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Attorney-General. for Government.
Attraction. Mutual action between two bodies, in virtue of which, if they were free to move, they would approach each other. See FORCE.
Attribute. Property of an object, and one of its modes, as contrasted with it as a thing or substance.
Atwater, WILBUR OLIN, b. 1844. American agricultural chemist. A leader in development of agricultural experiment stations in the U.S., first director of the National Office of Experiment Stations, and has made a special study of human nutrition.
Atwood, or ATTwoOD, GEORGE, 1745–1807. English mathematician and physicist, inventor of Atwood's Machine. Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies, 1784; Arches, 1801. Atwood’s Machine. Device for determining the acceleration produced by gravity and for experimenting upon the laws of uniform acceleration. It consists in its simplest forms of a frictionless pulley, over which passes a fine flexible cord; to the ends of this cord are attached two nearly equal masses, P and Q. The effective force which acts downward upon the heavier mass is Pg—Qg, and the total mass put in motion is P-HQ; hence the acceleration -- A—o-o-Ég. A is observed by experiment and g calculated from the for mula. The advantage of this machine over the direct observation of a freely falling body is due to the fact that in the latter case the motion is much too rapid to be accurately observed. We thus dilute, as it were, the intensity of gravity without in any way changing its laws. Atys, or ATTIs. Phrygian shepherd beloved by Cybele; unfaithful to her, she maddened him, or, as Ovid says, changed him into a pine tree. Aubanel, JOSEPH MARIE JEAN BAPTISTE THEODoRE, b. 1829. Provençal poet; one of the first felibrés, 1854.
Auber, DANIEL FRANCOIs Esprit, 1782–1871. French opera composer distinguished by the gracefulness and elegance of his music and the fecundity of his mind. His first opera was produced 1813; his last 1869. Le Maçon, 1825; La Muette de Portici, 1828; Fra Diavolo, 1830; Le Cheval de Bronze, 1835; Le Domino Noir, 1837; Les Diamans de la Couronme, 1841.
Auber, HARRIET, 1773–1862. English hymnist. Her Spirit of the Psalms, 1829, is often confounded with H. F. Lyte's book of the same title, 1834.
Auberlen, KARL AUGUST, D.D., 1824–1864. Prof. at Basel 1851. Divine Revelation, tr. 1867.
*ert, JEAN Louis, 1731–1814. Prof. at Paris 1773. Fables, 1756.
Aubigné, JEAN HENRI MERLE D', 1792–1872. Church historian; prof. at Geneva 1831. His History of the Reformation, 4 vols., 1835–47, was long extremely popular. Its sequel, on the Reformation in Calvin's time, 1862 and later, fills 8 vols.
Aubigné, THEODORE AGRIPPA D’. 1550–1630. Huguenot officer under Henry IV. Universal History, 1550–1610, 3 vols., 1616–20; Memoirs.
Aublet, JEAN BAPTISTE CHRIstophore FUSEE, 1723–1778. French botanist. Plants of Fr. Guiana, 1775.
Chief official counsel and prosecutor
Auckland Islands. Group s. of New Zealand, belonging to Gt. Britain. Auction. Public competitive sale, in which goods are bought by the highest price. A sale by public outcry at a fixed price is not an auction. Auctioneers are required in most jurisdictions to be licensed and to give bonds for the faithful performance of their duties. Each bid is an offer which may be withdrawn before the hammer falls. Puffing or fictitious bidding instigated by the seller and secret agreements to stifle competition are fraudulent practices which will avoid the sale. In the Netherlands the mode of sale is reversed, the auctioneer starting with a high price, which is lowered until a bidder is willing to pay the amount named. Auction Pool. Selling chances in a pool by auction, either by number or for choice, the winning number receiving the whole pool. Audisfret-Pasquier, EDME ARMAND GAston. Duc D', b. 1823. French senator for life 1871, pres. Senate 1876, AcademiCian 1878. Audiometer. Apparatus auxiliary to the HUGHES INDUCTION BALANCE (q.v.). It consists of movable and adjustable coils of wire. The unbalanced induced currents in one of these coils, to which the telephone is attached, causes the sound.
Audiphone. Instrument contrived to facilitate hearing. It consists of a thin plate of vulcanite, which is kept curved by strings under a certain degree of tension. This device, with its edge placed in contact with the teeth, takes up waves of sound from the air and conveys them to the bones of the head, and thence to the auditory nerves.
Auditor. One who examines accounts and compares the charges with vouchers or other papers. The U. S. Treasury Dept. has six. The first audits the accounts of the civil service, public debt, and customs; the second, those relating to Indian affairs and a part of the army; the third, those of the quartermaster-general, engineer corps, and commissary-general; the fourth, of the navy; the fifth, those of the internal revenue, patent office, and state department; the sixth, the postal accounts. A private auditor examines the accounts of individuals. An auditor-general usually possesses greater powers, as his determinations are not subject to review.
Auditorium. Room in which persons assemble to listen. The body of a church is often so called, to distinguish it from its appendages.
Auditory Apparatus. Parts concerned in hearing, i.e., the auditory nerve, middle ear, Eustachian tube, and external ear" Ol' o,
Auditory Organs. Organs of hearing; in lower animals usually closed, sac-like spaces, into which project sensory hairs connected with nerves, and acted on by the vibrating fluid (endolymph) in which is suspended one or more otoliths, which may be secreted by the animal, as in jelly-fishes, or be sand grains introduced from without, as in cray-fishes. In land animals the endolymph is set in motion by means of a tympanum. In Amphibia and Sauropsida a columella auris (stapes) is added, re-enforced by the auditory ossicles in mammals.
Auditory Ossicles. Chain of bones which unites the tympanum and fenestra ovale in manmals. From without in
wards they are the malleus, incus, and stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup). They are derived respectively srom the articulare, quadrate and hyo-mandibular (pharyngohyal). Auditory Tentacles. See TENTACULOCYSTs. Auditory Vesicles. Sac-like auditory organs of certain jelly-fishes, known as Vesiculata. Audouin’s Law. One part of the segments of an insect develops at expense of the others.
Audubon, John JAMES, 1780–1851. American naturalist, celebrated for his sketches of birds, made during protracted forest excursions of great range. In 1826 he exhibited in Europe his second collection (the first had been eaten by rats) of aintings, and published 435 plates, with 1,055 life size figures. irds of America, 4 vols., 1826–38; American Quadrupeds, 3 vols., 1845–48; American Ornithological Biography, 5 vols., 1831–39; Biography of American Quadrupeds, 3 vols., 1846–53.
Augsburg. City of Bavaria, on the Wertach and Lech rivers; founded by Augustus 12 B.C. It rose to great prosperity by commerce; was a free imperial city 1276–1806, and was long the emporium of trade between n. and s. Europe; eminent also in manufactures and art. Here the Bavarians were defeated 954 by troops of Otto I., and an immense army of Huns, Aug. 10. 955. Many diets of the Empire were held here. The league of A. was concluded July 9, 1686, between various German powers, Spain. Sweden, and the United Provinces against France. Pop., 1890, 75,223.
Augsburg Confession. Chief exposition of Lutheran doctrine; written by Melancthon and presented to Charles V. at Diet of Augsburg, 1530. By the treaty of Augsburg. Sept.
25, 1555, its adherents were declared sree from Catholic interference.
Augurs. Roman college of 3 or 4, then 9, later 15, diviners, who from the flight of birds or other onlens ascertained the will of the gods and foretold future events; they held office for life and were of much importance in the state.
August, ERNST FERDINAND, 1795–1870. Director of gymnasium in Berlin. Author of Psychometric Formulae and tables much used in Germany, and of treatise on hygrometry.
Augusta. Capital of Maine; on both banks of Kennebec R. at head of navigation. Pop., 1890, 10,527.
Augusta. City of Richmond co., Ga., on right bank of Savannah R., at head of steamboat navigation. It has excellent water-power and large manufactures of cotton goods. Pop., 1890, 33,300.
Augustana College. Founded at Chicago 1860 by Augustana Lutheran Synod; removed to Paxton, Ill., 1863, and to Rock Island 1875. It has 19 professors, 360 students, and a Theol. Dept.
Augustan Age. Epoch of Roman history when Augustus ruled, 31 B.C. to A. D. 14. The names of Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Livy make the period the most illustrious of the Empire. It was said that Augustus found the city brick and left it marble.
Augustan History. Biographies of the Roman emperors 117–284, all before Hadrian having perished. Spartianus, who is thought identical with Lampridius, wrote the lives down to Alexander Severus; Capitolinus, from Maximin to Gordian III.; Trebellius Pollio, as far as Claudius Gothicus; and Flavius Vopiscus the rest. They have historical value, but little literary merit.
Augusti, Johann CHRISTIAN WILHELM. 1772–1841. German theologian, prof. at Jena 1803, Breslau 1812, and Bonn 1819–33. Christian Archaeology, 1817–31, 12 vols.
Augustine, or AUSTIN, d. 607. “Apostle of England,” sent by Pope Gregory I. to convert the Angle-Saxons 596; first abp. of Canterbury 598. The Church was already there, with its bishops and priests, but the land was largely pagan, and Austin's efforts were efficacious. especially in Kent.
Augustine (AURELIUs), St., 353–430. Bishop of Hippo, Africa, 396; greatest of the Latin Fathers. In youth a Manichaean and a profligate, he was baptized by St. Ambrose 387, and soon became the master-mind of the Church, exerting an influence still felt. His treatises on Predestimation and Perseverance anticipate Calvin's whole system. His Confessions, ab. 897, is a classic. His greatest work is De Civitate Dei, ab. 426.
Augustine, SISTER. AMALIE voN LASAULX. 1815–1872. German Sister of Charity, who adhered to Old Catholicism in 1871, and was deposed.
Augustinians. One of the four Mendicant Orders (the others being Dominicans, Franciscans, and Servites, organized 1243 by Innocent IV.
August-psychrometer. Pair of thermometers, dry-bulb and wet-bulb respectively, as arranged by E. F. August, for determining the moisture of the air.
Augustulus, Romulus. Last emperor of Rome, 475–6.
Augustus, 63 B.C.—A.D. 14. name, C. Octavius, was changed at his adoption by his greatuncle, 47, to C. Julius Caesar Octavianus. He fought Antony and defeated him, was elected Consul 43, was reconciled to Antony, and with him and Lepidus formed a 5-years' triumvirate; with the help of Antony crushed the republican party at Philippi 42; conquered Sextus Pompey and Lepidus 36, and Antony and Cleopatra at Actium 31, and thenceforth ruled the Roman world under constitutional titles, being styled Augustus by the Senate 27 B.C. His wars were waged mainly to protect frontiers. Other intended successors having died, he adopted Tiberius, son of his second wife Livia, as colleague and heir. His name, being properly an official & title, belonged to all his sucCessor's.
Augustus. Three electors of Saxony. I., 1526–1586, ruled from 1553. II., FREDERIC A. “ the Strong,” 1670–1733; succeeding his brother George 1694, he fought the Turks in Hun
First Roman emperor.
Aurelle de Paladines, CLAUDE MICHEL LOUIS D’, 1804– 1877. French general, prominent in the Crimean and FrancoGerman wars. Aureosine. Product of the action of hypochlorous acid upon FLUORESCEIN (q.v.). Aureus. Roman gold coin, issued from 207 B.C. on. average weight was 120 grains, a little over $5. Auric Acid. AusCH),. Yellowish-red powder, insoluble in water and the acids; made by treating auric chloride with magnesia and dilute nitric acid. Auric and Aurous Compounds. POUNDS OF. Auricle of the Ear. Outer ear, or fleshy and cartilaginous projection from the side of the head, which originally in man and now in most animals serves to collect and transmit sound-vibrations to the inner ear. Auricles of the Heart. Smallest two of the cavities of the heart, which on the right side receives the venous blood from the body, and on the left that purified and oxygenated by the lungs. See HEART.
See GOLD, COM
Bony arch near the mouth of a Sea Urchin, It is the
Auricula. inside its shell, which covers the radial water tubes. homologue of the ambulacral ossicles of star-fishes.
Auricular Confession. R. C. and Oriental usage of confessing at least all mortal sins into the ear of a priest as part of the sacrament of penance. Authorized by Leo ab. 450, it was made obligatory by the 4th Lateran Council, 1215, and declared by the Council of Trent (1545–63) indispensable to salvation.
Auricularia. Pluteus-like larva of Holothurians. It has short arms and assumes a pupa stage with five circles of cilia. The entire body is transformed into the adult.
Auriculidae. Family of Pulmonates, of the sub-group Basommatophora.
Aurifaber (GOLDSCHMIDT), Johann, 1519–1575. Luther's secretary 1545–46, and editor of his German books and letters.
Auriga. Northern constellation, containing the large star Capella; also called the Wagoner.
Aurine. C, H, O,. Impure trioxytriphenylcarbinol, prepared by the action of oxalic and sulphuric acids upon phenol; commercially used for rosolic acid; red dye-stuff, formerly used in wool-dyeing.
Aurispa, GiovaNNI, 1370–1459. Teacher in Italy, who in 1423 brought from Constantinople the writings of Plato, Pindar, AEschylus, and other Greek classics, then unknown in the West.
Aurochs (Bison bomasus). Nearly extinct Bison of Europe, preserved only in the forests of Lithuania. Aurora. Goddess of the dawn, daughter of Hyperion. At the close of the night, leaving the couch of Tithonus, she ascends in a chariot from the river Oceanus, to herald the coming of the sun. Aurora. (1) Bright light of the early morning before sunrise. (2) Diffuse light seen at night, usually near the n. portions of the heavens in the northern hemisphere and the s. in the southern. It frequently exhibits red, yellow or green colors, arranged in arched columns and beams and folded curtains. When brightest, the beams and rays are usually longer and broader. Periodic waves in brightness run rapidly along each beam, or converge from all directions toward the auroral corona; when only a simple beam crosses the sky, such waves appear in it as individual auroral clouds with a rapid progressive motion. Sometimes several concentric arches separated by diffuse light are seen; below the lowest arch is a dark space. The Auroral Corona is an arrangement of small auroral beams around a central point, usually near the direction of the freely suspended magnetic needle; within the corona thus
formed only a faint diffuse light prevails. Displays of the aurora are most frequent at 9 or 10 P.M., in special months depending upon geographical locations, and in years of greater sun-spot frequency. Aurora. City of Kane co., Ill., on Fox River. The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy R. R. has its shops here. Pop., 1890, 19,688. Aurungzebe, 1618–1707. Mogul emperor of Hindostan, third son of Shah Jehan. Overcoming his eldest brother, Dara, who had seized the throne upon his father's illness, he began to reign 1658; imprisoned his father till his death 1666; had his two elder brothers assassinated; made some additions to the empire, and had a long and brilliant reign, though his bigotry and intolerance alienated the Hindoos. Auscultation. Act of listening to the sounds produced within the body as a means of determining the absence or 121
presence of disease. It is called immediate when the ear is applied directly to the body, and mediate when some object, as a stethoscope, is interposed. Is employed chiefly in diseases of the heart, lungs, and pleura, and in pregnancy after the beats of the foetal heart are sufficiently strong to be heard. Ausonius, DECIMUs MAGNUs, ab. 310–ab.394. Latin author, b. at Bordeaux. He held many civil offices, taught rhetoric, and wrote letters, epigrams and poems which survive. His style was harsh, but not without merit. Auspices. With the Romans, observing of birds, by means of which the will of the gods, or future events, were supposed to be ascertained. The chief magistrates, or the commander of an army, had the right of taking them. Austen, JANE, 1775–1817. English novelist, noted for acute observations of character and society. Her books, Sense and Sensibility, 1811; Pride and Prejudice, 1813; Mansfield Park, 1814; Emma, 1816; Northanger Abbey, 1818; and Persuasion, 1818, are still highly valued. Austerlitz. Town in Moravia, scene of a victory gained by 80,000 French under Bonaparte over as many, Austrians and Russians Dec. 2, 1805. The French lost 12.000, the allies 30,000. A treaty of peace was signed at Presburg Dec. 25.
Austin. Capital of Texas, in Travis co., on left bank of Colorado R.; founded 1821. Pop. ab. 20,000.
Austin, ALFRED, b. 1835. English poet, author of many lyrics and several tragedies.
Austin, CoE FINCH, 1831–1880. American botanist, author of numerous papers on Hepaticology.
Austin, MRs. JANE Goodwin, 1831–1894. American novelist. A Nameless Nobleman, 1881; Standish, 1889; Dr. Le Baron, 1890; Betty Alden, 1891. These deal with colonial history.
Austin, John, d. 1669. English R. C. author. His Devotions, 1668, include some fine hymns.
Austin, John, 1790–1859. Prof. Univ. London_1826–32. Province of Jurisprudence, 1832; Sequel, 1861–63.−His wife, SARAH (TAYLOR), 1793–1867, wrote on education, and tr. Ranke's Hist. Popes, 1840, and other German and French books.
Austin, STEPHEN F., ab. 1790–1836. Pioneer in Texas, founder of Austin, and in command of the Texan army 1835.
Australasia. One of the six great geographic divisions of the globe, comprising Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, New Zealand and numerous other islands of the Pacific.
Australia. Largest island or smallest continent on the globe, between s. Pacific and Indian Oceans; length from e. to w. ab. 2,500 miles, breadth ab. 2,000; area ab. 2,947,117 sq. m. Its surface is that of a low plateau, elevated but a few hundred feet above the sea. It is level or rolling, and broken here and there by ranges of hills. On the e. and w. the borders of the plateau are outlined by mountain ranges. Its average elevation is ab. 800 feet. The highest summit of the Australian Alps, in the s. e., is Mt. Kosciusko, 7,176 ft. On the e. coast the rainfall is sufficient for agriculture, but in the interior it is much less, and a large part is a desert, as yet imperfectly explored. It has few rivers of importance. The inhabited parts are mainly on and near the s. and e. coasts. A. was visited or mentioned by the French, Dutch, and Spaniards 1542–1616, seen b Dampier 1688, and for a time called New Holland. Capt. Coo explored the e. coast 1770. The penal settlement of o Bay was made 1787–88 in New South Wales. Of the other colonies, Western A. was set off 1829, South A. 1834, Victoria (s.e.) 1859, and Queensland (n.e.) 1859. Each of these has its parliament, with a governor appointed by the queen; a scheme of confederation is in progress. Gold was discovered Feb. 1851, 20 m. m. of Bathurst, New S. Wales, and soon after at Ballarat, 80 m. w. of Melbourne, causing a vast influx of miners and adventurers from Europe, America, and China. Of late years labor troubles have been rife. Pop., 1891, 3,173,000, chiefly in Victoria and New S. Wales; Western A., with over a third of the territory, had but 46,290. Ab. 30,000 natives remain.
Australian Aborigines. Once estimated at 150,000, but now much reduced. They are considered the lowest of the human race. The cephalic index is 71, the average capacity of the cranium (97.6 in Europeans) is 76, but the smallest skull had a capacity of 63 cubic in. There seems to be a dwarf type averaging 5 ft. high and a type 7 inches taller, of which a woman was found 7 ft. in ht. The West Australians are the lowest. The limbs are long and slender, the belly protuberant, the skull thick-boned, prognathous, with narrow forehead and retreating, small chin. The superciliary ridges are prominent, the hair abundant, soft, and curling. The lips are large, the toes turn in. They hate to work, but are good hunters, gentle in disposition, but irascible when irritated. Their memories are strong and they learn quickly, but cannot master principles; they have no words for numerals above four or five. The mode of life is connmunistic. They are generous, always sharing what
is gotten, taking no thought of the future. They mature at ten or twelve; have no sense of modesty; the men are more dressed (chiefly ornaments) than women. ives are either bought or captured, always from a different family and caste, and the children belong to the caste of the mother. The heads of children are often artificially deformed. Tattooing is practiced, also painting; white is the color for mourning. They are nomadic, build only rude bark huts, and eat anything, including reptiles and worms. They cultivate nothing, but cook everything except human flesh, which is eaten raw. They make no ottery, but are skillful in making simple weapons; the tomaawk, club, spear, boomerang, and shield are remarkable. The boomerang does not return to the thrower if it hits anything; it is used mainly in killing birds. Rude canoes and rafts are made. Polygamy is practiced. There is no marriage ceremony, except that the wife has her left little finger cut off as a sign of servitude. The boys pass through three degrees of initiation into the tribe, accompanied by elaborate ceremonies and torture; these degrees are taken at 9, 16, and 20 years. The men love to dance, sing, and feast, often ending with a free-fight and the eating of the slain. Chiefs are temporary leaders. They have no written language nor worship. The dead are either buried, burned, or exposed. Australian Province. Zoëlogical region including Aus" tralia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and usually also Polynesia. Characteristic animals are the Echidna, Ornithorhynchus, Marsupials, Mud-fish (Ceratodus), Cockatoos, and Birds of Paradise. There is an absence of Placental Mammals. New Zealand moreover lacks o: Monotremes, and Reptiles, except lizards, and possessed the now extinct Dimornis and Apteryac.
Austrasia, or EAST KINGDOM. Under the Merovingians, embracing Lorraine, Belgium, and right bank of the Rhine; after Charlemagne, it was merged into Germany.
Austria, HISTORY OF. In 796 the territory between the Ens and Raab was made a margraviate; in 12th cent. it was joined to the Mark above the Ens, and made a duchy. It became the possession of the House of Hapsburg 1282, and rapidly increased in power and extent of territory. Albert V., 1404–1439, obtained Bohemia and Hungary, and was elected to the imperial throne, which from 1438 was held by this house. A. was made an archduchy by Frederic III.; the Netherlands were acquired by Maximilian I., whose son Philip married Johanna of Spain. His son Charles V. was elected emperor 1519, and abdicated in favor of his brother Ferdinand 1558. On his death, the inheritance was divided among his three sons, Maximilian II. receiving the imperial crown, with A., Hungary, and Bohemia. All these his son, Rudolf II., was forced to cede to his brother Matthias, who became emperor 1612, and concluded the long wars with the Turks by a 20 years' truce.
Matthias ceded Bohemia and Hungary to his cousin Ferdinand, afterward emperor, who undertook to root out Protestantism from his dominions, thus beginning the Thirty Years' War. Under Leopold I. Vienna was rescued by John Sobieski from the Turks called in by Hungary. Hungary was reduced and declared a hereditary kingdom. The War of Spanish Succession, 1702–13, ended with the peace of Utrecht, which secured to A. part of the Netherlands and possessions in Italy; some of these were soon lost. With Charles VI. (d. 1740) the male line of the Hapsburgs expired. The succession of Maria Theresa was maintained by the aid of Hungary. She was forced to yield Silesia to Frederic the Great after a vain effort to recover it by the Seven Years' War. Her husband was elected emperor as Francis I. 1745. Her son, Joseph II., made unsuccessful efforts at reform in his dominions. War with France followed the French Revolution 1792; by the treaty of Campo Formio, 1797, A. lost Lombardy and the Netherlands, receiving Venice; war renewed 1799, ending in the peace of Luneville 1801. Francis II. declared himself hereditary emperor of A. 1804, and abdicated the imperial throne of Germany 1806. The alliance with Napoleon by his marriage with Maria Louisa, daughter of Francis, did not hinder Francis from aiding in his downfall. A. gained territory by the peace of Vienna. Her influence was henceforth commanding in Europe, and adverse to constitutionalism. Opposition to her rule was brought to a crisis by the events of 1848, which resulted in war with Hungary, and ended with the triumph of conservatism, though feudalism disappeared. In 1850 A. was excluded from the German confederation. Her rivalry with Prussia was ended by the war of 1866, which caused the loss of Venetia. In 1867 a constitution was adopted, and the emperor proclaimed King of Hungary. In 1878 Bosnia and Herzogovina were added to this vast and mongrel empire, a congeries of countries, races, and religions, of which two of the largest and most populous provinces, Galicia and Bohemia, have not equal or adequate rights.
Austria-Hungary. Area 241,136 sq. m. The s, w. portion is very mountainous, being occupied by the e. part of the Alps. The Carpathian Mts. form parts of the e. and s. 122
| boundaries, rising to heights of 8,000 to 9,000 ft., and inclosing
the plains of Hungary in their great curve. The remainder of the country presents no marked features of relief. Nearly all of it is drained by the Danube, which is navigable throughout its course here, as are several of its branches for hundreds of miles each. Ab. 400,000,000 bushels of cereals are annually produced, and ab. 375,000,000 gallons of wine. Its mineral resources are valuable, comprising gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, and tin. Coal is mined extensively. The entire mineral product has an annual value of ab. $55,000,000. The manufacturing industries are large and varied, including mainly cotton, linen, woolen, and silk goods, and iron and steel, with an annual product estimated at $650,000,000. External commerce is not great, owing to the small extent of seacoast. The extent of railroads in operation is ab. 15,000 m. Austria and Hungary are closely allied in their internal affairs; each has its own council and parliament, while the army and navy are common, and in foreign affairs the two governments are a unit. The capital of Austria is Vienna, of Hungary Buda-Pesth. Other important cities are Prague, Lemberg, Gratz, Brunn, and Trieste. Pop., 1890, 41,284,960.
Austro-Columbian Region. All America s, of Mexico.
Austrogaea. Australasian province plus the Austromalayan Archipelago.
Autarachna. Division of Arachnida, including Acarina, Araneina, and Arthrogastra.
Authors. Game of cards printed with names of writers and titles of their works; invented in Salem, Mass., and pub. 1861. Numerous variations exist. The method of play was copied from the older game of DR. BUZBY (q.v.).
Autoclave. Apparatus designed to heat liquids at tem
Papua and adjacent islands n. of Aus
AUSTRO-COLUMBIAN REGION.—AUTOMATIC SIGNALS
Automatic Action. Action of a living body not immediately due to external changes of environment, but the result of changes arising in the organ or body itself, and determined by causes other than the circumstances of the monent. These actions may be continuous or rhythmical, as beating of heart; or irregular and variable, as all actions resultant on volition.
Automatic Cut-Off Engine. One in which the valve gear which distributes the motor fluid from the generator to the cylinder is so constructed that without human intervention the engine itself will alter the point at which the supply of fluid shall be cut off from the cylinder. The object is to cause the engine under wide variations of load to make the same number of revolutions in a given time. - In attaining this, it is sought to supply to the cylinder at each stroke only so much fluid as is necessary to overcome the load at the specified speed. Automatism is secured in two general ways: the cutoff is varied directly, by the load, or indirectly, by the speed as affected by the load. In the first system, the effort on the engine shaft is transmitted to the load through a series of springs of requisite strength and stiffness on that shaft. The springs are therefore more or less strained as the load increases or diminishes. The positions of levers attached to these springs are made to adjust the point of cut-off in some of the methods alluded to in article ADJUSTABLE CUT-OFF (q.v.).
In the second system, a governor driven by the engine shaft is so arranged that the plane or position of a revolving mass shall be varied by variations in the speed of the engine. This revolving mass is so linked to the distributing gear that the valve shall remain open for admission of steam a shorter or longer fraction of the piston stroke, as the speed of the governor is faster or slower. This latter is the most usual system, but has the theoretical disadvantage that the variation of load must precede the variation in speed, which must occur before the variation in cut-off can occur which is to offset the first variation and keep the speed constant. The cut-off must therefore always be hunting the load, and cannot get nearer to it than a certain number of revolutions. But, practically, by running at a high number of revolutions per minute and with a sensitive governor the time becomes very small during which such irregularity may exist, and the percentage of irregularity correspondingly low.
Automatic Signals. Signals, usually indicating danger,
which are displayed on railroads without direct manipulation, being operated by rods and levers which are connected with the
Automatic Electric Block Signals.
track; e.g., the opening of a switch may be made to set a signal in the danger position at a point several hundred feet