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ADAMS-ADHESION OF LOCOMOTIVES
Adams, WILLIAM, D.D., b. 1813. American divine, of Irish birth; prof. in Nashotah (Wis.) Theol. Sem., since 1841.
Adams, WILLIAM HENRY DAVENPoRT, b. 1828. English author; ed. Scottish Guardian,
DAVENPORT, have produced over 100 volumes.
Addison’s Disease. First described 1855 by Dr. Addison of Guy's Hospital, London. The most marked symptom is a bronzing of the skin. It usually occurs in adults, and is more common in men than in women. Progressive wasting, great weakness, feeble action of the heart, disordered digestion, pain in the joints, and consumption, lead speedily to a fatal termination. A diseased condition of the suprarenal capsules is the only peculiar morbid appearance found after death. Treatment is of little avail, but life may be prolonged and rendered more comfortable by the use of cod liver oil, phosphites, calcium chloride, and arsenic.
Addition. Aggregation of several quantities in one expression called the sum. Arithmetical addition requires quan
1870–77. He and his son, WM.
tities to be of the same kind. Algebraic addition aggregates unlike quantities by the use of the signs plus (+) and minus (--).
Adeciduata. Section of the Eutheria or placental mannmals, in which no decidua or “after-birth " is shed, following the birth of the young. The following orders are included: Edentata, Sirenia, Cetacea and a portion of the Ungulata. such as most Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla and the Torodomtia. See DIPLARTHRA.
Adelaide. Capital of South Australia, settled 1836. It has two colleges, a theol. sem., and a large botanic garden. Pop., 1891, 133,220.
Adelarthrosomata. PHALANGIL E, Pseudoscorpionidae, and SOLPUGIDAE.
Adelbert College. Founded at Hudson, Ohio, 1826, as Western Reserve College; transferred to Cleveland 1882, receiving from Amasa Stone an endowment of $450,000 and $150,000 in buildings. It has 11 professors, 5 instructors, a library of 25,000 vols., a fund of $700,000, and forms a department of Western Reserve University.
Adelheid, 931–999. German empress, mother of Otho II.; imprisoned by Berengar II.; escaped to Canossa, and was be.#. there. Otho I. came to her relies 951, and married her at Pavia.
Adelocodonic gonophores. Buds, on a hydroid colony, which produce eggs, and which, in the distant ancestors, were in the habit of developing an evident medusoid structure, but now are so much reduced that even a true umbrella fails of development.
Adelung, JoHANN CHRISTOPH, 1732–1806. German philologist, who devoted much labor and ability to the in provement of his native tongue, but was overshadowed by the success of the great scholars, like Jacob Grimm, who followed him. Besides minor works on philology, he wrote a German Dictionary, 1774–86, and Mithridates, which foreshadowed results in comparative philology.
Aden. Town on s, w, coast of Arabia: seized by the British Jan. 19, 1839. Pop. ab. 42,000, chiefly Mohammedan.
Adhesion. Attraction of two polished surfaces of solids in contact, of a liquid and a solid, or of a gas and a solid. Capillarity of tubes is due to this. Adhesion Car. Railway car with special wheels which gripe a rail and thus secure extra adhesion to prevent it from sliding down steep grades. A cable car with wheels griping a moving cable is another instance of the application of the principle. Adhesion of Cement. Neat hydraulic cement adheres to brick with a force of ab. 200 lbs. per sq. inch of surface. The adhesive force increases with the age of the cement, particularly during the first year. Brick should be wet when the cement is applied, in order to secure satisfactory adhesion. Adhesion of Locomotives. Frictional force between the driving wheels of a locomotive and the rail is often called adhesion. Its value is usually about one-fourth of the weight 17
borne by the driving wheels; that is, if the horizontal resistance exceeds this amount the wheels will slip on the rails.
Adhesive Plaster. Cloth or some other material on one side of which is spread an adhesive substance rendered soft by heat. Lead plaster, resin and india rubber are used. It should be kept in a cool place until wanted, and when used may be heated by passing it through a flame, or by applying the plain side to a vessel containing hot water. Soaking in or spongin with warm water will render its removal easy and painless, an all surfaces to which it is applied must be perfectly dry.
Adiabatic. If the physical state of a body, as defined by its volume w and pressure p, varies in such a way that no heat is imparted to or taken from the body, it is said to suffer an adiabatic change.
Adiabatic Curve. Representing the relations of pressure and volume in a gas undergoing expansion or compression in a closed envelope. The ordinates show the pressures when no additional heat is transferred from or to the containing vessel, but where all the heat which is converted into work is withdrawn from the gas itself, in expanding, or when the heat which results from compression is all received by the gas itself. The equation of the curve is pyo-p, vi = a constant for any gas, and for dry steam K = 1.135; while for air, K = 1.41.
Adiantum pedatum (MAIDEN HAIR). N. American ferns,
Adirondack Mountains. Group in northern N. Y. The highest summit is Mt. Marcy or Tahawus, 5379 feet in altitude; some ten others are little less. The region abounds in lakes and in noble scenery, and receives thousands of summer visitors. By a law passed 1892, over 2,800,000 acres in Hamilton, Essex, Warren, Franklin and St. Lawrence counties, part being public lands, the rest intended to be purchased, were designated as a public park.
Adit. In mining, a passage horizontal, or with a slight upward inclination, by which a mine is entered, and through which the water in the upper workings and that raised from the deeper parts of the mine may be discharged. Adits are frequently driven through the country rock at large angles with the strike of a mineral deposit; when following the strike they are called adit-levels. In the U. S. commonly called tunnels. Among famous mining adits are the Sutro tunnel in Nevada, the Deep George and the Ernst August adits in the Hartz Mountains, and the Rothschönberger adit in Saxony. The last
was opened for use in 1877; with its proposed branches it will
Adjustable Cut-off Engine. One in which the degree of the expansive working of the steam in the cylinder can be varied while the engine is running, by adjusting the point at which the supply of live steam from the i. shall be “cut-off” by the valve gear. This is done by varying the lap, the lead or the travel of the admission valves, or, in drop cut-offs, by altering the point when the steam valves are released. (See AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF.) The advantages of controlling the power of an engine by this means, instead of using a throttling valve in the supply pipe, are that steam reaches the engine more nearly at boiler pressure and temperature, and the theoretical advantages are attained from working the steam expansively within the practical limits. The steam enters the cylinder at a higher pressure, and leaves it at a lower, and the efficiency of an expanding vapor is proportional to the difference between the initial and final temperatures (absolute) divided by the initial temperature. The temperatures of course correspond with the pressures.
Adjustment of Observations. Process of correcting observed quantities so as to obtain the most probable values. As the simplest instance, the most probable value of a single quantity measured several times with equal care is the arithmetical mean of the observed values. he rules for adjusting observations are deduced by a branch of analysis called the method of least squares.
Adjutant. In the U. S. service, an officer selected by a regimental commander from his subalterns, to hold office for four years. He has charge of the various rosters of service; makes, publishes and verifies all details; keeps the records of the regiment, performs such military duty with troops as are required by tactics and regulations, and is the colonel's medium of communication with his officers and men.
Adjutant-General. Officer who communicates to the troops all general orders which emanate from the War Department or headquarters, as well as the orders of detail, of instruction, of movement, and all general regulations for the army.
Adjutant-General’s Department. It is charged with the records of all military appointments, promotions, resignations, deaths and other casualties, the registry of all commissioned officers, the filling up and distribution of their commissions, and the preparation and issue of the yearly army Register. It is the repository for the records of the War Deartment, which relate to the personnel of the military estabishment and the military history of every commissioned officer and soldier of the regular and volunteer forces in the service of the United States. It also has charge of the recruiting service and the general returns of the army. Adler, FELIX, Ph.D., b. 1851 in Germany. American reformer, of Jewish birth; prof. in Cornell 1874–76; founder in 1876 of the Society for Ethical Culture, New York. Creed and Deed, 1877. Admetus. King of Pherae, in Thessaly; married ALCESTIs (q.v.). Apollo attended his flocks 9 years, and promised him exemption from death if father, mother or wife would die for him.
Administration. Legal management by the administrator or executor of the personal estate of the intestate or testator. Formerly it was under the control of ecclesiastical courts in England, but now, as in the U. S., it is within the jurisdiction of probate courts, which in some States are called orphans' courts, in others, surrogates' courts. The persons entitled to administer upon the estate of an intestate, and their powers and duties are generally defined by statute.
Administration, ARMY. (1) Recruiting service and custody of records and returns of personnel; (2) administrative service of engineers; (3–6) ordnance, quartermaster's, subsistence, and pay departments; (7) administrative service of the medical department; (8) settlement of army accounts. Their operations should be so regulated that the Sec. of War will be always informed of the condition of each, and able to exercise, subordinate to law, a complete financial control over them.
Administration, CouncIL OF. Board of officers assembled to audit the funds of posts, canteens, and companies; to ascertain and examine the sources from which, and the methods by which, they have accrued; and to recommend expenditures therefrom.
Administrative Unit. Subdivision of the larger units of an army for the purpose of administering its affairs in accordance with law. Thus the regiment is the administrative unit in all armies, the center for instruction and recruiting, and the unit dealt with in historical and other records.
Admiralty. Court having cognizance of maritime causes. In England it dates from the time of Edward III., but its jurisdiction has been extended by modern statutes. By the U. S. Constitution admiralty jurisdiction is vested exclusively in the federal courts, and extends to all navigable waters of the
Adobe. Bricks dried by the sun, and unburned; made in Egypt, China, and some parts of America; usually larger than ordinary bricks, and inferior in strength and hardness. The material is two-thirds fine sand and one-third clay. Adolf of Nassau. German emperor, 1291–1298; a poor count of low character, elected by the Papal party on the death of Rudolf I. Adolphus, John. 1768–1845. England from 1760, 1802–45. Adonijah. Fourth son of David, pretender to the throne; first forgiven by Solomon, but, giving new ground of suspicion, was put to death. Adonis. Young shepherd and huntsman, favorite of Venus, }. by a wild boar.—Genus of plants of the family Ranuncucaceae. Adoption. Institution of the legal relation of parent and child. The civil law recognized the practice, but it is the creature of statute in common-law countries.
Adoptionism. Doctrine of Elipandus, Abp. of Toledo, ab. 800, that Christ, as to His Godhead, is Son by nature, but as to His manhood, by adoption; ecclesiastically condemned.
Adoration of the Lamb. Most celebrated picture of the 15th century, by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck; painted as an altar piece ab. 1420, for a church in Ghent, where the central portions are still to be seen. These were originally connected
English lawyer. History of
with wings folding over the central subjects, and having paintings on both sides, so that, whether the wings were open or shut, paintings were visible. Six of these outer panels are in the Berlin Museum, and two others at Brussels.
Adrastea, or ADRASTEIA. Daughter of Jupiter and Necessity; goddess of retribution. A synonym of NEMESIs (q.v.).
Adrenals. Remnants of the mesonephros, lying in front of or alongside the kidneys.
Adrian. See HADRIAN.
Adrian, Robert, 1775–1843. Prof. Rutgers Coll., N.J., Columbia Coll., and Univ. Pa.; ed. Hutton's Mathematics, 1818.
Adrianople. Most important city of European Turkey, after Constantinople; founded and restored by Hadrian. Near it Constantine defeated Licinius and gained the Empire 323, and Valens was defeated by Goths 378. It was taken by Turks 1361, and was their capital till 1453. Russians took it Aug. 20, 1829, Jan. 20, 1878. Pop. ab. 100,000.
Adrianople, PEACE OF. Sept. 19, 1829. It concluded the Russo-Turkish war: gave Russia coast of Black Sea, from mouth of Kuban to harbor of St. Nicholas, also the Caucasus, and part of Alkalzik; left Turkey in possession of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Russian conquests in Bulgaria and Roumelia.
Adriatic Sea. Arm of the Mediterranean, e. of Italy.
Adular, or ADULARIA. K. Al, Si, Ols. Transparent, cleavable variety of orthoclase; named from Adular Mts. in the Swiss Alps. See MooRSTONE,
Adullam. Cavern in the wilderness of Judah, to which those discontented with the government of Saul resorted and banded together under his competitor David. I Sam. xxii. 1, 2.
Adulteration. Mixture of inferior material, or application of less labor than the asserted grade of the goods supposes. The large number of intermediaries between producer and consumer in modern industry seems favorable to adulteration; this has led some to group manufactures subject to adulteration with natural monopolies as proper subjects of state administration.
Adultery. Sexual intercourse between a man and another's wife, endangering the husband with spurious offspring. It is not a common-law crime, but is punished as an offense by the statutes of many States.
Advance-note. Draft on the owner or agent of a vessel, generally for one month's wages; given by a master to a sailor at the time of his signing the articles of agreement describing the terms of service.
Advanced Covered Way. Passage-way for troops, sometimes constructed beyond the main glacis. On the side toward the enemy it is covered from his view by an interior o: and exterior glacis, both swept by the fire of the main Work.
Advanced or Detached Works. Separated from the main work, but having such defensive relations with it as to render it more secure. They are commanded by the fire of the main work, their gorges can be swept by it, and their positions are determined so as to prevent by their cross or direct fire any penetration between them until after their capture.
Advancement. Transfer of property by parent to child in anticipation of the child's share of the parent's estate. It differs from a gift in that it is to be deducted from the child's share, and from a debt in that it does not subject the child to an action for its recovery. Its doctrines rest on the statute of distributions. Advent. Season of Ch. Year preceding Christmas, dedicated to the consideration of our Lord's coming. It begins with the Sunday nearest to St. Andrew's Day, Nov. 30. Adventists. Those Christians who, regarding the second coming of Christ as imminent, have organized on that basis. The most active denomination of these is the Seventh Day Adventists, formed 1845 with headquarters at Battle Creek, Mich. Adverbs. Indeclinable words, sometimes called particles, which modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb. . In English they are either formed from adjectives by the addition of ly (like), or else are \fossilized inflicted forms, as while (really the accusative case of the noun while = time), seldom (a dative plural), and many others. Adverse Possession. Exclusive, actual, continued possession, under a colokable claim of title, or accompanied by actual occupancy of the land. The adverse possessor has title as against every one but the true owner, and as against the latter upon the expiration of the period fixed by statute, generally twenty years. Advocatus Diabol\i. against a proposed canon the reasons for it. Advowson. Right of presentation to a church living in England; heritable and trausferable.
A dynamic Leads. Wäres which conduct the current to a galvanometer or other appayatus, when twisted in such a way that the resultant inductive \effect upon the sensitive parts of the instrument is zero.
Adytum. Secret chamber in a temple, from which all but the officiating priests were exõluded; attached only to temples in which oracles were uttered.
AEcidiomycetes. Sub-cla\ss of Fungi, comprising an immense number of minute forms) parasitic on other plants.
AEcidiospores. Spores propduced in the Æcidium state of Fungi of the class Uredimea’.
AEdicule. Small shrine or tabernacle, a canopy with columnar supports, in appearance like a temple, under which the statue of the deity was placed; Any small shrine, whether of stone or other material. Pictures of columnar aedicules are frequent in ancient art.
A Edile. of public works and buildings, als
AEdogoniaceae. Order of somall fresh-water Algae, very common in pools and streams.
Roman official, appointed to argue ation, as the Advocatus Dei to urge
Annual magistrate in ancient Rome, having charge of markets and police duties.
Science of getheration and the generative
AEgates Islands. W. of Sicily; here the Carthaginian fleet was vanquished by the Roman, Mar. 10, 241 B.C. Rome
obtained Sicily and 3,200 talents as tribute-money. AEgean Sea. Grecian Archipelago; part of the Mediterranean between Greece and Asia Minor. AEgidius, St., or ST. GILEs, ab. 640–720. Monk of Greek birth; founder of a monastery near Nimes, ab. 673; patron of cripples. His day is Sept. 1. AEgidius Colonna, 1247–1316. tor Beatus”; Abp. of Bourges 1296. AEgina. Island s. w. from Athens. The Argive Pheidon was said to have established a silver mint here ab. 862 B.C. Its inhabitants were expelled by the Athenians 429 B.C. AEginidae. Family of Trachymedusae, with flat discoidal umbrellas, whose digestive cavity has large flat o. instead of radial canals; the circular canal is solid. The genital lamellae lie in the radii of the manubrium. AEgis. Brazen shield of Jupiter, made by Vulcan; symbolical of divine protection. Minerva also had one, in the center
Italian schoolman, “Doc
AEneas Tacticus. War.
AEolian Colonies. Boeotia and Thessaly.
AEolian Harp., Strings on a wooden frame, placed in a window, and played upon by the wind. AEolotropic. See IsotROPIC.
AEolus. God of the winds. He dwelt on one of the Lipara islands, where he kept the winds imprisoned in a cave.
AEon. Greek term for an indefinite lapse of time.
AEpinus, FRANZ ULRIGH THEoDoR, 1724–1802. Prof. in Berlin and St. o He wrote on the temperature of the earth and the general phenomena of the atmosphere.
**** The legendary “Roc,” a dromaeognathous bird recently exterminated in Madagascar. In 1851 the first description appeared of its egg, which had a thick shell, measured 84 by 12% inches, being 34 inches in circumference, with a capacity equal to 144 hen's eggs, or two gallons. The leg bone of this bird measures eighteen inches in circumference at the head. The bird stood nearly fourteen feet in height. It was incapable of flight, having rudimentary wings, and, like the Moa, ... defended itself by kicking. AEquales. Order of the Linnaean class Syngynesia (family Compositae), having all the florets alike and perfect, as in Dandelion and Boneset.
AEqui-glacial Lines. Connecting points on the earth's surface, for which the condition of the glaciation or formation of ice has the same phase (i.e., equal thickness, duration or total amount) simultaneously.
AEquoridae. Family of campanularian Hydromedusae, which have numerous radial canals and tentacles.
Aérated Bread. Made by agitating the dough in a strong vessel with water saturated under pressure with carbon dioxide. When the dough thus treated is released from pressure and exposed to the air, the gas escapes in bubbles, and lightens the mass as effectually as that involved within its substance by fermentation.
AErenchyma. Spongy parenchyma borne by submerged portions of certain aquatic plants.
Aërial Railway. Elevated wire or track for guiding a flying machine, the power being applied by an electric current through the wire to a motor in the machine. This has been proposed as a possible solution of the problem of ačrial navigation.
Aërial Roots. Those produced in the air, as the secondary, climbing roots of the Ivy and Trumpet Creeper, and those which form accessory stems in the Banyan Tree and the Mangrove.
Aërius. Heretic of Armenia, who ab. 360 anticipated some of the principles of Protestant Dissent. He and his followers were condemned and persecuted.
Aérobic Bacteria. Those growing only in the presence of free oxygen, however slight in annount.
Aérodromics. Science of navigating the air.
Aérodynamics. Department of mechanics which treats of the phenomena exhibited by gaseous bodies, whether at rest or in motion.
Aèroklinoscope. Apparatus introduced * Buys-Ballot 1866 into ports of the Netherlands to show publicly the prevailing barometric gradient, and the equivalent atmospheric slope, as well as the wind that, according to his rules, must be expected during the next twenty-four hours. It consists of a mast to the top of which a cross-piece is so fastened that it can be set at any azimuth and any angular inclination to the horizon, thereby indicating the steepness of the barometric gradient for the given azimuth. Aérolite. Masses of stone or iron that have fallen to the earth from the sky. See METEORITE. Aérophyte. Plant which grows in the air, not rooted in the soil. See EPIPHYTE. Aéroscope. Apparatus for examining the air, especially one in which the floating impurities are separated from a known volume. Aérostatics. Principles and laws governing the static equilibrium of gas, especially the earth's atmosphere. Aéro-steam Engine. One which uses a mixture of air and steam in the cylinder to drive the piston. The air is pumped into the steam chest at the same pressure as the steam received from the boiler. Air acts to retard condensation of steam when intimately mixed with it; but experiments, where no complicated apparatus was used to secure such mixture, showed that a good engine used the same amount of feed water per horse power per hour, whether using the air mixture or steam without air.
Ancient Greek writer upon the art of
On w. coast of Asia Minor, from