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The sign + is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or other heavenly body, when north, and the sign when south ; but the former prefixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude indicates that she is approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the ecliptic.

The letters M. A., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon.

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CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES.

Dominical Letter,

G| Solar Cycle, Epact,

12 Roman Indiction, . Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 13 Julian Period, .

16

13 6568

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MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH IN 1855.

Septuagesima Sunday, Feb. 4th | Rogation Sunday,

May 13th Quinq. or Shrove Sunday, Feb. 18th Ascen. Day, or Holy Th., May 17th Ash Wed., Lent begins, Feb. 21st Whitsunday, or Pentecost, May 27th Mid-Lent Sunday, Mar. 18th Trinity Sunday,

June 3d Palm Sunday,

June 7th Easter Sunday,

8th Fête Low Sunday,

April 15th 1st Sunday in Advent, Dec. 2d

April 3. Corpus Christi Day,}

JEWISH CALENDAR.

(The anniversaries marked with an asterisk (*) are to be strictly observed.]

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Year. Names of the Months. 5615 Thebet begins,

Dec. 22, 1854 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, Dec. 31, " Sebat begins,

Jan. 20, 1855 Adar begins,

Feb. 19, “ 11th, Fast of Esther,

Mar. 1, 14th, Purim,

Mar. 4, 6 15th, Schuscan Purim, .

Mar. 5, 6 Nisan begins,

Mar. 20,“ 15th, *Beginning of the Passover, 16th, *Second Feast, or Morrow of the Passover, Apr. 4, “ 21st, *Seventh Feast,

Apr. 9, 22d, *End of the Passover, .

Apr. 10, " 4 Ijar begins,

Apr. 19, 6 18th, Lag Beomer,

May 6, « Sivan begins,

May 18, « 6th, *Feast of Weeks or Pentecost,

May 23, “ 7th, *Second Feast, . Thammuz begins,

June 17, 6 17th, Fast for the taking of the Temple, · July 3, " Ab begins,

July 16,5 " 9th, Fast for the burning of the Temple,

July 24,
Elul begins,

Aug. 15, “ 5616 Tisri begins, *Feast for the New Year,

Sept. 13,“ 66 20, *Second Feast for the New Year,

Sept. 14, " 6 4th, Fast of Gedaljah,

Sept. 16, « 66 10th, *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atonement, Sept. 22, 66 " 15th, Feast of the Huts or Tabernacles, Sept. 27,

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Year. Names of the Months.
5616 Tisri 16th, *Second Feast of the Huts,

Sept. 28, 1855 6 21st, Feast of Palms or Branches,

Oct. 3, 220, *End of the Hut or Congregation Feast, Oct. 4, « 23d, *Rejoicing for the Discovery of the Law, Oct. 5, 6 Marchesvan begins,

Oct. 13, 66 Chisleu begins,

Nov.ll, " 25th, Consecration of the Temple,

Dec. 5, 6 Thebet begins,

Dec. 10, “ 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem,

Dec. 19, 6 Sebat begins,

Jan. 8, 1856 The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon; but in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veader) is 7 times introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year nearly or quite correct.

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MAHOMETAN CALENDAR.

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June 17,

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Year. Names of the Months. 1271 Rabia II. begins,

Dec. 22, 1854 6 Jomadhi I.

Jan. 20, 1855
Jomadhi II.

Feb. 19,
Redjeb

Mar. 20,
Chaban

Apr. 19,
Ramadan (Month of Fasting,)

May 18,
Schewall " (Bairam,)
Dsu'l-kadah

July 16, " Dsu'l-hejjah"

Aug. 15, 1272 Muharrem

Sept. 13,
Saphar

Oct. 13, "
Rabia I.

Nov. 11, h Rabia II.

Dec. 11, . " The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 16th, A. D. 622.

The Mahometan year is purely lunar; it consists of 12 synodical periods of the Moon, or of 354 days 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and of 355 days 11 times. The average length of this year is therefore 3541 days, which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth; a degree of exactness that could only have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that once in about 33 years the above months will correspond to every season and every part of the Gregorian year.

HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1855.

Computed by the Formula of Laplace (Mécanique Céleste, Vol. II. pp. 289,

Paris ed., and [2858] Bowd. ed.).

Washington Mean Time of

New or Full Moon.

Height of Washington Mean Time of
the Tide. New or Full Moon.

Height of the Tide.

d. h.

d. h. Full Moon, Jan. 3, 3 M. 0.72 New Moon, July 13, 11 A. 0.72 New 18, 3 M. 0.98 | Full

29, 1 M. -0.97 Full

Feb. 1, 11 A. 0.77 | New Aug. 12, 2 A. 0.77 New 16, 2 A. 1.07 | Full

27, 8 M. 1.10 Full

Mar. 3, 5 A. 0.85 | New Sept. 11, 6 M. 0.85 New 17, 12 A. 1.11 Full

25, 4. A. 1.15 Full April 2, 9M. 0.92 New Oct. 10, 10 A. 0.90 New 16, 10 M. 1.03 || Full

25, 2 M. 1.05 Full

May 1, 11 A. 0.92 New Nov. 9, 2 A. 0.87 New 15, 9 A. 0.87 | Full

23, 3 A. 0.89 Full

31, 10 M. 0.87 | New Dec. 9, 5 M. 0.84 New June 14, 2 M. 0.74 Full

23, 6 M. 0.77 Full

29, 6 A. 0.88

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The unit of altitude at any place is the height at that place of that tide which arrives about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon, at the moment of conjunction or opposition, are at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator.

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the spring tides at that place during the present year.

By the above table it appears that the highest tides of 1855 will be those of Feb. 18, March 19, April 17, Aug. 28, Sept. 27, and Oct. 26.

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much on the strength and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be uncommonly great.

The formula from which these tides were computed is, however, strictly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncertain approximation for the coast of the United States.

h. m.

h. m.

h. m.

h. m.

Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time.
Ist day.
7th day. 13th day.

191h day.

25th day. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends.

h. m.
h. m.
h. m.

h. m.
h. m.

h. m. Boston, 5 48m 6 20a| 5 48m 6 24a 5 48m 6 29a| 5 47m 6 35a 5 44m 6 42a N. York, 5 46

6 22
5 46 6 26 5 46 6 31 5 45 6 37 5 42

6 44 Wash'n, 5 43 6 25 5 44 6 29 5 44 6 34 5 43 6 39 5 41 6 45 Charles., 5 35 6 33 5 36 6 37 37

6 41 5 36 6 46 5 35 6 51 N. Orl's, 5 31 6 37

5 33 6 40 5 34 6 44 5 33 6 49 5 32 6 54 S. Fran., 5 42 6 26 5 43

6 30 5 43 6 35 5 42 6 40 5 40 6 46 PHASES, AND APOGEE AND PERIGEE, OF THE MOON. Full Moon, 3d day, 3h. 11.4m. M.

| New Moon,

18th day, 3h. 29.7m. M. 7 5.9 Last Quarter, 11th

M. | First Quarter, 24th 8 31.1 A.
Apogee, 5th day, 6h. M.

Perigee, 18th day, 10h. M.
Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time.

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Days of Month.

Days of Week.

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N. Orleans,

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Moon Souths.
Mean Time.

San Francis

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&c. Et 555 a las z 55 Washington,

11 Th.

rises. sets. rises. sets. rises. sets. rises. sets. rises. sets.rises. sets.

hm./h. mjh. m.h. mjh. m.h. m.h. m./h. m.h. m.h. m./h. m.h. m... h. m. 1 M. 17 30 4 38 17 25 4 43 17 19 49 17 3 5 5 16 56 15 12 7 15 4 52 11 sa 2 Tu. 30 39 25 44 19 50

6 56 13 15 53 12 0 3 W.

30 40 25 45 19 50 3 7 57 13 16 54 8 4 Th.

30 40 25 46 19 51 3 7 57 14 16 55 0 51m 5 F. 30 42 25 47 19 52

8 57 14 16 56 1 40 6 S. 30 43 25 48 19 53

9 57 15 16 57 2 26 7 Su. 7 30 4 44 7 25 4 49 17 19 4 54 17 4 15 10 16 57 5 16 7 16 4 57 3 iom 8 M. 29 45 24 50 19 55 4 11 57 17 16 58

3 53 9 Tu. 29 46 24 51 19 56 4 11 57 18 16 59 4 34 10 W. 29 47 24 52 19 57 4 12 57 19 16 5 0

5 15 28 48 24 53 19 58 4 13 57 19 16 1

5 57 12 F. 28 49 24 54 18 59 3 14 57 20 15 2

6 41 28 50 23 55 18 5 0 3 15 57 21 15 3 7 29 14 Su. 7 27 4 51 17 23 14 56 17 18 15 17 3 5 16 16 57 5 22 7 15 5 4 8 23m 15 M. 27 52 22 57

2 3 17 57 23 14 5 921 16 53 22 58

3 3 18 57 24 14 6 10 26 17 W. 26 55 21 5 0

5 2 19 57 25 14 7 11 32 25 56 21 1 16 6 2 20 56 25 13 8 0 38a 25 57 20 2 16 7 2 20 56 26 13

1 40 24 68 20 3 15 8 1 21 56 27 12 10 2 37 21 Su. 7 24 5 0 7 19 5 4 7 15 5 9 7 1 5 22 6 55 5 28 7 12 5 11 3 30a 22 M.

23 1 19 6 14 10 1 23 55 29 11 12 4 18 23 Tu.

22 2 18 7 14 11 0 24 55 29 11 13 5 5 24 W.

21 3 17 8 13 12 0 25 54 30 10 15 5 51 25 Th. 21 5 17 9 12 13 6 59 26 54 31 9 16 6 37 26 F. 20 6 16 10 12 14 59 27 54 32 9 17 7 24 27 S. 19

15 11 11 16 58 28 53 33 8 18 8 13 28 Su. 17 18 5 8 17 14 5 12 7 10 5 17 16 58 5 29 6 53 5 34 8 15 19 94a 29 M. 17

13 14 9 18 57 30 52 35 7 20 9 56 30 Tu. 16 12 12 15 8 19 57 31 52 36 7 22 / 10 46 31

15 13 11 16 8 20 56 32 51 37 6 23 11 36

13 S.

Tu. 27

18 Th. 19 F. 20 S.

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