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signature, i.e., in the course of a composition, and altering the pitch of the notes before which they are placed. They are the sharp (#), which raises such a note a semi-tone; the doublesharp ( x ), which raises the note a whole tone; the flat (b), which depresses the note a semi-tone ; the double-flat (59), which depresses the note a whole tone; and the natural (VA), which cancels the changes effected by the other symbols. There is no uniformity in the use of accidentals in reference to the duration of their validity, though generally their effect is limited to the measures in which they occur. Accipitridae (Falconidae). Family of raptatorial birds, having feathered heads, and eyes more or less sunken and furnished with eyebrows. Metatarsus is sometimes feathered. Here belong Aquila, the eagle : Milvus, the kite ; Buteo, the
A. misus, Eur. Sparrow-Hawk.
buzzard ; Astur, the goshawk, the falcons and harriers. The bald eagle (Haliaétus leucocephalus) has the head, neck and tail white after the third year. It lives on fish robbed from the Osprey. Accius, or Attius, LUCIUs, ab. 170–86 B.C. Latin tragic poet, praised for vigor and sublimity of thought. He also wrote Annals in verse, and several prose works.
Acclimatization. Process of adaptation an organism undergoes to fit it for new conditions of life.
Accolade. Act of salutation which accompanied the bestowing of knighthood; originally an embrace or kiss, later a light blow with the flat of a sword. In French Gothic architecture, the meeting and, curving upward at the center of the moldings decorating the edge of a lintel or a flat arch.
Accommodation. Term used in psychology, physiology and opthalmology, to denote the alteration in É. eye which is necessary in order that one may see distinctly when one looks from distant to near objects, or the reverse. For distinct vision there must be a sharp image on the retina, and for the normal eye at rest only rays from distant objects are brought to a focus, there. . When we look at objects near by the rays are brought to a focus by an increase in the curvature of the lens, which is felt to involve an effort. Some eyes cannot accommodate for distant objects, being myopic or short-sighted. Others cannot for near objects, being hypermetropic or far-sighted.—In theology, the exceptionable doctrine that Christian teachers, for essential ends, may speak as if accepting incidental beliefs which they do not hold.
Accommodation Note. Indorsed by one or more parties, given and discounted for money advanced and not for payment of debt.
Accommodation of the Eye. Function or property of the eye by, which near and distant objects can be seen clearly. This is accomplished by the contraction or relaxation of a circular muscle (celiary muscle), which lies behind the crystalline lens, thus increasing or decreasing its convexity and accommodating it to near or remote vision. The natural changes which occur as the age increases render the lens less elastic, and its convexity cannot be increased sufficiently to allow of near vision.
Accompaniment, IN MUSIC. Speaking generally, all the elements in a composition are subsidiary to the principal part. In primitive music the accompaniment is chiefly rhythmical, hand-clapping or drumming; with the development of the
melodic capacity of instruments it becomes melodic and, later, harmonic. In a sense all harmony is an accompaniment to melody. In the European music of to-day, the accompaniment is generally a subsidiary instrumental part, added either to support the principal voice or voices, or to lend fullness, richness or color to a composition. Additional accompaniments are the parts, generally orchestral, contributed by modern musicians to pieces composed at a time when it was customary to leave to the accompanist at the organ or harpsichord the task of filling in harmonic parts contemplated and suggested by the composer but not written down; also to compositions, the original effect of which can no longer be reproduced because of the disuse of certain instruments.
Accomplice. One who is associated with others in the commission of a crime, whether as principal or accessory. A special signification of the term is one who gives evidence against his associates.
Accord and Satisfaction. Agreement whereby the claim of A against B is discharged, upon A's acquisition of a new right against B, or of new rights against B and others, in place of the original claim. If A accepts B's offer to perform something new in satisfaction of an old claim, there is an accord, but there is no satisfaction until full performance is made.
Accordion. Musical instrument, invented in Vienna 1829; a mechanical extension of the principle underlying the mouthorgan. The tones are produced by metallic reeds vibrating freely in a slot and governed by keys placed on one side of a pair of bellows operated by both hands of the performer.
Account. Statement of a fiduciary's receipts and expenses, or of the mutual dealings of merchants. If running or unsettled, it is called an account current ; if adjusted and a balance struck, either by express or implied agreement, it is an account stated. The liability to account is sometimes enforced by a common law action, but generally by a suit in equity.
Accretion. Title acquired by the owner of land to the gradual accumulation of soil along a river-bank or seashore.
Accumulation of Wealth. Saving of utilities produced by human effort, distinguished from their consumption or waste by neglect. To this is due all wealth, whether in the improvements of property, money, or human industrial capacities.
Accumulator, ELECTRIC. Apparatus for storing electrical energy in the form of potential energy of chemical separation. Plante's consisted essentially of two lead plates immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, the surface of one of these plates being converted into peroxide and that of the other into spongy lead by the action of the current. Faure and Brush modified this by covering both plates with a layer of lead oxide. At present the plates are cast with perforations into which the active material is pressed. If a current be passed through a cell made of such plates the lead oxide on the negative electrode is converted into spongy lead, while
that on the positive electrode is oxidized to lead peroxide. When the two electrodes are joined by a conductor a reverse action takes place and the stored energy again, appears in the form of an inverse electric current. A number of such cells joined together is called a “storage” or “secondary battery.” The Piante type, modified by greatly increasing, the surface of the plate to be corroded, seems to, give the best results in practice. An electric condenser such as a Leyden jar is sometimes called an accumulator. Accumulator, HYDRAULIC. Cylinder fitted with a piston upon which is a weight. Water is pumped into the cylinder under very great pressure, and the apparatus thus becomes the source of a large amount of potential energy, which may be distributed by pipes for the various operations of hydraulic engineering. Acelaiama (“FIELD of BLoop"). Near Jerusalem; so called as having been bought with the blood-money paid to
Acenaphthene, or ETHYLENE-NAPHTHALENE., C.His Mpt. 95°C. white crystalline solid hydrocarbon found in coal-tar.
It is a combination of ethylene and naphthalene, and is formed by heating them together.
Acephala. Group including those dendrocoelous worms whose anterior end is not specialized into a distinct head. Polycladus is an example. The term is also applied to the Lamellibranchs.
Acephali (HEADLEss). Epithet applied to bishops or heretics who were under no proper ecclesiastical jurisdiction, or who, as the Eutychians in 452, revolted from it.
Acephalocyst. Sterile cyst of an Echinococcus or Cysticercus (q.v.).
Acer campestre. Maple tree of family Aceraceae, valua
ble for timber, shade and ornament. Sap of Acer saccharum or sugar maple is source of maple sugar. Aceraceae. Natural family of trees and shrubs, including all the maples. Commonly known as the Maple Family. Acerra. In Roman Antiquities, a small box used to hold incense, borne in processions; also a small altar for burning incense beside a dead person before the last rites.
Acestes. Sicilian, son of a river-god and a Trojan, whose arrow was shot with such force as to take fire amid the clouds. AEmeid, V., 525.
Acetabulum. (1) One of the lobes of the placenta of ruminants. (2) One of the sucking cups of the cuttle-fish. (3) The depression in the epimerum of an insect's segment which receives the coxa of the leg. (4) In anatomy it is the socket of a ball and socket joint, as at the hip.
Acetacetic Ether. CH,.C.O.C.H.COOC.H. Ethyl acetacetate. This salt of acetacetic acid (CH, CO.C.H.COOH) is obtained in the form of a sodium compound by the action of sodium upon ethyl acetate. Liquid, much used in syntheses in organic chemistry.
Acetal. CH, CH(OC.H.). Bpt. 104°C. Liquid formed by heating ordinary aldehyde with common alcohol. The term “acetals” is sometimes applied to the class of connpounds formed by heating aldehydes and alcohols. These compounds are in reality ethers.
Acetaldehyde. CH,..CHO. Bpt. 21°C. Called also aldehyde and ethyl aldehyde. Liquid formed by the gentle oxidation of ordinary alcohol. It has a characteristic pungent odor and is easily changed to its polymer, para-aldehyde. Found in the first runnings from the alcohol still.
Acetates. Salts of acetic acid.
Acetamide. C.H.O.N.H. An ammonia in which one atom of hydrogen has been replaced by an acetyl group. Made by heating ammonium acetate. A white crystalline solid, very weakly basic in character.
Acetanilide, or PHENYLACETAMIDE. C.H.N.H.C.H.O, generally known by the copyrighted name of Antifebrin; produced when aniline and acetic acid are heated together. It is a white, shining, micaceous crystalline powder, used in medicine as an antipyretic in fevers; also in rheumatism, neuralgia and headaches. Dose, 2 to 10 grains. In some cases it has produced faintness, palpitation and cyanosis. Discovered by o: 1853, applied by Kussmaul, 1886.
Acetate of Chromium. Cr, (C.H.O.). Found in trade in the form of a green liquor and prepared from chromium hydroxide and acetic acid, or from chrome alum and acetate of lime. Used in textile coloring.
Acetate of Copper. Cu(C.H.O.). Dark green crystals containing water; combining readily with arsenic salts of copper to form brilliant greens, as Paris green. See VERDIGRIs.
Acetate of Iron. Fe(C.H.O.). The aqueous solution of this salt is known in commerce as “iron liquor,” also “black liquor.” It is prepared by the action of acetic acid on scrap iron; or, more commonly, from copperas and acetate of lime. Used in dyeing and calico printing.
Acetate of Lead. Pb(C.H.O.). Known also as “sugar of lead.” White crystals, containing water of crystallization; made by the action of acetic acid upon lead; it is the most important soluble lead salt.
Acetic Acid. CH,COOH. Bpt. 119°C. The acid of vinegar, and made from alcohol by oxidation; also obtained, together with methyl alcohol and tar, by the dry distillation of wood in iron stills connected with copper condensing worms. The acid is neutralized with lime, forming gray acetate of lime, which is decomposed in bronze stills with sulphuric acid,
Stills for Distilling Wood.
the acetic acid being set free and condensed in a copper worm. 1000 parts of oak wood yield 20 parts of acetic acid. . It is largely used in the arts, in the manufacture of white lead, and, in combination with bases, forms acetates; it is also used in medicine.
Acetic Anhydride. CH,.CO.O.O.C.C.H. Bpt. 137° C. A liquid of acid character, equivalent to two molecules of acetic acid less one molecule of water. Forms acetic acid with water. Made by the action of acetyl chloride upon sodium acetate. Used extensively in organic chemistry as a reagent.
Acetic Ether. CH, COOC, H. Bpt. 75° C. ETHYL AcETATE. Liquid of pleasant odor, produced from ordinary alcohol and acetic acid by means of a water absorbent. Used as a solvent and in the preparation of perfumes and flavors.
Acetimes. Compounds produced by the action of glycerine upon acetic acid. eavy liquids used as solvents for colors in calico printing. See TRI-ACETINE.
Acetoluide. CH, C.H.N.H.C, H,O. Known in three forms: para-, meta- and ortho-acetoluide of different molecular forms. The compounds are prepared by heating the toluidines with acetic acid or acetic anhydride.
Acetone. CH, CO.C.H. Bpt. 56°C. Dimethyl ketone. Liquid of ethereal odor, present among the products of the dry distillation of wood, but produced usually by heating dry acetate of lime. Used as a solvent and in the manufacture of chloroform.
Aceto-Nitrile. CH,.CN. Methyl cyanide. The nitrile corresponding to acetic acid. Prepared by the action of methyl iodide upon cyanide of potash. Liquid with characteristic odor resembling oil of bitter almonds. Aceto-Phenome. C.H.C.O.C.H. Phenyl-methyl ketone. Liquid of pleasant odor. Easily solidifies. Prepared by heating a mixture of benzoate and acetate of calcium. Acetoxime. CH,C.NOH.C.H. White crystalline solid, produced by the action of nitrous acid upon acetone. Acetyl. CH, CO−. This group enters into combination with hydroxyl (OH) to form acetic acid, and into a vast number of organic compounds as a constituent. Acetyl Chloride. CH, COCl. Combination of the acetyl group with chlorine. Colorless, fuming liquid, changed by water into acetic acid and hydrochloric acid. Prepared by the action of the phosphorus chlorides upon acetates and acetic acid. Very much used for introducing acetyl into compounds. Acetylene. CH3CH. Gaseous hydrocarbon formed by the imperfect combustion of illuminating gas. It has an unpleasant, characteristic odor. Combines with chlorine and bromine. The hydrogen can be replaced with certain metals, as copper and silver. These compounds are very explosive.
ACIETYLENE COPPER—ACID FUCHSINE
Acetylene Copper. Dark red powder formed by the union of acetylene with cuprous salts. Very explosive when heated or struck.
Acetylene Series. Series of hydrocarbons in which a triple bonding between carbon atoms is conceived to exist. For example, acety'sne HCiCH ; allylene CH,-C:CH.
Achaean League. Coalition at first of four, soon of nearly all the towns in Achaia, ab. 280 B.C., afterward increased by Sicyon, Corinth and others; in 191 B.C. it included Athens and Sparta. It maintained Greek independence against Rome for 50 years preceding the fall of Corinth, 146 B.C.
tions might be constructed which would give achromatic (colorless) images. The principle is now applied to nearly all optical instruments.
Achromatopsy. Affection of the eye which renders us incapable of correctly distinguishing colors. It is commonly known as color-blindness. The commonest form is that of redblindness, in which case red appears black or bluish green. Dalton was peculiarly afflicted in this regard, and from the fact that he carefully described it the disease is often called “Daltonism.”
Achroot. East Indian dye plant, Morinda tinctoria, of the natural family Rubiaceae.
Acid. Substance containing hydrogen which may be replaced, either wholly or in part, by a metal, when the acid is brought in contact with either a metal, a metallic oxide, or a metallic hydroxide. Acids usually possess a corrosive action, a sour taste, and the power to change certain vegetable colors from blue to red. hen treated with a base (q.v.) acids form a salt and water. Acids are divided into two classes: those containing oxygen are called oxy-acids; those containing no oxygen are called hydracids. They are further divided according to the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms which they contain. An acid having one replaceable hydrogen atom is a monobasic acid : for example, HCl. Dibasic acids are those containing two atoms of replaceable hydrogen ; as H.S.O. Similarly there are tribasic, tetrabasic, pentabasic acids, etc. If the proportion of oxygen varies, then that one containing the larger proportion of oxygen is given a name ending in ic; to the one having the smaller, proportion of oxygen, a name ending in ous. if there is a third, with a still smaller o of oxygen, the prefix hypo is used in connection with the descriptive term. Thus the compound H.SO, is called sulphuric acid; H.SOs, sulphurous acid; H.S.O., hyposulphurous acid. An acid containing the same elements, but a larger proportion of oxygen than H.S.O., is designated persulphuric. In designating hydracids the names of the elements in the compound are generally used : thus HCl is either hydrochloric or chlorhydric acid. An organic acid is a combination of one or more carboxyl o roups, or one or more acid groupings derived rom a mineral acid with any organic grouping, but this union is directly with a carbon atom. Examples: acetic acid. CHs. COOH., benzene-sulphonic acid, C.H.SO,OH. Both mineral and vegetable acids enter largely into human food, usually in combination as salts. From a medical standpoint these bodies are divided into three classes: one including those whose action depend upon the elements from which they are derived, as, for example. phosphoric acid; another embracing those, such as carbolic acid, which have properties peculiar to themselves; and a third which takes in those used principally as neutralizers of alkalies and as corrosives, and is the class most commonly termed acids. It includes the mineral acids, nitric, muriatic and sulphuric; and the organic acids, acetic, citric and tartaric. The mineral acids are highly corrosive and are used to destroy unhealthy and morbid growths, while the organic are but feebly so, with the exception of acetic. Both classes when freely diluted relieve thirst, and when taken before eating, increase the acidity of the stomach, but have the opposite effect when taken after meals. When administered in too large quantities and for too long a time, they give rise to a condition resembling scurvy. They have been used to a considerable extent to purify water containing disease germs, especially those of Asiatic cholera, and with considerable success. The salts of the organic acids are as a rule soluble, and when of the alkaline bases render all the fluids of the body alkaline and increase the amount of the urine.
| They are monobasic, and those of low molecular weight are
liquids, while those of high molecular weight are solids.
Acid Fuchsine. Mixture of the sodium salts of trisulphonic acids, prepared by the action of sulphuric acid upon
Acorus Calamus (SWEET FLAG). Genus of aromatic
plants, family Araceae.
Acosta, GABRIEL, or URIEL, 1594–1647. Apostate, of Jewish descent, but educated as a Christian. He went from Portugal to Holland, became a Jew, and for certain heresies was excommunicated by the rabbis.
A coustic s. That branch of physics which treats of the production, transmission and comparison of sounds. See Sound.
Acrania. Division of Vertebrata characterized by the absence of a cranium. A simple brain is present. Amphioacus is the only representative. See LEPTOCARDII.
Acraniate. Said of Chordate animals like Amphioacus, which lacks a cranium.
Acrasiaceae. Family of Myxomycetes or slimemoulds.
Acraspeda, or ACRAsPEDOTA. The “coveredeyed.” Medusae include those jelly-fish whose eyes are sunk in special pits in the edge of the umbrella-shaped body. They form the group Scyphomedusae, also sometimes termed Discomedusae and Lucermarida.
Acre. Unit of superficial measure of land, 160 sq. rods, or 48,560 sq. ft. A square acre will measure a little less than 209 ft. on each side. The acre of the U.S. is the same as the statute or “English "acre of Great Britain.
Aere, or AKKA. Anciently. Ptolemais ; important city on coast of Syria, the “key of Palestine,” taken by Saracens 638, by Crusaders 1110, retaken by Saladin 1187, recovered by Crusaders 1191, after two years' siege, with loss of 100,000 soldiers, and named St. Jean d'Acre; regained by Saracens 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished ; fell into hands of Turks 1517. Bonaparte failed to take it by a two months' siege, 1799. Mostly destroyed in o of nearly six months by Ibrahim Pasha 1831-33; stormed and taken by English Nov. 3, 1840, and handed over to Turks 1841. Pop, ab. 8,000.
Acredula, caudata. Genus Titmouse, family Paridae, characterized by length of tail.
A credula caudata.
Acridiidae (GRASSHOPPERs). Saltatorial Orthoptera. The posterior pair of legs are very strongly developed. The antennae are short, the anterior wings are stiff and fold vertically over the membranous wings. The ears are on each side of the metathorax. The chirping sound of these insects is made by the male, by rubbing the femora of the jumping legs against the nervures of the wing covers. They are gregarious and feed on plants.
Acridine. C, H,N. Aromatic base with intensely irritating action upon the mucous membrane. Present in the crude anthracene obtained from coal-tar. Combines with mineral acids.
Acrocarpi. Division of mosses characterized by bearing the sporophyte at the ends of the stem or branches.
Acrolith. Ancient form of Greek religious statuary, in which the main figure was made of wood, while the hands, arms and feet were of stone. These figures were clothed in garments which were plaited in zigzag solds, and the first entirely stone figures of Greek art show, if draped, an initation of these zigzag lines. The art of the period which produced these figures was wholly rudimentary and unscientific, the form being no more than a puppet; but such figures of the gods were still venerated in the period of superior art, and the most sacred Athenian statue, an Athene kept in the Erechtheum, was of this class. The famous Panathenaic festival and procession was celebrated in order to give this figure a new garment at stated intervals. The period of the Acroliths must have lasted as late as the seventh century B. C., for stone sculpture of entire figures was certainly not largely practiced before this time. Although there are no remains of such figures, there is a Greek vase in Naples which furnishes a faithful picture of one in its shrine.
Acrophalli. Group of nematode worms in which the male reproductive organ is terminal. It includes Dochmius, Trichina, Trichocephalus, etc.
Acropolis. Citadel hill. Such fortresses were the natural centers of the earliest civilized settlements of Greece and Italy, and in Greece they are especially prominent. On the fortressed hill were built the first and therefore the most sacred shrines and temples of the future city. Here was, in still later days, after the city had grown up around the hill, the place of refuge and the last resort of desperate defense. Especially noted citadels were those of Argos, Mycenae. Thebes, Corinth and Athens.
Acropolita, GEORGIUs, 1220–1282. Byzantine diplomatist and historical writer.
Acrostichaceae. Order of Filices, including a great many tropical species. Acroteria. In classic architecture, pedestals placed at the angles of the pediments of o for the reception of statues or ornaments of any kind; also the ornaments themselves. Acrylic Acid. CH, CH.COOH. Monobasic, unsaturated acid, combines therefore readily with active chemical agents, forming dibrompropionic acid with bromine. White crystalline solid prepared from acroleine by oxidation. Acrylic Aldehyde. See ACROLEINE. Act of War. Act of violence or attack by a main army, equivalent to a declaration of war by the nation sanctioning it, to the rupture of a treaty, or the ending of an armistice.
Acta Consistorii. Edicts of the council of state under the Roman emperors.
Acta Diurna. Species of official gazette issued daily in ancient Rome, which chronicled all important events and the proceedings of the Senate; this last was not usual before Julius Caesar.
Aeta Sanctorum, or ACTA MARTYRUM. By the Bollandist Jesuits: biographies of the saints of the Roman calendar, according to their days; continued for 250 years, still going on. Vol. I. appeared 1643, Vol. LXV. 1892.
Actaeon. Huntsman who, because he once saw Artemis (l)iana) bathing, was changed by her into a stag, and torn in pieces by his own dogs.
Actineres. See SIPHONOSTOMATA.
Actinocrinus. Genus of Carboniferous Crinoids, or Stone Lilies, the plates of which are embossed with radiating starlike ridges and the stems of which usually had projecting spine-like branches.
Actinolite. (Ca, Mg, Fe)SiO3. Natural silicate of magnesium, calcium and iron, usually fibrous or in bladed crystals, and bright green or grayish green in color; one of the varieties of Amphibole.
Actinometer. Instrument, for measuring the power of the sun's rays. Various forms have been devised, depending commonly upon the time required to heat a definite quantity of water, when exposed to the direct action of the sun. See PYRHELIOMETER.