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1846. It has 20 instructors, ab. 350 students in all departments, duct, effort, means of livelihood, mindfulness, and rapture. and a fund of $350,000.

Along the way there are ten fetters to be broken, and to live Buckner, Simon BOLIVAR, b. 1823; General C. S. A.; Gov. according to the 8 stages and to have broken all these fetters

constitute the Buddhist ideal of life. of Ky. 1887.

Buckthorn. Shrubs of genus Rhamnus, natural family Rhamnacece, patives of the northern hemisphere.

Buckthorn, SOUTHERN. Bumelia lycioides. Large, spiny shrub of natural family Sapotacere, native of s.e. U. S. Buckwheat. Fagopyrum esculentum. Herb of the Knot

weed family, native of n. Asia,
widely cultivated for its edible
seeds. It is mostly grown as a
by-crop on spare patches of land,
or where some other crop has
failed. It will give a fair crop on
heavy cold soils, where the finer
cereal grains cannot be success-
fully raised. It is sown broadcast
or in drills about July, so that it
will not ripen till cool weather,
as the seeds will not fill well in

the hot weather of August. It is

sumption, but the by-milling prod-
ucts are good food for animals.
The straw is of almost no value
for fodder. Three varieties are
known, common or black, silver-
hulled, and Japanese. There
were grown in the U. S. in 1890,
12,113,040 bushels, of which N. Y.

and Pa. produced more than Buckwheat (F. esculentum): hall. It is somewhat objection

a, a flower; b, a seed; C, a root. able as a steady article of diet, as exciting various eruptive disorders. In Russia it forms a part of the army ration. It was introduced into America by the Dutch.

Bud. A vegetable axis in its rudimentary condition, developing either into a stem, a branch, a flower, or a flower cluster. When terminating stems or branches, they are called Terminal; when appearing in the axils of leaves, Axillary; and when borne irregularly, Adventitious Buds.

Buda. Ancient city of Hungary, on right bank of the Danube; taken by Charlemagne 799; sacked by Turks after battle of Mohatz 1526, again in 1541; regained by Imperialists 1686; stormed by Hungarians May 20,1849. United with Pesth on the other side of the river, it became capital of Hungary Nov. 1873. The new city, Budapest, has made remarkable gains in 20 years. Pop. of the two towns in 1848 less than 148,000; pop., in 1890,

Colossal Statue of Buddha at Kamakoura, Japan. 506,091. B. is the most important grain mart of the Austrian Empire. Many improvements in flour-milling originated here.

Budding. Peculiar propagative process of forming new

cells, obtaining in the Saccharomycetes and certain other fungi: Buddeus, JOHANN FRANZ, 1667–1729. Prof. at Halle 1693, also called sprouting. More commonly, the appearance of and Jena 1705. He wrote Latin Institutions of Moral and Dog- buds on flowering plants. matic Theology, 1721–28, and a History of the same, 1723.

Buddle. Ore-dressing machine in which separation is afBuddha, Gotama, ab.500-ab.420 B.C. Of the Sakya tribe, fected by the flowing of slime in thin sheets over a smooth insettled ab. 100 miles n. e. of Benares. His mother died in his clined surface. Many different styles are in use, some of which infancy, and her sister brought him up. He abandoned wife are stationary and some rotary, some circular and some rectanand son at the age of 29 to work out his religious ideas. Fail- gular. ing to find what he wanted in the systems of the famous teach Budget. Annual statement of receipts and expenditures of ers with whom he studied, he next practiced extreme austerities governments. Orig., bag containing papers and documents refor two or three years, but finally abandoned this road to deliv- lating to the financial exhibit laid before House of Commons by erance, whereupon his disciples left him in displeasure. Then Chancellor of the Exchequer. France has adopted the term. came the mental crisis when for a day and a night he sat under While the fiscal year varies greatly in different countries, bethe Bo Tree and the vision came clothing him with the quality ginning with the calendar year in France, April 1 in Great Britof perfect wisdom and revealing the doctrine he should teach. ain, and July 1 in the U. S.. there is a uniform usage by these His disciples had gone to Benares; he followed them there, un and other governments to present the budget to the legislative folded his system,

and sent them out to proselytize. For the 45 body at the beginning of each annual session. When presentremaining years of his life he preached throughout the Ganges ing it, the finance minister often explains it; in other cases Valley with marvelous effect, and is even said to have visited these explanations are made before a committee appointed to Ceylon.

receive it. In the U.S. a statement of the annual receipts and Buddhism. R-ligion of more than half the human race: Treasury since 1790. A Committee of Ways and Means to con

expenditures has been laid before Congress by the Sec. of the Its present strongholds are Ceylon, Burmah, Siam, Farther In- sider and report on the statement for supplies in administering dia, Tonquin. Java, Nepaul, Thibet, China, Mongolia, and Japan. the Government was constituted by the first Congress 1789, India, the cradle of the creed, saw Buddhism degenerate into consisting of one member from each State. In 1795 this was gross idolatry and finally become extirpated by the Brahmans made a standing or permanent committee of the House. Its after sanguinary struggles ab. 600 A. D. It is atheistic in that membership was reduced to seven 1802, increased to eight 1863. it ignores any mode of personal existence compatible with the idea of spiritual perfection, but it assumes that the same con

to eleven 1873, and to thirteen 1879. dition awaits the emancipated soul as is enjoyed by the Su

Buell, Don CARLOS, U. S. A., b. 1818. Commanding in Kr. preme Mind. This NIRVANA (4.v.), or Perfect Rest, is the High- and Tenn. 1862; engaged at Perryville Oct. 8. He left the ser est Good. The basis of Buddhism is sorrow. The Four Truths vice 1864.

1. The reality of misery. 2. Its cause or accumulation. Buena Vista. In Mexico, 7 m. s. of Saltillo; scene of a 3. The possibility of its destruction. 4. The way, or requisite battle, Feb. 22–23, 1847, between Santa Anna and Gen. Taylor.

The way has 8 stages: Right views, aims, speech, con- The former retreated with loss of ab. 2,000; American loss 750.




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Buenos Ayres. Seaport, capital of Argentine Republic, Bugleweed. Lycopus Virginicus. Plant of the Mint on s. shore of the estuary of the Rio de la Plata; founded 1535. | family, native of e. U. S.

Bugloss. Lycopsis arvensis. Plant of the Borage family, native of Europe, but introduced into America.


Bugs., See HEMIPTERA. This term is often wrongly used to designate beetles and other insects.

Bug-Seed. Corispermum hyssopifolium. Plant of the Goosefoot family, native of the northern hemisphere.

Buhl. Cabinet work inlaid with brass in ornamental patterns, so called from its inventor, Charles André Boule, 16421732.

Buhrstone, or BURRSTONE. Hard, siliceous rock from which mill-stones are made. Its peculiar vesicular texture keeps the surface from wearing smooth. The best quality comes from France. In recent years iron rollers have come largely into use in flour-mills, and the buhrstone industry has been steadily decreasing in importance.

Building and Loan Associations. Coöperative organizations which collect periodical payments from their members, and loan from the accumulated fund to members on their real estate, with a view to enable persons with small capital to own

their homes, Congress Buildings, Buenos Ayres.

Building Stone. Granite, marble, limestone, and sandIt has a very large trade and commerce, particularly in beef stone are the kinds commonly used, being durable, permanent and bides. Pop., 1892, 549,307.

in color, strong, and cheap. The most porous stones are the Buffalo. See BOVIDÆ and BISON.

least durable, as they absorb water and are liable to become Buffalo. Capital of Erie co., N. Y., on e. end of Lake disintegrated by frost. It is best that stones should be laid on Erie, at head of Niagara R. It is intersected by 8 railroads, their “quarry beds,”, that is, in the same position as in the has an extensive lake commerce and large manufacturing in- quarry.. Granite is the strongest, but it is liable to crack under terests, particularly of iron and steel, lumber and clothing. the action of fire. The best test of stone is its durability

under conditions of actual service. Pop.. 1890, 255,664. Buffalo-Berry. Shepherdia argentea. Silvery-leaved

Bulbs. Buds with fleshy scales. They are generally subshrub of natural family Eleagnacece, native of the n. w. U. S., terranean, but occur occasionally in the axils of leaves, as in bearing an edible, acid, berry-like fruit.

certain Lilies, and are then sometimes called Bulblets or Bulbils. Buffalo-Grass. Bulbilis dactyloides. Small, wiry grass

Bulbus. Enlarged base of the stipe of certain toadstools. of the plains of central N. America.

Bulbus Arteriosus, or BULBUS AORTÆ. Synangium of Buffalo-Nut. Pyrularia pubera. Shrub of the natural the frog's heart; part of the aorta next the heart. In fishes it family Santalacec, native of the southern Alleganies; also is often contractile, like the ventricle. When a conus arteriocalled Oil-nut.

sus is simultaneously present the two together are termed the

truncus arteriosus, of which the conus lies between the heart Buffer. Plate at the end of a railway-car, which receives and the bulbus. the shock of another car by striking a similar plate, each plate transferring the shock to springs, so that the cars themselves

Bulgaria. Principality of s. e. Europe, s. of Roumania, e. may be subject only to a small concussion; sometimes the of Servia. Finnish invaders from the Volga set up a kingdom draw-bar of a car.

ab. 680, which was overthrown by Byzantines 1018, re-estabBuffon, GEORGES LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE, 1707–1788. of 1876 led to practical independence 1878. Alexander of Bat

lished 1186, and conquered by Turks 1388–93. The insurrection French naturalist, academician 1753, ennobled 1776. attempted to cover the whole range of science in Natural His- tenberg, elected Prince 1879, abdicated 1886; Ferdinand of Sax: tory, 36 vols., 1749-89, having in part of these the aid of Dauben- ony succeeded 1887. War with Servia 1885' led to the nominal

annexation of E. Rumelia. Area of B. proper, 24,500 sq. m.; ton and others. His best work is found in vol. 34, Epochs of pop., 1893, 2,313.072. Capital, Sofia. Area of E. Rumelia, 13,160 Nature, 1789.

sq. m.; pop., 1893, 992,386. Bufo. See OXYDACTYLIA and BUFONIDÆ.

Bulgarin, FADDEI VENEDIKTOVITCH, 1789-1859. Russian Bufonidæ (TOADS). Of Bufo alone there are 77 species. journalist and novelist. Demetrius, 1830; Mazeppa, 1832; RusA Mexican species rivals the bullfrog in size and grows to a sia, 6 vols., 1836; Memoirs, 6 vols., 1844–49. length of 8 inches. The eggs of toads are black, and are laid in a single string of jelly. The young tadpoles that develop ing of a dock. Granite or concrete walls resting on pile foun

Bulkhead. Stone or timber construction forming the facfrom them are black. They soon, while small

, undergo the dations are often employed, particularly in Europe. The cut metamorphoses that fit them for a terrestrial life; the gills and shows a form adopted by the department of docks in New York tail are absorbed, and legs appear. They travel far away overland, hiding in the daytime. When it rains they come out in large numbers. Alytes obstetricans, the Obstetric Toad, belongs to an allied family (Discoglossidae). The male winds the eggstring about his thighs, and carries it until they hatch. For the Spade-foot, see PELOBATIDÆ.

Bufoniformia. See OXYDACTYLIA.

Buford, John, U. S. A., 1825–1863. General of cavalry in the Civil War.—His half-brother, NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, 1807–1883, served in the West as gen. U. S. Vols., 1861–65.

Bugbane. Species of Cimicifuga, tall shrubs of natural family Ranunculaceæ, natives of the northern hemisphere; known also as Bugwort.

Bugbane, FALSE. Trautvetteria Carolinensis. Plant of the Buttercup family, native of the s. Alleganies.

Bulkhead Construction on Rock, North River, N. Y. City. Bugeaud, THOMAS ROBERT, 1784–1849. Marshal of France, City:-Bulkheads, in naval construction, are very important 1831, gov. of Algiers 1840–48; Duc d'Isly 1844.

ard numerous, and are fitted with water-tight doors and covers. Bugenhagen, JOHANN, called DR. POMERANUS, 1485–1558. They are classified as longitudinal, middle-line, partial, transGerman reformier, associate of Luther. Commentary on the verse, and wing-passage. Psalms, 1524.

Bull. Decree of the Pope as sovereign, "fulminated Bugge, ELSENS SOPHUS, b. 1833. Prof. Christiania 1866; solemn occasions. Orig., seal, thence edict of a secular ruler, Ed. Norse ballads 1858, sagas. 1864-73, and Edda, 1867. Origin as the “Golden Bull" of Andrew II. of Hungary, 1222, and that of Northern Mythology, 1881-89.

of Charles IV, of Germany, 1356, as to the election of EmBuggy. Small wagon used in coal-mines for carrying coal perors. short distances.

Bull, GEORGE, D.D., 1634–1710. Bp. of St. David's 1705.



Low Waler


Earth Ashes. Etc




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Latin Defense of the Nicene Faith, 1680. Collected works, 7 labor to advance the price of securities are called Bulls, and to vols., 1827.

depress, Bears. Bull, John, ab. 1563–1628. Doctor of music, organist of the Bully Tree. Bumelia nigra. Large West Indian tree of Chapel Royal. See GOD SAVE THE QUEEN.

the Custard-apple family, bearing edible fruits. Bull, OLE BORNEMANN, 1810-1880. Norwegian violinist, Bülow, FRIEDRICH WILHELM VON, 1755-1816. Prussian famous from 1835; resident in the U. S. 1852-57, and largely general, prominent at Leipzig, Waterloo and earlier battles from 1867.

with the French; made Count of Dennewitz 1814. Bulla. See TECTIBRANCHIATA.

Bulow, HANS VON, 1830–1894. German pianist, critic and Bullace. Prunus insititia. Spiny shrub of the Plum fam- conductor; Prof. Berlin 1855, Chapeimaster at Munich 1867; ily, occasionally introduced from England into N. America. one of the earliest and stanchest advocates of Wagner's dramas. Bulla Ossea. See ANATINÆ.

He visited the U. S. in 1875, 1889 and 1890. His mind was anaBullate. Surface of leaves or other organs which are

lytical rather than creative, and his compositions have not won puckered up by the expansion of the parenchyma between

popularity. the veins.

Buloz, FRANÇOIS, 1803-1877. Swiss-French author and Bull-Baiting. Sport once common in England, in which translator, founder of the Revue des deux Mondes, 1831. dogs were set upon a bull, which was sometimes made more

Bulrush. Large, coarse sedges of genus Scirpus, of wide furious by having his nose blown full of pepper before being geographical distribution; also turned loose. Or the bull was fastened to a stake by a short called Club-rush. The Bulrush of rope, and bull-dogs, trained to seize him by the nose, were set the Nile is Cyperlis Papyrus, a on him one by one.

large plant of the Sedge family. Bulldozers. Orig., “Regulators” in La. 1876, who intimi Bulwer, EDWARD GEORGE. dated negro voters with the bull-whip; similar to “ Ku-klux' See LYTTON. and “White-caps."

Bulwer, SIR WILLIAM HENRY Bullet-Proof Cloth. For shields has been popularly ex- LYTTON EARLE, 1801-1872. Brother perimented with during the past two years. Wire or thin steel of Lord Lytton; M. P. 1830–37, is supposed to provide the resistance to penetration. Paper- envoy to Spain 1843, U. S. 1849, pulp and aluminium are also used. The coat employed weighs Tuscany 1852, and Turkey 1858. from 9 to 12 pounds, the cloth being about 2 inches thick. Ex- He negotiated the Clayton-Bulwer perimental bullet-proof coats or shields have been presented by treaty 1850, and was made Baron Boyton, Dowe, Lennard, Lucas, Loris, Manard, Maxim, Smith, Dalling and Bulwer 1871. He Weber and Zeitung.

pub. France, 1854; Historical Bull-Fighting. Popular amusement in Spain; also prac- ston, 1870.

Character, 1868; Life of Palmer-
ticed in Portugal, s. France, and Spanish-American coun-
tries. It appears to have been an inheritance from the Moors, Bumboat. Boat used prin-

cipally by women to supply ships
lying off a port with produce and
cheap merchandise.

A, Common Cat's-lail (Typha latifolia);
Bumping Post. Structure

B, Common Bulrush (Scirpus placed at the end of a railroad turnout to prevent cars from leaving the track.

Bunce, OLIVER BELL, 1828–1890. American author; ed. Appleton's Journal. Bachelor Bluff, 1882; Don't, 1884.

Bunch-Berry. Cornus Canadensis. Low plant of the Dogwood family, native of n. N. America; known also as Dwarf Cornel.

Bunch-Flower. Plants of genus Melanthium, natural family Liliacere, natives of e. N. America.

Bundle-Sheath. In plant anatomy, layer of thin-walled cells surrounding one or more fibro vascular bundles.

Bunion. Enlargement of the bursa at the base of the little or great toes, due to pressure or improperly fitting shoes, causing the toe to bend inward, and, when neglected, inflammation of the joint. It may be cured by apparatus to correct the de

formity, but in some cases operation is necessary. Spanish Bull-fight at San Roque.

Bunker Hill. Eminence in Charlestown (Boston), Mass., and to have been originally an exhibition of horsemanship in

scene of a battle June 17, 1775, won by the British after a deswhich the nobles took part. It exists in Spain as a game, the perate conflict, and commemorated by a monument dedicated

1843. score of which is the record of horses killed by the bulls and the points made by the matador, or bull-fighter, and his troop:

Bunner, HENRY CUYLER, b. 1855. American novelist and The latter travel from city to city, in most of which are special poet; ed. Puck from its start, 1877. The Midge, 1886. amphitheaters, Plaza de Toros.

Bunodontia (OMNIVORA). Section of artiodactyl (evenBullinger, HEINRICH, 1504–1575._Swiss reformer; pastor toed) Ungulates, having the grinding teeth furnished with at Zurich 1531, succeeding Zwingli. He wrote the Second Hel- tuberculated crowns. It includes the families Hippopotamide, vetic Confession, 1566, and exerted much influence on England Suidæ, Anoplotherida, and Oreodontidæ. through the exiles of Mary's reign, and by his sermons, tr. 1577. Bunodont Teeth. Molars whose crowns support tuber

Bullion. Uncoined gold or silver, known also as bar-cles, as in swine. The tubercles may be few and opposite, as in silver and gold bar.

the Hippopotamus, or alternate, as in Hyopsodus, or irregular by a committee appointed to investigate the currency. The the sub-orders Tæniodonta, Mesodonta, Insectivora, Creodonta, Bullion Report. Made to the English Parliament 1810, and numerous as in the Mastodon.

Bunotheria. Order of the placental Mammals, including principles then laid down have been the basis of almost all and Tillodonta. They have low cerebral development, the feet subsequent British monetary legislation. Bull Pump. Direct single-acting pump, used in vertical articulation of the mandible is transverse; the molar teeth are

are ambulatory and unguiculate, usually with five toes. The mine shafts or steep inclines, in which the pump rods are attached directly to the steam piston. The weight of the rods times all classed as Insectivora, but there is great diversity, and

tuberculated with continuous crests. These forms are somemakes the down stroke.

they shade off on the one hand into the Marsupials, and on the Bull Roarer. Long, thin, narrow piece of wood, swung other connect with different divergent orders, as the Carnivoby a string attached to one end, so that a loud and peculiar ra, Rodentia, Edentata, and Lemuridæ. noise is produced. It is a common plaything among children, and is used in religious rites by many savage tribes.


1791-1860. German scholar, of intimate English connections; Bull Run, VA., BATTLES OF. July 21, 1861, and August Prussian minister to Rome 1827–38; to England 1841-54; baron 30, 1862, Union defeats,

1858. Egypt's Place in History, 5 vols., 1845–57; Ignatius, 1847; Bulls and Bears. In the Stock Exchange, dealers who | Hippolytus, 1852–53; God in History, 1857–58, tr. 1868–70.




Bunsen, ROBERT WILHELM, b. 1811. German chemist, prof. | Large-leaved plants of the Composite family, natives of the Old Heidelberg 1851–89; discoverer, with Kirchhoff, of spectrum | World, introduced as weeds into America. "It spreads by means

of its hooked burr that clings to the hair and wool of animals, articles of dress, etc. It rarely enters open fields, but adds much to the unsightliness of roadsides and waste places around


Robert W. Bunsen. analysis. Much of his work has had to do with gases and

Burdock (Lappa minor). methods for their analysis.

dwellings. It is best subdued by spudding out the young Bunsen Burner. Devised by Bunsen of Heidelberg, in plants early in the spring so deeplý that they will not start which air is mixed with the gas before it is burned. The com

again. bustion in this case is complete, and there is no deposition of

Bürger, GOTTFRIED AUGUST, 1747–1794. German lyric poet. soot and but little light. The gas enters through a small open- Lenore, 1772, and others of his ballads, are of singular force. ing in the axis of a tube, while the air enters through two ad Burglary. Breaking and entering another's dwellingjustable lateral openings a little below the gas opening. The house at night with intent to commit a felony; now generally mixture burns at the end of the larger tube.

defined and governed by statute, and often divided into degrees Buntlines. Fastened to the foot-rope of a square sail to with varying grades of punishment. draw it up to the middle of the yard for furling.

Burgon, JOHN WILLIAM, 1813–1888. Dean of Chichester Bunyon, JOHN, 1628–1688. English nonconformist, most re

1876. Commentary on Gospels, 1855, and on Psalms, 1857; nowned of prose allegorists. Pilgrim's Progress, Part 1, 1678, Lives of 12 Good Men, 1888. Part 2, 1684; Holy War, 1682; Grace Abounding, 1666; and many

Burgos. City of n. Spain, founded 844, once capital of Casminor works. A tinker and Baptist preacher, he was in prison tile. Pop. ab. 32,000. Here were issued in 1512 certain well1660–72 and 1675.

meant but ineffective laws for the protection of Indians in the Buonarotti. See MICHELANGELO.

W. Indies. Buononcini, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, b, ab. 1672. Italian mu

Burgoyne, JOHN, 1723-1792. British general, who led the sician, once by some regarded as a rival of Handel.

invasion of the colonies from Canada 1777, captured Ticondero

ga and Ft. Edward, but, becoming detached from his commuBuoy. Conical or spherical floating body placed in spots nications, surrendered at Saratoga Oct. 17. He wrote several dangerous to navigation. Used to mark channels, reefs, shoals, plays, 1780-86.-His son, SIR JOHN Fox, D.C.L., 1782–1871, won and the position of wrecks; also slipped anchors or cables. | distinction as an engineer in the Peninsular War and in the They are of various sizes and colors of special signification. Crimea, was made lieut.-gen. 1851, baronet 1856, and field-marLighted buoys and bell-buoys are also used.

shal 1868. Buoyancy. Force with which a body immersed in a fluid

Bur-Grass. Cenchrus tribuloides. Found especially along (either liquid or gas), is pushed upward; proportional to the the Atlantic coast of U. S. and in sandy places inland. volume of the body and the density of the Auid.

Burgundy. The Burgundians were Goths who entered Buràn. In Siberia and Russia, storm of snow driven by the Gaul 407. In 451 their king, Gondicar, was defeated and slain wind; corresponding nearly to a blizzard in N. America.

by Attila. In 534 they submitted to the Frankish rule. In Burbage, RICHARD, ab. 1567–1619. English actor, con- the 9th century were founded the two kingdoms of Lower and nected with Shakespeare at Blackfriar's theater.

Upper Burgundy, united 10th century in the kingdom of ARLES

(q.v.). Rudolf III. left B. to Conrad II. of Germany 1032; Henry Burckhardt, JOHANN LUDWIG, 1784-1817. Swiss ex- Ill. made it a duchy. Under Philip the Bold, 1363, began its plorer, sent to Africa 1809 by a British society, Travels in period of greatest power and splendor. After the death of Nubia, 1819, Syria, 1822, and Arabia, 1829; Bedouins and Charles the Bold, B. proper was incorporated with France 1479. Wahabys, 1830; Arabic Proverbs, 1830.

It now forms the departments of Cote-d'Or, Saone-et-Loire, Burden of Proof. (1 ) Obligation of a litigant to prove Ain, and part of Yonne. his case, (2) at a given stage of the trial to introduce evidence.

Burgundy Wines. These wines are made in the departIn the first sense, it remains throughout the trial op him who ments of Cote-d'Or, Sãone-et-Loire, and Yonne, in France, a has the affirmative of the issue; in the second, it changes from portion of the old province of Burgundy. There are both red one litigant to the other as the trial progresses, resting at a and white wines, and they are noted for their delicacy, fine bougiven moment on him against whom judgment would be quet, and delicious flavor. Among those grown in Cote-d'Or rendered if no further evidence were adduced.

may be mentioned Chambertin.

Clos de Vougeot, Romanée ConBurdette, ROBERT JONES, b. 1844. American humorist, ti, Nuits. Beaune, Volnay, and Pommard, all red wines. Of the long connected with the Burlington (Ia.) Hawkeye.

white wines, there are Genevrières, Goutte d'Or, Perrières, Mon

trachet, the best of white Burgundies, and Gravieres. Macon Burdick, FRANCIS M., LL.B.; b. 1845. Prof. Law, Hamil- comes from Sâone-et-Loire and Chablis from Yonne, the former ton Coll. 1882–7; Cornell Univ. 1887-91: Columbia Coll. 1891. a red, the latter a white wine. The best wines are made from Study of Law as a Part of a General Education, 1887; Direct selected grapes, from the best localities and exposures, and Taxes, 1889; Cases on Torts, 1891.

with the greatest care in pressing, fermenting, and cellaring. Burdock. Arctium Lappa and other species of Arctium. In alcoholic strength they range from 10 per cent in Macon to

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13 per cent in Chambertin. Analysis showed no sugar and an Bur-Marigold. Plants of the genus Bidens, natural acidity in the former equal to 6.8 grs. per oz., and in the latter family Compositæ. equal to 4.3 grains of tartaric acid. The acid is probably racemic or malic acid; it is not acetic or tartaric acid.

Burmeister, KARL HERMANN KONRAD, 1807-1891. Prof.

Halle 1837; author of an important work on the organization of Burial OF THE DEAD, See DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD.

Trilobites; keeper from 1861 of the geological museum at Burke, EDMUND, LL.D., 1728-1797. Irish philosopher and Buenos Ayres, where he collected numerous remains of the exstatesman, famed for eloquence; M. P. 1765. Inquiry into the tinct Pleistocene Mammalia of Argentina. Sublime and Beautiful, 1756; Revolution in France, 1790.

Burmeister, RICHARD, b. 1860. German composer and Burke, SIR JOHN BERNARD, LL.D., 1815–1892. Genealogist; pianist, studied with Liszt. Teacher at the Peabody ConservaUlster king-at-arms from 1853. He edited the Peerage and tory, Baltimore 1885. Pianoforte Concerto, D minor, 1890; Baronetage, first issued in 1826 by his father, JOHN, 1786–1848. The Chase After Fortune, symphonic poem, 1893; Pianoforte The Landed Gentry, 1853.

Concerto, G minor; Der Blummrache, cantata. Burlamaqui, JEAN JACQUES, 1694-1748. Prof. of Ethics Burmese, OR BURMANS. Chief inhabitants of Burmah. They and Law in Geneva 1729. Natural Law, 1747; Political Law, are short, but powerful, broad-faced, flat-nosed, with Mongo1751.

lian eyes and complexion. They tattoo, especially the calves, Burleigh, WILLIAM CECIL, LORD, 1520–1598. English states and wear a single cloth wound about the body. The beard is man; Sec. of State 1548, Prime Minister from 1558, Lord Treas- poorly developed. While polygamy is forbidden by law, conurer 1572.

cubinage is unlimited. Legally the wife is equal to her husBurlingame, ANSON, LL.D., 1822–1870. M. C. from Mass. band, and goes about freely, buying and selling. The people 1854–60; Commissioner to China 1861; Chinese Ambassador to They are Buddhists, indifferent to death and to infanticide or

are lazy, pleasure-loving, hospitable, but very untruthful. U. S. and Europe 1867. Burlington. City of Des Moines co., Iowa, on w. bank of murder. All male children receive religious instruction and

can read and write. They welcome European ideas. the Mississippi. Pop., 1890, 22,565. Burlington. City of Chittenden co., Vermont, on e. shore

'Burnaby, FREDERICK GUSTAVUS, 1842–1885. English travof Lake Champlain. Ít has two railroads and the State Univ. eler; lieut. col. 1880; killed in battle in Africa. Ride to Khira, Pop., 1890, 14,590.

1876; Through Asia Minor, 1877; Our Radicals, 1886. Burlington. Limestone stratum forming a part of the Burnand, FRANCIS COWLEY, b. 1836. English humorist; Lower Carboniferous series in the Mississippi Valley.

ed. Punch from 1880. Happy Thoughts, 1868. Burmah. Country of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, s. of Burne-Jones, EDWARD, b. 1833. English painter of the China and e. of India; area ab. 160,000. sq. m. The capital is æsthetic and romantic schools; in composition and decorative Mandalay. Ava was ceded to Great Britain 1824, Pegu annexed feeling influenced by the early Italians.

Burnet. Plants of genus Poterium, natural family Rosa95 1000

cece, natives of the northern hemi

Η Ι Ν ΑΙ Burnet, GILBERT, F.R.S., 1643–

1715. Historian; prof. Univ. Glas-
gow 1669; king's chaplain 1674; de-
clined a bishopric, and promoted
the Revolution; Bp. of Salisbury
1689. Reformation Ch. of England,
3 vols.,1679-81 and 1715; Exposition
of the 39 Articles, 1699; History of

his own Times, 1723–34.-His broth-

er THOMAS, M.D., wrote a Latin The

saurus of Medical Practice, 1673.
Ava Amarapoora

Burnet, THOMAS,1635–1715. En-

glish scholar. His Sacred Theory

of the Earth, 1680–89. is a monu

ment of ingenious error. Other

works of his anticipate some tenets
of modern biblical criticism and
liberal theology.

(HODGSON), b. 1849. Anglo-Ameri-
can novelist. That Lass o' Low-
rie's, 1877; Haworth's, 1879; Louisi-

ana, 1880; A Fair Barbarian, 1881; SIJA M

Through One Administration, 1883;

Little Lord Fauntleroy, 1886;

Sarah Crewe, 1888; The One I Know
O E.
Best, 1893.

Poterium sanguisorba.

Burnettizing. Process of impregnating timber with a B

solution of chloride of zinc, to prevent its decay. It is most E NOG A L ANDAMAN DA ISLANDS

frequently used for railroad cross-ties, which can be burnettized at a cost of ab. 25 cents each, their life being thus increased from ab. 8 years to 16. 11 lbs. chloride of zinc to 12 gals, water

are forced into the wood, which absorbs from 5 to 20 lbs. chlorViol.


ide of zinc per 1,000 ft. board measure. Patented by Burnett 1838.

Burney, CHARLES, F.R.S., Mus. D., 1726–1814. English com.8.95

poser; author of a History of Music, 4 v., 1776–89, and Present Sketch-Map of Burmah.

State of Music, 3 v., 1772–73. 1830. King Theebaw, of a dynasty founded ab. 1650, was con

Burney, FRANCES (MME. D'ARBLAY), 1752–1840. English quered 1885. and most of his dominions added to the Indian novelist, married 1793. Evelissa, 1778; Cecilia, 1782; Camilla, Empire 1886. Pop. near 8,000,000.

1796; Diary and Letters, 7 vols., 1842–46. Burmann, PETER, 1668–1741. Prof. at Utrecht and Leyden. novelist. No Gentleman, 1881; A Sane Lunatic, 1890; Dr. Lati

Burnham, MRS. CLARA LOUISE (Root), b. 1854. American He and his son PETER, 1714-1778, edited many classics.

mer, 1893; Sweet Clover, 1894. Burmanniaceæ. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermae, sub-class Monocotyledones, comprising

Burning-Bush. Enonymus atropurpureus. Shrub of the 10 genera and ab. 50 species, widely distributed throughout natural family. Celastracece, native of e. N. America; also the warmer parts of the globe; commonly called the Burmannia known as Waahoo. family,

Burning-Glass. Lens in which parallel heat rays from




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