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four, nearly equal toes; the tail and neck were long. There is no 1834. Williamsburg and Greenpoint were added 1855. Pop., diastema between the canines and præmolars; the nasals and 1890, 806,343. maxillaries carry a pair of large horn-cores. Brontotherium, which probably resembled the elephant, is typical of the York and Brooklyn,

erected 1870-83 at a cost of ab. $15,000,000;

Brooklyn Bridge. Over the East River between New family, but several allied genera have been discovered.

6,537 ft. long, having a central span of 1,596 ft. and two side Bronze. Copper, 8 parts, and tin, 1 part, form a bronze spans of 930 ft. each, the longest of all suspension structures. used for gun-metal which weighs ab. 530 lbs. per cubic foot. There are four cables of steel wire, each 16 inches in diameter There are many varieties of bronze, depending upon the pro- and containing 5,296 parallel wires. The clear height of the portions of copper and tin. Sometimes zinc and lead are added. See COPPER, METALLURGY OF.

Bronze Age. Prehistoric period in Europe following the age which had no knowledge of metals, but used stone, shell, and horn implements; succeeded by that in which iron was introduced. Bronze was knowr in Egypt 4000 B.C., but probably not to the Swiss lake-dwellers before 2000 or 1500 B.C., and its use in n. Europe was still later. The divisions of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages are especially emphasized in Scandinavian archæology, because the Scandinavian relics of all these periods are so numerous and the distinctions of culture so clear. The use of stone continued long after bronze was first used, and iron never wholly supplanted bronze. Students are not yet agreed as to the original center of the Bronze Age and attendant culture, but there is no evidence to connect it with Asia.

Bronzino, AGNOLO, 1503-1572. Painter of the Florentine decadence. His best works are portraits, especially in the Pitti Gallery

Brood-Pouch. Sac either internal or external to the body of animals, in which the early stages of the development

Brooklyn Bridge. of the young are passed when there is little or no nutriment

igh water is 135 feet. The plans passing from the mother to the young, the eggs being ade- center of the bridge above quately supplied with food-yelk. Otherwise such a sac is

were made by John A. Roebling; his son, W. A., was the chief a uterus, if internal, and à marsupium, if external. See engineer. The bridge is free to foot passengers, but the total EPHIPPIUM.

annual receipts from wagons and the cable railway are nearly

$2,000,000 Brooke, GUSTAVUS VAUGHAN, 1818–1866. Irish actor,

Brooks, CHARLES TIMOTHY, 1813–1883. Unitarian pastor at Brooke, HENRY, 1703-1783. Irish poet and novelist. Gus- Newport, R. I., 1837–73; translator of Faust, 1856, and many tavus Vasa, 1739, and other plays. His Fool of Quality, 5 vols., other German poems. 1766-70, was abridged by John Wesley 1780, and repub. in 2 v., 1859-60.

Brooks, CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY, 1815–1874. English

novelist and dramatist; ed. Punch, 1870; Aspen Court, 1857; Brooke, HENRY JAMES, 1771-1857. English crystallogra- Sooner or Later, 1868. pher; author of articles on mineralogy in Encyc. Metripolitana.

Brooks, MRS. MARIA GOWEN, ab. 1795–1845. American poet. Brooke, SIR JAMES, 1803–1868. Rajah of Sarawak, at first Zophiel, 1825–33. Southey called her - Maria del Occidente, under the Sultan of Borneo, and later as an independent sov and praised her in his Doctor. ereign; knighted 1847; British gov. of Labuan 1848–57. In Sar

Brooks, NATHAN COVINGTON, b. 1819. American author of awak he suppressed the head-hunters and pirates 1838–46, re

Greek and Latin text-books. pelled a Chinese invasion 1857, made laws, fostered trade, and left his throne to a relative.

Brooks, Noah, b. 1830. American journalist, author of

stories for boys. Tales of Maine Coast, 1894. Brooke, LORD. See GREVILLE, FULKE. Brooke, STOPFORD AUGUSTUS, b. 1832, Biographer of F. Boston 1869; Bp. of Mass. 1891; accounted the greatest of

Brooks, PHILLIPS, D.D., 1835–1893. Rector in Phila. 1859; W. Robertson 1865. Theology in the English Poets, 1874; En- American preachers since H. W. Beecher's death. Lectures on glish Literature, 1876; Poems, 1888.

Preaching, 1877; Influence of Jesus, 1879. Brook Farm. Included some 200 acres at West Roxbury,

Brooks, WILLIAM KEITH, Ph.D., b. 1848. Director ChesaMass., where, in 1841, the Transcendentalists formed a settlement with the object of combining cultivation of mind and peake Marine Laboratory 1878, prof. of Morphology at Johns heart with a reasonable amount of common daily labor. Mem- Hopkins Univ. 1883. Invertebrate Zoology, 1882; Heredity, 1884. bers received 10 cents an hour for their work, whether as teach Brooks' Theory of Heredity. Modification of the ers, field or stable hands, joiners, shoemakers, or seamstresses, pangenesis theory, in which it is assumed that the sperm is and all shared alike. The scheme failed financially in 1847. It the specialized cell into which gemmules are stored, which are was first started as a joint-stock company, reorganized as a given off by the various somatic cells only when a strain, due phalanstery 1844, and incorporated as the Brook Farm Phalanx to ill adaptation, occurs. Thus sex is explained as a differen1845. Among the members were George Ripley, C. A. Dana, tiation between conservative and radical lines (stability and G. W. Curtis, Theodore Parker, W. H. Channing, R. W. Emer- variation), represented by the female and the male respectively. son, Margaret Fuller, Alcott, Brownson, and others.

All, or mainly all, variation originates in the male. The theory Brooklime. Veronica Beccabunga and V. Americana. claims that some organs, now found rudimentary in the male Aquatic herbs of the natural family Scrophularinece, natives of in the former and have been transferred to the latter. Many

and well developed in the female (as the mammæ), originated Europe and N. America.

facts seem to support this theory, but there are exceptions Brookline. Suburb of Boston; in Norfolk co., Mass., on enough to prevent its acceptance unconditionally. Charles R. Pop., 1890, 12, 103.

Brookweed. Samolus Valerandi. Plant of the Primrose Brooklyn. City of Kings co., N. Y., second in popula- family, native in Europe; known also as Water Pimpernel. tion in the State and fourth in the U.S., at w. end of Long Island. It covers an area of 32 sq. m., is the terminus of a

Broom. Cytissus scoparius. Shrub of the Bean family, number of short railroads, and is connected with New York by duced into N. America. Its twigs are used for making brooms.

bearing a profusion of yellow flowers; native of Europe, introthe East R. Suspension Bridge and numerous ferries. It has ab. 700 miles of streets, mostly paved with cobble-stones. Broom, HERBERT, LL.D.,1815–1882. English lawyer. Legal Water is obtained by pumping from Jamaica Pond and else- Maxims, 1845; Commentaries on the Common Law: Philosophy where, some 50,000,000 gals. being used daily. Prospect Park of Law, 1876-78. has an area of 516 acres. The sewer system is very complete, the sewerage being discharged into East R., Gowanus

Bay, of the Lily family, native of Europe.

Broom, BUTCHER'S. Ruscus aculeatus. Stiff, spiny shrub and Wallabout Bay. The principal cemetery, Greenwood, is one of the most beautiful in the country. The U.S. maintains Broom-Corn. Sorghum vulgare. Coarse grass, 'native of a navy yard here. The first settlement was made 1636. It was Asia, extensively cultivated in the U.S. The long axes of the incorporated 1653–65, chartered as a village 1816, and as a city spikelets are used in making brooms. A warm, rich, alluvial

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soil is especially suited to this crop. The seed-bed must be ing slaves by inciting them to insurrection; seized the arsenal well prepared and the planting not done till the ground is thor- at Harper's Ferry, Va., Oct. 16, 1859. It was retaken the fol. oughly warm. Cultivation is the same as for Indian corn. lowing day, and he was tried and executed Dec. 2. When the seed-panicles appear the head is broken over (tabled), so that the weight of the maturing seed may cause the brush

Brown, JOSEPH EMERSON, LL.D., 1821–1894. Gov. of Ga.

1857–65, chief-justice 1868–70, pres. Western and Atlantic R. R. to grow straight. When the seed is ripe, the heads and upper part of the stalk are cut off, the seed scraped off, and the brush 1870, U. S. Senator 1881-91. packed in bundles for sale.

Brown, MRS. PHEBE (HINSDALE), 1783–1861. American Broome, WILLIAM, 1689–1745. English translator of the hymnist; author of " I love to steal awhile away," 1817. Iliad in prose, and of eight books of the Odyssey in verse, in Brown, ROBERT, ab. 1550–1633. Reputed founder of English Pope's version.

Congregationalism. He formed a separatist society at Nor

wich 1581, but after frequent imprisonment conformed to the Broom-Rape. Phelipæa Ludoviciana. Parasitic plant of the natural family Orobanchaceæ, native of the

s. w. U. S.; Church 1586, and received a benefice 1591; said to have died in in Europe, other species of the same order.

jail. His first followers were called Brownists. Brosboll, JOHAN CARL CHRISTIAN, b. 1820. Danish novelist New Holland, 1810-27; Works, 1866-68.

Brown, ROBERT, 1773–1858. English botanist. Flora of and poet. Broschi. See FARINELLI.

Brown, THOMAS, M.D., 1778–1820. Philosopher; the first to

distinguish between tactual and muscular sensations and to deBrothers of the Bridge. Mediæval, semi-religious fra- velop the doctrine of association in the explanation of fundaternity, founded to secure travelers safe passage across rivers, mental beliefs. Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind. and afterward engaged in bridge construction. Peter of Colechurch, a priest, built the first stone bridge in London ab. 1180. Brown Body. Mass formed in the older parts of colonies

of marine Polyzoa, from the degeneration of the zoöids except Brougham, HENRY, LORD, 1779-1868. Statesman and the reproductive tissues of the endocyst; sometimes absorbed author, b. in Edinburgh, removed to London 1808; M. P. 1810, by new buds from the latter. Baron Brougham and Vaux 1830, Lord Chancellor 1830-34; eminent as an orator and a legal, social, and educational reformer.

Brown Coal. Containing carbon 48-56 per cent, hydroStatesmen of Time of George III., 1839-43; Political Philosophy, gen, 1-2 per cent, chemically combined water 31–32 per cent, 1840-44; British Constitution, 1844; Works, 10 vols., 1857; and ab. 20 per cent hygroscopic water. It frequently shows Memoir, 1871.

direct evidence of its vegetable origin. It is rather widely dis

tributed, bnt its deposits are usually limited in extent and lie Brougham, JOHN, 1810-1880. Irish-American actor and mostly near the surface in the younger geological formations. dramatist, settled in N.Y. from 1842, except 1860-65; connected Though of inferior value as a fuel, it is used where fuels of betwith Burton and Wallack, and twice a manager. His writings ) ter quality are not obtainable.-See LIGNITE. and parts were all in comedy.

Browne, CHARLES FARRAR (ARTEMUS WARD"), 1834-1867. Broughton, RHODA, b. 1840. English novelist. Cometh American humorist. His articles began to attract attention up as a Flower, 1867: Red as a Rose is She, 1870; Good-bye, ab. 1858 in the Cleveland, O., Plaindealer. He removed to N.Y., Sweetheart, 1872; Doctor Cupid, 1886.

ed. Vanity Fair for a time, and took to lecturing ab. 1862. A. Brouncker, WILLIAM, VISCOUNT, 1620-1684. English mathe

Ward, his Book, 1862; His Travels, 1865; In London, 1867; matician, first pres. Royal Society. He investigated the

Works, 1875.

properties of continued fractions, and contributed memoirs to Philos.

Browne, EDWARD HAROLD, D.D., D.C.L., 1811-1891. Bp. Transactions.

of Ely 1864, Winchester 1873. Exposition of the 39 Articles, Broussa, or BURSA. City of n. w. Asia Minor, n. of Mt. 1850–53. Olympus, ancient capital of Bithynia; taken by Turks 1356, Browne, HABLOT KNIGHT, 1815–1882. English book illuscapital of their sultans till 1453.

trator. He illustrated Dickens's works. Broussais, FRANCOIS JOSEPH VICTOR, 1772–1838. French Browne, JOHN Ross, 1817-1875. Irish-American traveler; army surgeon, prof. Paris 1832; founder of the physiological U. S. Minister to China 1868–69. Yusef, 1853; Crusoe's Island, school. Medical Doctrine, 1816.

1864; Land of Thor, 1866. Brouwer, or BRAUWER, ADRIAN, 1606-1638. Flemish gepre Browne, SIMON, ab. 1680–1732. London dissenter, who painter, who affected tavern subjects and low life, and had no thought himself devoid of “a reasonable soul"; author of sevsuperior in his own field.

eral learned books, and of many hymus, 1720. Brown, CHARLES BROCKDEN, 1771-1810. American novelist; Browne, SIR THOMAS, 1605–1682. English essayist, knighted ed. Literary Magazine, 1803–8; Wieland, 1798; Ormund, 1799; 1671. Religio Medici, 1643; Pseudoxia Epidemica, 1646-50; Urn Arthur Mervyn, 1800; Jane Talbot, Edgar Huntley, and Clara Burial, 1658. Howard, 1801. These crude but powerful tales were reprinted

Browne, THOMAS ALEXANDER (“ROLF BOLDREWOOD'), b. 1857.

1828. Australian novelist. Ups and Downs, 1879; Nevermore, Brown, David Paul, 1795–1872. Phila. lawyer and drama- 1891; A Sidney Side Saxon, 1851. tist. The Forum, 1856.

Browne, WILLIAM, ab. 1590-ab. 1643. English poet. BriBrown, FORD Madox, b. 1821. English painter of the æs tannia's Pastorals, 1613–16; Works, ed. 1772, 3 vols. thetic school. Frescoes in Town Hall of Manchester.

Brownell, HENRY HOWARD, 1820-1872. American author, Brown, FRANCIS, D.D., 1784–1820. Pres. Dartmouth Coll. styled by Dr. Holmes “Our Battle Laureate ”; nephew of Bp. 1815.-His grandson and namesake, b. 1849, has been prof. T. C. War Lyrics, 1865. Union Theol. Sem., N.Y., since 1881. Assyriology, 1885.

Brownell, THOMAS CHURCH, D.D., LL.D., 1779–1865. Prof. Brown, SiR GEORGE, 1790–1865. British general. He served Union Coll. 1806, Bp. of Conn.1819. Family Prayer-Book, 1823. in Peninsula and Crimean Wars, and commanded the storming party in the first attack on the Redan 1856.

Brownell, WILLIAM CRARY, b. 1851. American author.

French Traits, 1889; French Art, 1892. Brown, GEORGE LORING, b. 1814. American landscape painter.

Brownian Motion. See PEDESIS. Brown, HENRY BILLINGS, LL.D., b. 1836. U. S. Dist. Judge Brownie. Scottish house-spirit of tawny color, who does E. Dist. of Mich. 1875; Associate Justice U. S. Sup. Ct. 1890. little services for the family he chooses to live with.

Brown, HENRY KIRKE, 1814–1886. American sculptor. Browning, MRS. ELIZABETH BARRETT, 1806–1861. English Equestrian statue of Washington, Union Square, N. Y.

poet of highest rank, married to ROBERT B. 1846, and thenceBrown, JAMES BALDWIN, 1820-1884. Pastor in London from 1856, and the so-called (original) Sonnets from the Portuguese,

forth resident in Italy. Her most noted works are Aurora Leigh, 1846. Doctrine of Annihilation, 1875: Home, 1883.

1850. Her intense temperament found expression in some of Brown, JOHN, M.D., 1810-1882. Scottish essayist. Horce the finest ballads in the language. Subsccivæ, 1858–82, included Rab and his Friends.--His great

Browning, ROBERT, 1812–1889. Most intellectual of Engrandfather, JOHN BROWN of Haddington, 1722–1787, pub. Dic

glish poets since Milton, and most introspective since Shaketionary of the Bible, 1768, and Self-Interpreting Bible, 1778.

speare's Sonnets; a verse-making psychologist, who seemed to Brown, JOHN (OF OSSAWATOMIE), 1800-1859. Abolitionist. despise popularity and aim at obscurity, though of singular He went to Kansas 1855 and took part in the struggle between dramatic power. A few of his poems are for all readers; most the free-state and pro-slavery men; conceived the idea of free-, are for a few. Paracelsus, 1836; Strafford, 1837; Sordello, 1840;

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Blot in the Scutcheon, 1843; Christmas Eve and Easter Day, 1850; of masses and symphonies; prof. Vienna; strong adherent of Men and Women, 1855; Dramatis Personce, 1864; The Ring and the Wagner cause. the Book, 2 vols., 1868-69; Balaustion's Adventure, 1871; Fifine at the Fair, 1872; Red Cotton Nightcap Country, 1873; Aristoph

Bruges. City of Belgium, noted for its manufactures of anes' Apology, 1875; La Saisiaz, 1878; Dramatic Idylls, 1879– 80; Asolando, 1889. His fame came slowly, but Browning Societies in England and America are now studying his works, an

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Town Hall, Bruges. laces, woolens, cotton, and linen goods. In the 14th and 15th

centuries it was a commercial and manufacturing center of the Robert Browning.

first importance. Pop., 1891, 47,331. honor given in equal measure to no other English poet but Brugmann, KARL, b. 1849. Prof. Comparative Philology Shakespeare.

at Leipsic., Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indoBrownlow, WILLIAM GANNAWAY, 1805–1877. Ed. Knox- ; germanischen Sprachen, 1886-90. ville Whig, 1837; imprisoned and exiled as a Union man 1861–62.

Brugsch, HEINRICH KARL, 1827–1894. German Egyptologist; Gov. Tenn. 1865–69; U. S. Senator, 1869–75.

prof. at Göttingen 1868; keeper of the Museum at Boulak 1869– Brown-Séquard, CHARLES EDOUARD, M.D., 1817–1894. B. 81; made Bry and Pasha. Demotic Grammar, 1855; Hieroin Mauritius. French physiologist, prof. Harvard Coll. 1864 glyphic Dictionary, 7 v., 1867–82; Hist. Egypt under the Pha68; prof. Paris 1869, 1878; resident in U. S. 1873–78. Nervous raohs, 1877, tr. 1879. System, 1860; Paralysis, 1860; Nervous Affections, 1873.

Brüll, IGNAZ, b. 1846. German pianist and composer. His Brownson, ORESTES AUGUSTUS, LL.D., 1803–1876. American controversialist. After passing through various grades of produced in N.Y. 1886.

most successful work, the opera Das goldene Kreutz, 1875, was Protestantism, he joined the R. C. Ch. in 1844, and expounded its tenets in his Quarterly Review till 1864. Charles Elwood, Brun, JOHAN NORDAL, 1745–1816. Norwegian lyric poet. 1840; The Convert, 1857. His Works, 1883–85, fill 19 vols.

Brunanburh. In England, near the Humber. Here Brown Swiss. See CATTLE.

Northmen from Ireland and Scots were defeated with great Brown University. Founded 1764 at Warren, R. I., as slaughter by Athelstan 937. R. I. College; removed to Providence in 1770. Its name was changed 1804 in honor of Nicholas Brown, a benefactor. The ruled as regent for her son, Childebert, who d. 596; stirred up

Brunehilde. Wife of Siegburt, king of Austrasia. She Baptists have a majority in the board of control. It has funds war between her grandsons, Theodobert and Theodoric II., again of $1,300,000, a library of 80,000 vols., 62 instructors, and ab. assumed the regency at 80, and was dragged to death at the 550 students, of whom ab. 90 are graduates,

tail of a wild horse.-B. of the Nibelungen Lied, one of the Brow-Spot, or INTEROCULAR GLAND. Between the eyes, Valkyrie of Northern mythology. in Frogs and Toads. It has given rise to the myth of the jewel in the toad's head. See EPIPHYSIAL or PINEAL EYE.

Brunel, ISAMBARD KINGDOM, D.C.L., F.R.S., 1806-1859. Bruce, ALEXANDER BALMAIN, D.D., b. 1831. Scottish theo- ship and of the Saltash bridge. His father, SIR MARK ISAMBARD,

English civil engineer; designer of the Great Eastern steamlogian; prof. Free Ch. Coll., Glasgow, 1875. Apologetics, 1892.

F.R.S., 1769–1849, a French refugee, constructed the Thames Bruce, ARCHIBALD, M.D., 1777-1818. Mineralogist. Prof. tunnel 1825–43. N.Y. 1807; Rutgers Coll. 1812. Bruce, DAVID. See DAVID II.

Brunelleschi, FILIPPO, 1377–1446. Florentine architect,

designer of the Pitti Palace, the dome of the cathedral, and Bruce, JAMES, 1730–1794. Scottish explorer in Africa; dis- churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo, all in Florence. coverer of the source of the Blue Nile, 1770. Travels, 5 vols., With Alberti he was the pioneer of Italian Renaissance. 1790. Bruce, MICHAEL, 1746-1767. Scottish poet, whose lyrics,

Brunet, JACQUES CHARLES, 1780–1867. French bibliograincluding several of the Paraphrases, were stolen by John Lo- pher. Manuel du Libraire, 1810 and later. gan. They were collected 1865.

Brunet-Debaines, LOUIS ALFRED, b. 1845. Etcher of the Bruce, ROBERT, 1274–1329. King of Scotland 1306; soon

modern French school. His work from nature is characterized driven to Ireland, but returned 1307: defeated Edward II. 1309, by a thorough knowledge of light and shade, and the value of and at Bannockburn 1314; acknowledged by England 1328; suc

cast shadows. His reproductions from paintings are among ceeded by his son, DAVID II.—His brother EDWARD was king of the finest of modern times. Ireland 1316–17.

Brunetière, FERDINAND, b. 1849. French critic. Brucine. C2,H2,1,0,. Mpt. 1789 C. Alkaloidal base,

Bruni, LEONARDO. See ARETINUS. present in the Strychnos nuc-vomica, and in other beans. Poisonous, but less violent in its action than strychnine, which it Angiosperma and sub-class Dicotyledones, comprising 10 gen

Bruniaceæ. Natural family of flowering plants of the class accompanies.

era and ab. 45 species growing in s. Africa, especially near the Brucite. H,MgONatural magnesium hydrate, occur. Cape of Good Hope. ring in lamellar and in fibrous forms, and associated with other magnesium minerals in serpentine; named in honor of Dr. Brünn. City of Austria, at junction of the Schwarza and Archibald Bruce.

the Zwittawa, 90 m, n, of Vienna; capital of Moravia.

Pop., Brücke, ERNST WILHELM, 1819–1892. German physiologist;

| 1891, 95,342. prof. at Vienna from 1849.

Brunn, HEINRICH, 1822–1894. Prof. of Archæology Univ. Brucker. JOHANN JAKOB, 1696–1770. Pastor at Augsburg Munich from 1865. Hist. Greek Art, 1853–59. 1744. History of Philosophy, 5 vols., 1741–44.

Bruno (called THE GREAT), 925–965. Abp. of Cologne 953; Bruckner, ANTON, b. 1824. Austrian organist, composer chancellor of the empire, and brother of Otho I.

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Bruno, GIORDANO, 1548–1600. Italian philosopher; Domini- the Romans to expel the Tarquins, 500 B.C., and put to death can monk 1563–76. He embraced pantheistic opinions, spent his two sons who attempted to restore them. some years in Switzerland, France, England and Germany, rashly returned to Italy 1592, was charged with heresy, im- and son-in-law of Cato. He sided with Pompey in the Civil

Brutus, MARCUS JUNIUS, 85–42 B.C. Tyrannicide, nephew prisoned seven years at Rome, and burned. His statue was erected there 1889, and his works in Latin and Italian have Gaul 46, and prætor 44; with Čassius he slew

Cæsar, opposed

War, 49 B.C., was pardoned by Cæsar, made gov. of Cisalpine lately been collected.

the forces of Octavius and Antony, and was defeated. Bruno, ST., OF COLOGNE, ab. 1030–1101. Founder of the

Bruun, MALTHE CONRAD, 1775–1826. Danish geographer, Carthusian order 1084; canonized 1628.

exiled and lived in Paris, Bruno, St., OF MAGDEBURG, ab. 970–1009. Benedictine monk, missionary to the pagan Prussians and Slavs, who killed

Bryaceæ. Order of mosses, comprising most of the comhim and 18 others.

mon species. Brunswick. State of the German Empire; included in first ú. S. railway track at Quincy, Mass., 1826.

Bryant, GRIDLEY, 1798–1867. Civil engineer. He built the Saxony under the Carlovingians; made a duchy with Lüneburg 1235. Area 1,425 sq. m.; pop., 1890, 403,788. Its capital, Bryant, JACOB, 1715–1804. English antiquarian. MytholBrunswick, on the Ocker, is an ancient city, with some manu- ogy, 1774; Philo-Judæus, 1797. factures and a large trade. Pop., 1890, 101,047.

Bryant, WILLIAM CULLEN, 1794–1878. American poet, Brusch, GASPARD, 1518–1559. German poet and historian. noted for his fine descriptions of nature. His Thanatopsis was Brush. (1) Luminous appearance seen on the projecting written at 18. The Ages, 1821. Ed. N. Y. Evening Post from parts of the conductors of a powerful electric machine

when 1828. The centenary of his birth was observed at Cummington, the latter is worked under favorable conditions in the dark; due Mass., Aug. 16, 1894. to a continuous discharge of electrification into the air, and Bryce, JAMES, b. 1838, at Belfast. Prof. at Oxford, 1870; often consisting of a short foot-stalk with many rays diverging M. P. 1880; member of Gladstone's cabinet 1892. Holy Roman from it like a fan. Positive discharges give larger brushes than Empire, 1864; Transcaucasia and Ararat, 1877; The American negative. (2) Bunch of straight copper wires or flat strips laid | Commonwealth, 1888. The last is without a rival in its field. parallel and soldered together at one end, which is made to press against the commutator or collector of a dynamo-electric

Brydges, SIR SAMUEL EGERTON, 1762-1837. English poet machine in order to lead away the current to the main circuit. and essayist. Established the Lee Priory Press and made reInstead of copper, solid pieces of carbon are often used.

prints of Elizabethan literature. Censura Literaria, 10 vols.,

1805–09. Autobiography, 1834. Brush, GEORGE DE FOREST, b. 1855. American subject and figure painter. At the Chicago Fair were seen his Sculptor and ) 1861, Bp. of Serræ 1875, metropolitan of Nicomedia 1877; dis

Bryennios, PHILOTHEOS, D.D., b. 1833. Prof. at Chalce King, Indian and Lily, and others.

coverer at Constantinople 1873 of the Didache, or Teaching of Brush, GEORGE JARVIS, b. 1831. Prof. Yale since 1857; the 12 Apostles, which he pub. 1883. author of a Manual of Determinative Mineralogy, 1875.

Bryennius, NICEPHORUS, d. ab. 1137. Byzantine historian. Brush-Grass. Andropogon Gryllus. Native of s. Europe. son-in-law and officer of Alexius Comnenus. Its stiff roots are used in the manufacture of brushes.

Bryn Mawr College, PA. Founded 1879 by J. W. Taylor, Brushite. Natural hydrous calcium phosphate, found with M.D., for the higher education of women. 'It has a high guano on islands in the Caribbean Sea.

standard of admission, and offers graduate courses, with ten Brusoni, GIROLAMO, 1610-ab.1680. Italian poet and his fellowships. Students, ab. 250; vols. in library 22,500. torian.

Bryology. Study of Bryophyta or Muscinic, which inBrussels. Capital of Belgium, near the Senne; long noted clude two classes, Hepatica" or "Liverworts, and Musci or

Bryony. Bryonia dioica. European vine of the Gourd fanily, having showy berries and large fleshy roots.

Bryony, BLACK. Tamus communis. Vine of the Yam family, native of Europe.

Bryophyta. Subkingdom of plants comprising the Mosses (Musci), Liverworts (Hepatica) and Bog-mosses (Sphagna). They are plants of low stature, contain no woody tissue, and are mainly terrestrial in habit. Also known as Anogens and Muscineæ.

Bryopsidaceæ. Family of marine Algæ.

Bryozoa (Polyzoa). Small Molluscoidea, that form mossA

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Place Royale, Brussels. for its manufactures of laces. Though ancient, its importance dates from ab. 1500. Pop., 1891, 182,305.

Brussels Conference. Held 1874 by powers of Europe, to consider a code on usages of war. On some points no agreement was reached.

Brussels Museum. In Palais des Beaux Arts. Contains about 600 pictures, and has in recent years grown to importance. It is strongest in works of the Dutch and Flemings.

Brussels Sprouts. Modification of the Cabbage Plant, Brassica oleracea, esteemed as a garden vegetable.

Brussels, TREATY OF. Signed July 16, 1863, by all the naval powers, for buying up the toll levied by king of Netherlands on vessels navigating the Scheldt. See LONDON, TREATY OF.

Bryozoa. Bruta. See EDENTATA.

like colonies, with horny or calcareous exoskeleton. Each Brutus, LUCIUS JUNIUS. Legendary patriot, who roused zoöid (zoæcium) consists of a cell (cystid) in which a polypid

BUBASTIS-BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY

215

lives, and into which it can withdraw. The polypid bas a Buchanan, ROBERT WILLIAMS, b. 1841. Scottish poet and crown of ciliated tentacles about the mouth. The digestive | novelist, settled in London 1860. Undertones, 1863; Book of tract is horse-shoe shaped, the mouth and anus being separated Orm, 1870; Shadow of the Sword, 1876; Master of the Mine, by little more than the ganglion; it is attached below by a re- | 1885. productive cord (funiculus). Some colonies are polymorphic, Bucharest. Capital of Roumania, on the Dimbovitza, a having differentiated avicularia, vibracula and occia, besides tributary of the Danube; founded in the 13th century. A treaty the ordinary zoöids. They are hermaphrodite; but asexual re between Russia and Turkey was signed here May 28, 1812, the production by budding (which begins in the larva) and by stato- Pruth to be the boundary. Pop. ab. 250,000. blasts is more frequent. There are two orders: the Endoprocta and Ectoprocta. These are classed as Eupolyzoa and made Buchner, FRIEDRICH KARL CHRISTIAN LUDWIG, b.1824. Gerequivalent to two other sub-groups of Polyzoa; viz., Ver- man materialist, author of Force and Matter,1854; Physiological miformia (Phoronis) and Pterobranchia (Rhabdopleura). See Pictures, 1861; Darwin, 1868; Man, 1869, tr. 1872. ASPIDOPHORA. The Bryozoa abound in the fossil state.

Buchtel College. Founded by Universalists at Akron, Bubastis. Site of an ancient Egyptian city in the Delta, 9., 1872. It includes normal and preparatory departments, has situated on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. Excavations have 11 instructors, and ab. 275 students of both sexes. been made here in recent years by Edward Naville, especially Buchu. Shrubs of the genus Barosma, natural family important for discoveries of statuary of the Hykso period, and Rutacere, natives of S. Africa; the leaves are said to form the for temple ruins of the XIIth Dynasty.

basis of a patent medicine, and are highly esteemed by the Bubastis. Egyptian goddess, daughter of Isis; represented

natives, with bead of cat.

Buck, DUDLEY, b. 1839. Organist in Brooklyn; composer of Bubble. Small, spherical pellicle of any liquid distended three cantatas, The Golden Legend, 1880; Voyage of Columbus, with some gas. In soap-bubbles the pellicle is about gootooo of 1885; Light of Asia, 1886; songs, an opera, Deseret, 1882, and an inch in thickness, and that of water about spodoppo of an

much ch. music. inch. Castile soap-suds and glycerine make good bubbles.

Buck Bean. Menyanthes trifoliata. Bog plant of the Bubo. Enlarged lymphatic gland, especially one in the Gentian family, native groin, caused by venereal disease.

in northern hemisphere. Buccal. Pertaining to the mouth.

Buckeye. Trees and

shrubs of genus ÆscuBuccal Funnel. Mastax of Rotifers.

lus, of Horse-chestnut Buccal Mass. Pharynx, odontophore, etc., of Molluscs. family, natives of the

U.S. Buccal Openings, or FISSURES. In Coleoptera, posterior prolongations of the mouth cavity on each side of the

Buckingh a m, mentum.

GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE

OF, 1592–1628. Favorite Buccal Sutures, or GULAR SUTURES. Lines that run back of James I. of England; from the buccal fissures in Coleoptera.

admiral 1616; premier to Buccaneers. Piratical adventurers, mainly French and Charles I. A career of English, who maintained themselves in the Caribbean Sea in tyranny and misgovern16th and 17th centuries, preying on the Spanish settlements ment was cut short by and fleets. Tortuga Island was their chief haunt. Morgan, his murder.-His son Davis. and Montbars were prominent leaders; their most famous and namesake,1627-1688, exploit was the capture of Panama.

minister of Charles II.,

wrote The Rehearsal, 0 0 Buccina. Ancient trumpet, modeled after a shell; some- 1671, and other plays. times straight, sometimes curved.

Buckingh a m, Buccinum. See RHACHIGLOSSA.

WILLIAM ALFRED, 1804Bucentaur. Barge of Venetian doge, used 1177–1797 for 1858-66; U. S. Senator

1875. Gov. of Conn. the annual ceremony of marrying the Adriatic with a ring.

1869–75.

Menyanthes trifoliata. Bucephalus. Favorite horse of Alexander the Great.

Buckland, WILLIAM, D.D., F.R.S., 1784-1856. Canon of Bucer, or KUHHORN, MARTIN, 1491-1551. German reformer, Christ Ch., Oxford, 1825; Dean of Westminster 1845. Reliquiæ prof. at Strassburg 1524, and at Cambridge 1549. At first a Diluvianæ, 1823; Geology and Mineralogy, Bridgewater Treatise, Zwinglian, he accepted Luther's doctrines. His bones were ex 1836.-His son, FRANCIS TREVELYAN, 1826–1880, was an eminent humed and burned under Mary 1557.

pisciculturist. Buceros. See LEVIROSTRES.

Buckle, HENRY THOMAS, 1822–1862. English author. His Buch, LEOPOLD VON, 1774–1853. German geologist, who History of Civilization in England, 1857–61, though but a fragadded much to our knowledge of volcanoes by his Theory of ment of what he had in view and full of faults, is a powerful and Craters of Elevation. The idea of chronomorphosis of genera,

suggestive book. first developed by him, gave a great impulse to the study of Buckle Plates. Wrought-iron plates having the central stratified rocks.

portion bulged out so as to act like an arch when loaded. They Bachan, ALEXANDER, b. ab. 1820. Scottish meteorologist, are used for the floors of buildings and for roadways of bridges, author of B.'s Law, announced 1865: "Stand with your left being supported by iron or steel beams, which in turn are suphand toward the center of low barometer and your right hand ported by other trusses, or by walls and piers. toward the high, and in the northern hemisphere the wind Buckles. Metal fastenings for straps or belts, introduced will be on your back;" often confounded with BUYS-BALLOTS into England to take the place of shoe-strings during the seven

teenth century; from that time onward till 1800 extremely Buchanan, CLAUDIUS, D.D., 1766–1815. Prof. Bengal 1799 fashionable and used more for ornament than use, being made 1807. Christian Researches in Asia, 1811.

of precious metals and set with diamonds. Modern ornamental

buckles confined to women's belts. Buchanan, FRANKLIN, 1800–1874. Admiral C. S. N.; commander of the Merrimac, which sunk the Cumberland and Con Buckley, JAMES MONROE, D.D., LL.D., b. 1836. Ed. N. Y. gress in Hampton Roads, March 8, 1862.

Christian Advocate since 1880. Supposed Miracles, 1875; Faith

Healing, 1892. Buchanan, GEORGE, 1506-1582. Scottish scholar, tutor of Mary Stuart 1562, and of James VI. 1570, though a vehement Buckling of a Vessel. Deformation caused by longitudProtestant. Latin version of the Psalms, 1570; History of Scot- inal or other bending, due to weakness of material or to the land, 1582; Autobiography, 1608.

improper arrangement and position of the plating supports and

stiffeners. Buchanan, JAMES, 1791–1868. Fifteenth Pres. U.S. M. C. 1820–30; envoy to Russia 1831, and negotiator of a treaty; U. S.

Buckminster, JOSEPH STEVENS, D.D., 1784-1812. Pastor Senator 1834-45; Sec. of State 1845-49; minister to England in Boston 1804, and one of the first preachers of his time.1853–56; Pres. 1857–61. In Dec. 1860 he denied his official right His father JOSEPH, D.D., 1751–1812, was also noted for to resist secession, to which members of his cabinet had con- eloquence. tributed.

Bucknell University. At Lewisburg, Pa.; incorporated

[graphic]

Law (q.v).

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