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Oscar I. King Sweden and Norway July 4, 1799 Mar. 8, 1844 45 Lutheran Nicholas I. Emperor Russia

July 6, 1796 Dec. 1, 1825 29 Greek Church Frederic VII. King

Denmark

Oct. 6, 1808 Jan. 20, 1848 39 Lutheran Victoria I. Queen

Great Britain May 24, 1819 June 20, 1837 18 Prot. Episc. William III. King Holland orNetherlands Feb. 19, 1817 Mar. 17, 1849 32 Reformed Leopold I.

Belgium

Dec. 16, 1790 July 21, 183140 Lutheran* Fred. Wm. IV.

Prussia

Oct. 15, 1795 June 7, 1840 45 Evangelical John

Saxony

Dec. 12, 1801 Aug. 10, 1854 52 Catholic* George V.

Hanover

May 27, 1819 Nov. 18, 1851 33 Evangelical Fred. Francis Grand Duke Mecklenburg-Schwer. Feb. 28, 1823 Mar. 7, 1842 19 Lutheran George

Mecklenburg-Strelitz Aug. 12, 1779 Nov. 6, 1816 37 Peter

Oldenburg

July 8, 1827 Feb. 27, 185326 William Duke

Brunswick

Apr. 25, 1806 Apr. 25, 1831 25 Adolphus

Nassau

July 24, 1817 Aug. 20, 1839 22 Evangelical Chs. Alexander

Saxe-Weimar-Eisen June 24, 1818 July 8, 1853 35 Lutheran Ernest II.

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha June 21, 1818 Jan. 29, 184426 Bernard

Saxe-Meiningen Dec. 17, 1800 Dec. 24, 1803 3 Ernest

Saxe-Altenburg

Sept. 16, 1826 Aug. 3, 185327 Leopold

Anhalt-Dessau Oct. 1, 1794 Aug. 9, 1817 22 Evangelical Alexander

Anhalt-Bernburg Mar. 2, 1805 Mar. 24, 1834 29
Gunther Prince Schwarzburg-Rudolst. Nov. 6, 1793 A pr. 28, 1807 13 Lutheran
Gunther

Schwarz'g-Sonder'n, Sept. 24, 1801 Sept. 3, 1835 31
Henry XX.

Reuss, Elder Line, June 29, 1794 Oct. 31, 1836 42 Henry LXII.

Reuss, Younger Line, May 31, 1785 A pr. 17, 1818/33 Leopold

Lippe-Detmold Sept. 1, 1821 Jan. 1, 1851 30 Reformed George

Lippe-Schaumburg Dec. 20, 1784 Feb. 13, 1787 2 George Victor

Waldeck

Jan. 14, 1831 May 15, 1845 14 Evangelical Ferdinand Landgrave

Hesse-Homburg Apr. 26, 1783 Sept. 8, 184865 Reformed Frederict PrinceRegent Baden

Sept. 9, 1826 Mar. 30, 1852 26 Evangelical Frederic Wm. Elector Hesse-Cassel

Aug. 20, 1802 Nov. 20, 184745 Reformed Louis III. Grand Duke Hesse-Darmstadt June 9, 1806 June 16, 184842 Lutheran Chas. Antony 1 Prince Hohenzol'n-Sigmar'n, Sept. 7, 1811 Aug. 27, 1848 37 Catholic Frederic 1

Hohenzol’n-Hechin'n, Feb. 16, 1801 Sept. 13, 1838 37 Aloys

Lichtenstein

May 26, 1796 Apr. 20, 1836 40
William I. King Wurtemberg Sept. 27, 1781 Oct. 30, 1816 35 Lutheran
MaximilianII.

Bavaria

Nov. 28, 1811 Mar. 21, 1848 37 Catholic Fran.Joseph. 1. Emperor

Austria

Aug. 18, 1830 Dec. 2, 1848 18 Napoleon III.

France

Apr. 20, 1808 Dec. 2, 1852 44 Isabella II. Queen Spain

Oct. 10, 1830 Sept. 29, 1833 3 Pedro V.S King Portugal

Sept. 16, 1837 Nov. 15. 1853 16 Vict. Eman. II. King Sardinia

Mar. 14, 1820 Mar. 23, 1849 29 Leopold II. Grand Duke Tuscany

Oct. 3, 1797 June 18, 1824 26 Robert Duke Parma

July 9, 1848 Mar. 27, 1854 5 Francis V.

Modena and Massa June 1, 1819 Jan. 21, 184626 Pius IX. Pope States of the Church May 13, 1792 June 21, 1846 54 Ferdinand II. King

Two Sicilies

Jan. 12, 1810 Nov. 8, 1830 20 Otho I.

Greece

June 1, 1815 May 7, 1832 17 Catholic* Abdul Medjid Sultan Turkey

Apr. 23, 1823 July 2, 1839 16 Mahometan* Florestan Prince Monaco

Oct. 10, 1785 Oct. 2, 1841 56 Catholic Stirbey !! Hospodar Wallachia

June 16, 1849 GreekChurch Ghika | Hospodar Moldavia

June 16, 1849 * The King of Belgium is a Protestant, though his subjects are mostly Catholics ; the King of Saxony is a Catholic, though the greater part of his subjects are Protestants; and the King of Greece is a Catholic, though most of his subjects are of the Greek Church. Of the 15,500,000 European subjects of the Sultan of Turkey, 11,370,000 are of the Greek Church, and 260,000 are Catholics Only 3,800,000 are Mahometans.

† The Grand Duke of Baden is Louis, born Aug. 15, 1823, who is under guardianship by reason of insanity. : Dec. 1, 1849. These two princes abdicated in favor of the King of Prussia.

The regent of the kingdom is Ferdinand, husband of the late queen, a prince of Saxe Coburg. || Under the sovereignty of Turkey, and the protection of Russia.

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28,837

STATES OF EUROPE, With the form of Government, and Square Miles, according to McCulloch's

Geographical Dictionary, with Corrections; and the Population (chiefly) from the
Almanack de Gotha for 1853.

Square Popu Date of
States and Titles.
Form of Government.

Miles. lation. Enum'n. Andorra, Pyrenees, Repub. With two syndics and a council,

190 7,000 *Anhalt-Bernburg, Duchy, States having limited powers,

339 50,411

1850 *Anhalt-Cothen, t

318

43,120 1850 *Anhalt-Dessau,

360

63,700 1849 *Austria, Empire, Absolute monarchy,

255,226 36,514,466 1851 *Baden, Grand Duchy, Limited sovereignty; two chambers, 5,712 1,362,774 1849 *Bavaria, Kingdom, Limited monarchy;

28,435 4,519,546

1850 Belgium,

11,313 4,359,090

1849 *Bremen, Free City, Republic; senate and assembly,

112 79,047 1849 *Brunswick, Duchy, Limited sovereignty; one chamber,

1,525 268,943 1846 Church, States of, Popedom, Absolute sovereignty,

17,048 2,908,115 1842 Denmark, Kingdom, Limited monarchy; with prov. states, 21,856 2,296,597 a 1850 France, Empire,

Const. mon.; senate and legislat. body, 203,736 35,781,628 6 1851 *Frankfort, Free City, Republic; senate and assembly,

91 70,244 1849 Great Britain, Kingdom, Limited monarchy; lords andcommons, 116,700 27,435,325 1851 Greece,

Limited monarchy; two chambers, 18,244 998,266 1851 *Hamburg, Free City, Republic; senate and assembly,

149 188,054 *Hanover, Kingdom, Limited monarchy; two chambers, 14,600 1,758,847 1848 *Hesse-Cassel, Electorate, Limited sovereignty; two chambers, 4,430 754,590 1846 *Hesse-Darmstadt, G. Duch., Limited sovereignty ; two chambers, 3,761 852,524 1849 *Hesse-Homb'g, Landg'v'te, Absolute sovereignty ; one chamber,

206 24,203 1846 Holland, with Luxemburg, Limited monarchy; two chambers, 13,890 3,267,638 1851

Ionian Islands, Republic, Under Brit. protec.; council and chamb. 1,097 230,000 1852 *Lichtenstein, Principal., Limited monarchy; with one chamber, 52 6,351 1842 *Lippe-Detmold,

445 104,674 1849 *Lippe-Schaumburg,“

205

1848 *Lubec, Free City, Republic; senate and assembly,

142 47,742 1851 *Mecklen.-Schwerin, G. Du. Limited sovereignty; with one chamber, 4,701 543,328 1851 *Mecklenburg-Strelitz,

997 96,292 1843 Modena and Massa, Dúchy, Absolute sovereignty,

2,073 586,458 1850 Monaco, Principality, Absolute sovereignty,

50 7,000 *Nassau, Duchy,

Limited sovereignty ; two chambers, 1,736 428,218 1851 *Oldenburg, Grand Duchy,

2,470 278,030

1851 Parma, Duchy, Absolute sovereignty,

2,184

497,343 1851 Portugal, Kingdom, Limited monarchy; two chambers, 34,500 3,4P2,500.1841 *Prussia,

107,300 16,346,625 1849 *Reuss, Principalities of, Limited sovereignty ; one chamber,

588 112,175 1846 :Russia (in Europe), Empire, Absolute monarchy,

2,120,397 60,362,315 1846 San Marino, Republic, Senate and council of ancients,

21 7,600 Sardinia, Kingdom, Limited monarchy; two chambers, 28,830 4,916,087 1848 *Saxony,

Limited monarchy; two chambers, 5,705 1,894,431 1849 *Saxe-Altenburg, Duchy, Limited sovereignty; one chamber,

491 131,780 1850 *Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, Lim. sov.; one chamb. for each duchy,

790 149,753 1849 *Saxe-Mein.-Hildburgh.“ Limited sovereignty; one chamber,

968 163,323 1849 *Saxe-Weim.-Eisenach,

1,403 261,370

1851 *Schwarzburg-Rudolst., Pr.

405 69,650 1849 *Schwarzburg-Sondersh.,"

358 60,002

1849 Sicilies, The Two, Kingdom, Absolute monarchy,

41,521 8,681,289 1851 Spain,

Limited monarchy; with a legislature, 176,480 14,216,219 1849 Sweden,

1849

$ 170,715 3,433,803 Limited monarchy; with a legislature, Norway,

121,725 1,328,471 1845 Switzerland, Republic, Confederation of republics; a diet, 15,261 2,390,116 1850 $ Turkey, Empire, Absolute monarchy,

189,920 15,500,000 1844 Tuscany, Grand Duchy, Absolute monarchy,

8,712 1,761,140 1851 *Waldeck, Principality, Limited sovereignty; one chamber,

455

58,219 1850 *Wurtemberg, Kingdom, Limitad monarchy; two chambers, 7,568 1,802,252 1850

Total,

3,768,506 263,517,521 * Member of the Confederation of Germany. † United to Anhalt-Dessau and Bernburg, since November 23, 1847.

Including Poland and Finland. $ Including Wallachia, Moldavia, and Servia, containing respectively 2,600,000, 1,400,000, and 1,000,000 inhabitants. a Exclusive of Iceland, with a population of 60,000, and an area of 32,000 square miles.

6 Exclusive of Algeria, which contains a population of 246,531, and has an area of 100,000 square miles.

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GREAT BRITAIN.

THE ROYAL FAMILY. The Queen. Alexandrina Victoria, born May 24, 1819; succeeded her uncle, William IV., June 20, 1837; married, Feb. 10, 1840, to Prince Francis Albet Augustus Charles Emanuel of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819. Issue, Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa, born Nov. 21, 1840; Albert Edward, born Nov. 9, 1841; Alice Maud Mary, born April 25, 1843; Alfred Ernest Albert, born August 6, 1844; Helena Augusta Victoria, born May 25, 1846; Louisa Caroline Alberta, born March 18, 1848; Arthur William Patrick Albert, born May 1, 1850. George Leopold Duncan, born April 7, 1853.

Her Majesty's Mother, Victoria Maria Louisa, Princess Dowager of Leiningen, Duchess of Keni, born August 17, 1786.

The King of Hanover. George Frederic Alexander Charles Augustus, King of Hanover (second Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale), only son of Ernest, King of Hanover (who was fifth son of King George III., and uncle to the Queen), born May 27, 1819, married Feb. 18, 1843, the Princess Alexandrina, oldest daughter of Joseph, reigning Duke of Saxe Altenburg, by whom he has issue Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederic, Crown Prince of Hanover, born September 21, 1845, and two princesses.

The Duke of Cambridge. Prince George William Frederic Charles, son of Adolphus Frederic, the first Duke (who was youngest surviving son of King George III., and uncle to the Queen), born March 26, 1819.

The Duchess of Gloucester. Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, fourth daughter of King George III., and aunt to the Queen, born April 25, 1776, married, July 22, 1816, her cousin, Prince William Frederic, second Duke of Gloucester (who died Nov. 30, 1834). Ministry. - Formed Dec. 28, 1852.

Salary. Earl of Aberdeen,

First Lord of the Treasury, £5,000 Hon. Wm. E. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer,

5,000 Lord Viscount Palmerston, Secretary of State, Home Dep, 5,000 Earl of Clarendon,

Secretary of State, Foreign Dep., 5,000 Duke of Newcastle,

Secretary of State,

Colonial Dep., 5,000 Sir James R. G. Graham, First Lord of the Admiralty,

4,500 Lord Cranworth, Lord High Chancellor,

10,000 Earl Granville,

Lord President of the Council, 2,000 Duke of Argyll, Lord Privy Seal,

2,000 Sir Charles Wood,

President of the Board of Control, 2,000 Sir William Molesworth, First Cominissioner of Works, 2,000 Mr. Sidney Herbert, Secretary at War,

2,000 Marquis of Lansdowne, (without office). Lord John Russell,

(without office).

*** The above form the Cabinet. Viscount Hardinge,

Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, 3,460 Earl of St. Germans, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland,

20,000 Sir John Young, Chief Secretary for Ireland,

5,500 Hon. Edward Cardwell, President of the Board of Trade, 2,000 Sir Alexander J. E. Cockburn, Attorney-General,

5,500 Hon. Richard Bethell, Solicitor-General,

2,580 Rt. Hon. E. Strutt,

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 4,000 Viscount Canning,

Postmaster-General, and Paymaster of
the Forces,

2,500 Hon. M. T. Baines,

President of the Poor Law Board, 2,000 Hon. C. P. Villiers,

Judge Advocate General. Earl of Mulgrave,

Treasurer of the Queen's Household. Hon. James Moncrieff, Lord Advocate of Scotland.

JUDICIARY.

England. High Court of Chancery. — Lord Cranworth (R. M. Rolfe, b. 1790, ap. 1852), Lord High Chancellor, salary, £10,000; Sir John Romilly (ap. 1851), Master of the Rolls, £7,000; Sir R. T. Kindersley (b. 1792, ap. 1851), Sir John Stuart (ap. 1852), Sir William Page Wood (ap. 1852), Vice-Chancellors, £6,000 each.

Court of Appeal in Chancery. — Sir J. L. Knight Bruce (ap. 1851); Sir George James Turner (b. 1798, ap. 1851), Lords Justices, £6,000 each.

Court of Queen's Bench. - Lord Campbell (b. 1779, ap. 1850), Lord Chief Justice, £8,000; Sir J. T. Coleridge (b. 1790, ap. 1835), Sir Wm. Wightman (ap. 1841), Sir William Erle (b. 1793, ap. 1845), and Sir Charles Crompton (ap. 1852), Judges, £5,500 each.

Court of Common Pleas. — Sir John Jervis (b. 1802, ap. 1850), Lord Chief Justice, £7,000 ; Sir W. H. Maule (ap. 1840), Sir C. Creswell (ap. 1842), Sir Edw. Vaughan Williams (ap. 1847), and Mr. Crowder (ap. 1854), Judges, £5,500 each.

Court of Exchequer. — Sir Frederic Pollock (b. 1783, ap. 1844), Lord Chief Buron, £7,000 ; Sir James Parke (b. 1782, ap. 1834), Sir E. H. Alderson (b. 1787, ap. 1834), Sir Thomas Joshua. Platt (ap. 1845), Sir Samuel Martin (ap. 1850), Barons, £5,500 each.

Ecclesiastical Courts. Vicar. General, Travers Twiss; Principal of Court of Arches, Judge of Prerogative Court, Master of the Faculty Office, Sir John Dodson ; Judge of Consistory Court, S. Lushington.

Admiralty Court. Judge, S. Lushington ; Queen's Advocate, Sir J. D. Harding; Admiralty Advocate, J. Phillimore.

Scotland. Court of Session : Inner House. 1st Division. Duncan McNeill, Lord Colonsay (b. 1794, ap. 1852), Lord President, £4,800. James Ivory, Lord Ivory; Patrick Robertson, Lord Robertson ; Andrew Rutherford, Lord Rutherford, Judges, £3,000 each.

Inner House : 2d Division. — Rt. Hon. John Hope (b. 1794, ap. 1844), Lord President, £4,500. Sir John Archibald Murray, Lord Murray; Alexander Wood, Lord Wood; George Deas, Lord Deas; Judges, £3,000 each.

Outer House : Permanent Lords Ordinary.- John Cowan, Lord Cowan (b. 1798, ap. 1851); John Marshall, Lord Curriehill; Robert Handyside, Lord Handyside ; Hercules Robertson, Lord Benholm ; C. Neaves, Lord Neaves; £3,000 each. Right Hon. James Moncrieff, Lord Advocate, £2,500 and fees. James Craufurd, Solicitor-General, £1,000.

Court of Justiciary. Lord Justice General, Duncan McNeill; Lord Justice Clerk, Rt. Hon. John Hope; Commissioners, Lords Cowan, Ivory, Wood, and Handyside.

There is no division of common law, equity, civil law, or admiralty ; but the whole business, civil and criminal, original and appellate, is discharged by the Court of Session. For the transaction of civil business it is divided into two divisions, each discharging precisely the same functions. One consists of the Lord Justice General and three Puisne Judges; the other of

the Lord Justice Clerk and three Puisne Judges. The other five Judges sit separately, as Permanent Lords Ordinary. They pronounce judgment in the first instance; and this judgment may be carried for review before either of the inner divisions. The criminal business is discharged by the Lord Justice General, the Lord Justice Clerk, and four other Judges, who are appointed Judges of Justiciary under a separate commission.

Ireland. Court of Chancery. - Rt. Hon. Maziere Brady (ap. 1853), Lord Chancellor, £8,000; Rt. Hon. T. B. C. Smith (ap. 1846), Master of the Rolls, £4,300.

Court of Queen's Bench. — Rt. Hon. Thos. Lefroy, Lord Chief Justice, £5,074; Hon. Philip C. Crampton, £3,725 ; Rt. Hon. Louis Perrin (ap. 1836), Rt. Hon. Richard Moore (ap. 1847), Judges, £3,688 each.

Court of Common Pleas. – Rt. Hon. James Henry Monahan (ap. 1850), Lord Chief Justice, £4,615; Hon. Robert Torrens, Rt. Hon. Nicholas Ball (b. 1791, ap. 1839), and Hon. J. D. Jackson (b. 1783, ap. 1842), Judges, £3,688 each. Attorney-General, Rt. Hon. Abraham Brewster; SolicitorGeneral, William Keogh, Esq., £ 4,612.

Court of Exchequer. — Rt. Hon. David R. Pigott (ap. 1846), Lord Chief Baron ; Hon. Richard Pennefather, Rt. Hon. John Richards (b. 1790, ap. 1837), Rt. Hon. Richard W. Greene (ap. 1852), Barons, £3,688 each.

PARLIAMENT. The Parliament of Great Britain consists of a House of Lords and a House of Commons. The present is the 15th Imperial or 5th Reformed Parliament.

House of Lords. — The House of Lords consists of Lords Temporal, who are Peers of the Realm, and whose honors, immunities, and privileges are hereditary, and Lords Spiritual, consisting of Archbishops and Bishops. All the members of the five orders of nobility of England, viz. dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons, who are 21 years old, and labor under no disqualification, have a right to sit in the House of Lords; and in addition to these, 16 representative peers from Scotland, 28 representative peers from Ireland, 2 English archbishops, 24 bishops, 1 representative Irish archbishop, and 3 representative Irish bishops.

House of Commons, Elected July, 1852. — The House of Commons consists of the representatives of the counties, cities, boroughs, and of the three universities of the Established Church in the United Kingdom. The representatives of counties are chosen by the proprietors and occupiers of land; those of the cities and boroughs by the mercantile and trading part of the community; and those of the universities by the doctors and masters of

Since the union with Ireland (January 1, 1801) the number of members had been 658, this number being retained on the passing of the Reform Acts. They are elected by the following constituencies:

Boroughs. Universities. Total England,

144
323

4

471 Wales,

15
14

29 Scotland

30
23

53 Ireland,

64

2

105

arts.

Counties.

39

253
399

6

658 But the English members have been reduced to 654 since the year 1844.

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