D., 1706–1788. Pastor in Boston 1733–77; noted as a wit, versifier and Tory.

Byng, GEORGE, R. N., 1663–1733. Admiral 1708, active against French and Spaniards; M.P. 1706–21; Viscount Torrington 1721.-His son JoHN, 1704–1757, Admiral 1748, w shot for a failure at Minorca.

Bynkershoeck, CoRNELIUs VAN, 1673–1743. Pres. Supreme Court of Holland 1724. Observationes Juris Romain, 1710; Complete Works, 1766.

Bynner, EDw1N LASSETER, 1842–1893. American novelist, writing chiefly on colonial topics. Agnes Surriage, 1886; Zachary Phips, 1890.

By-Pass. (1) Channel by which fluids can be allowed to pass from one side of a valve or a pump where there is considerable pressure to the other side where the pressure is less, when a by-pass valve is opened. (2) Channel by which two systems or circuits may be connected together. (3) Means by which an intermediate system may be cut out, by coupling the extremes directly.

Byrd, or BIRD, WILLIAM, ab. 1538–1623. English musician, organist of Lincoln 1569.

Byrd, WILLIAM, F.R.S., 1674–1744. , Va. planter, who determined the N. C. boundary 1728, and laid out Richmond and Petersburg 1733 on his own lands. Westover MSS., 1841.

Byrom, JoHN, 1691–1763. English poet, disciple of Jacob Behmen. He wrote pastorals, hymns, satires, epigrams, epistles, and essays in verse, but pub. almost nothing. Wesley called him “an uncommon genius.” Poems, 2 vols., 1773, repr. 1814; Literary Remains, 1857.

Byron, GEORGE GoRDON NoFL, LORD, 1788–1824. English poet of commanding fame and influence in his day and for some time after. Unhappy results of heredity and early training placed him in revolt, and he loved to outrage and satirize society. His Hours of Idleness, 1807, was severely criticised, and avenged in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 1809. His more serious work began with Childe Harold, Cantos I. and II., 1812. Thenceforth during his brief and unhappy life he poured out a flood of splendid verse, ending with Don Juan. His heroes always breathe his own spirit of cynicism and defiance; epic, drama, or lyric are alike tragic, morose, or contemptuous. He remains a picturesque but somber figure, an artist in language, whose ideas are little valued. His death, while aiding the Greeks #. their war for freedom, went far to atone for the errors of his ife.

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the dome, but the Byzantine buildings present an entirely dif- | Vitale in Ravenna. It also supplied the starting-point for the ferent aspect from the Roman, mainly because the builders Saracenic architects, and the Mahometan architecture of Egypt discarded the Grecian architectural forms, which in Rome had been employed as decorations, and developed the ornamentation of their buildings out of the actual construction, and declassicized all their details. The principal remains of Byzantine architecture are domed churches, either circular or rectangular in plan, churches roofed with slabs of stone connecting the arches, and wooden-roofed churches following the plan of the basilica, with nave, aisles and apse. Byzantine building spread rapidly through Greece and Asia Minor, and exerted a powerful


Mosque of St. Sophia and Asia is ultimately derived from it. In a very degenerated form it has become the style of the Russo-Greek church.

Byzantine Art. Of the East-Roman period, dating from the 5th century. It still survives in Russia and the Levant, and was not displaced in Italy till the 14th century. The figure design is elongated and lifeless; a traditional religious style in which nature is ignored, controlled largely by the methods natural to MOSAICS (q.v.), in which its best works were done.

Byzantine Empire. See EASTERN EMPIRE.

Byzantine Historians. Those who treated of the events of the Eastern or Greek Empire, whose capital was Constantinople, PROCOPIUS (q.v.), d. ab.565, was the greatest. Then follows a long list, the chief being Agathias, 536–580; Menander Protector, ab,581; Theophilactus, d. ab.628; Joannes of Epiphaneia, from the same reign; the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who reigned 911-959, and his contemporary Genesius; Joannes Cameniata; Leo Diaconus in 10th century; Nicephorus Bryennius, son-in-law of the Emperor Alexius Comnenus; Anna Comnena; Joannes Cinnamus in 12th century; Nicetas Acominatus, 13th century; Georgius Acropolita, 12201282; Georgius Pachymeres; Nicephoras Gregoras; the Enperor John Cantacuzenus; Joannes Cananus; Joannes Anagnostes; Michael Ducas, who wrote of the fall of Constantinople. Other historians and chroniclers swell the list. The best edition of these works is that pub. at Bonn in 48 vols., begun by Niebuhr, 1828–1855.

Byzantium. Town on Thracian Bosphorus, founded by Megarians 667 B.C.; taken successively by Medes, Athenians,

and Spartans; destroyed 196; resounded by Constantine 324; Mosque of St. Sophia, Constantinople.

dedicated May, 330, and renamed Constantinople. influence upon the building of the western shore of the Adri- Bzowski, or BzovIUS, ABRAHAM, 1567-1637. Polish Ch. atic, notably in the case of St. Mark's in Venice and San St. | historian, who added 9 vols., 1616, to Baronius' Annals.


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