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tricts for school purposes until 1834, and the act of April 1st of that year is generally considered the first common school law. The whole number of school districts reported, exclusive of the city and county of Philadelphia, for the year ending June 30th, 1853, was 1,531. The whole number of schools was 9,507. The average number of months that schools were taught was 5. Number of male teachers, 7,590; number of female teachers, 3,640. Average wages per month of male teachers, $ 19.25; of female teachers, $ 12.03. Number o male scholars, 260,269; number of female scholars, 214,286; number learning German, 11,121. The average number of scholars in each school was 42; and the cost of teaching each scholar per month, 43 cents. The amount of tax levied in the accepting districts was $ 1,021,337.34; received from the State appropriation, including $31,307.30 paid to Philadelphia city and county, $ 184,390.27. The cost of instruction was $ 731,743.18; fuel and contingencies, $ 84,158.76; of school-houses, repairs, &c., $ 147,516.13. The number of taxables by the triennial return in 1853 was 645,164. The returns of over 100 districts are not included in the foregoing, as they were received too late. Since, and including 1844, the annual appropriation by the State for the support of schools has been $ 200,000.

Common Schools in Philadelphia in 1853. — The city and county of Philadelphia constitute the first school district, but are not subject to the general school law. The grades of schools are a high school, a normal school and school of practice, grammar schools, secondary schools, and primary schools. The whole nuinber of schools in operation was 286. Number of teachers, 840, 80 males and 760 females. Number of male scholars, 25,836; number of females, 24,249 ; in all, 50,085. $411,303.85 were expended during the year for the purpose education, of which $ 223,305.26 were paid to teachers. Average annual cost per pupil in all the schools, $ 7.16; in High School, $32.97 ; in Normal School, $ 10.68.

State Lunatic Hospital, Harrisburg. - John Curwen, Superintendent. On the 31st of December, 1851, there were 37 patients, - 24 males and 13 females. Admitted during the year 118,

- sent by public authorities 63, by friends 55; discharged 49; leaving in the hospital, Dec. 31, 1852, 106, — 59 males and 47 females. Of those discharged, 13 had recovered, 16 were improved, 10 unimproved, 7 died, and 2 eloped. Of 155 admissions, 58 were married, 11 widowed, 86 single. The forms of insanity were, acute manía 22, chronic do. 50, epileptic do. 7, puerperal do. 1, monomania 13, melancholy 45, dementia 14, imbecility 1, idiocy 2. The disbursements during the year were $ 38,225.95; receipts, $ 38,385.21 ; balance, $ 159.26. The State appropriates $ 20,000 per annum to the hospital. There are apartments for 300 patients, a farm of 130 acres, and a garden.

Institution for the Blind, Philadelphia. -Wm. Chapin, Principal. 2 principal teachers, 2 assistants, 4 teachers of music, one prefect, 3 teachers of handicraft, 2 matrons, 1 salesman. The school was opened in March, 1833. Number of pupils, January 1, 1852, 107 ; discharged during the year, 14; died, 2; received, 18; remaining, January 1, 1853, 109, — 62 males, 47 females. Of this number there are from Pennsylvania 75, Maryland 13, New Jer. sey 13, Delaware 4, all other places 4. Number of pupils from its foundation, 237. Causes of blindness : ophthalmia 74, amaurosis 32, cataract 20, congenital 18, small-pox 10, scarlet sever 6, other fevers 4, measles 6, accidents from stones, &c. 15, explosion of powder 12, pistol or gun-shot 5, accidents not stated 5, scrofula 3, hydrocephalus, arrow-shots and fire 2 each, kick of a horse, foul air in a well, rheumatism, whooping cough, polypus, acute iretus, irritable retina, neuralgia, I each, unknown, 13. There are 52 classes in 22 different studies besides music. Value of goods manufactured, $5,755.37 ; sales, $5,021.77. Expenses of the Institution, $25,092.24 ; receipts, $ 27,330.02. No sectarian faith is inculcated. School, music, and work alternately occupy 84 hours daily. 21 volumes, in raised letters, have been printed. The terms for pay pupils are $200 a year, including board, instruction, and medical attendance. Blind children in indigent circumstances from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware, are provided for by those States for 8 years. Pupils are not usually received under 10, nor over 17, except for a shorter time than the regular course of eight years.

House of Refuge, Philadelphia. — Thomas G. Rutherford and Elisha Swinney, Superin. tendents. Admissions during 1852, 164 boys and 60 girls in the white, and 36 boys and 4+ girls in the colored department; total, 304. Discharges, 169 boys and 58 girls in the

white department, and 43 boys and 37 girls in the colored ; total, 307. Remaining, December 31, 1852, 149 boys and 49 girls in the white and 84 boys and 40 girls in the colored department; total, 322. The institution is designed for the reform of juvenile delinquents. Most of the inmates are commitied by magistrates, and a few by the county courts. The boys are employed in various manufacturing occupations. Their earnings amounted to $6,654.58. The expenses of the year were $ 87,912.78, and the receipts $87,064.13.

State Prisons. Eastern Penitentiary. — John S. Halloway, Warden. January 1, 1853, there were in the prison 283 convicts; received during the year, 117; in all, 400. Discharged by expiration of sentence, 97; by pardon, 24; by removal to Lunatic Hospital, 8; revecation of sentence, 1; by death, 3; in all, 133; leaving in prison January 1, 1854, 267. Of the 117 admitted during the year, 55 were natives of Pennsylvania, and 26 of other States. 36 were foreigners; 106 were whites, 101 males and 5 females ; 11 colored, 10 males and 1 female. of the 117, 21 were temperate ; 44 were convicted of larceny; 5 of horse stealing; 4 of counterfeiting; 12 of forgery ; 9 of felonious assaults ; 7 of arson ; 5 of manslaughter; 3 of murder in 2d degree. 3 were sentenced for over 10 years; 75 for 2 years and under. Since the opening of the prison, October 25, 1829, there have been admitted 3,089 convicts, and discharged 2,822, of whom 2,102 were by expiration of sentence; 446 by pardons; 228 by death; 4 by suicide ; 14 by writ of error.

Western Penitentiary. A. Beckham, Warden. January 1, 1853, there were in the prison 187 convicts; 184 males and 3 females ; received during the year, 98; in all, 285. Discharged during the year, by expiration of sentence, 62; by pardon, 20; by death, 2. In prison January 1, 1854, 201. Whole number received since the opening of the prison, July 1, 1826, 1,746 ; being white males, 1,447, females, 30; colored males, 229, females, 40. Of those remaining in the prison, 7 were convicted of arson ; 24 of murder in the 2d degree ; 3 of manslaughter ; 91 of larceny ; 20 of burglary ; 2 of robbery ; 6 of counterseiting; 8 of horse stealing ; 7 of felonious assaults; 6 of aggravated riot; 7 of rape; 1 of bigamy, and 1 of perjury. 92 were natives of Pennsylvania, and 32 of other Slates ; 77 were foreigners. Since the opening of the prison, there have been discharged by expiration of sentence, 1,123; by pardons, 325; by death, 82; by suicide, 1 ; by escapes, 24; by process of law, 4.


Government for the Year 1855. PETER F. CAUSEY, of Milford, Governor (term of office Salary. expires on the 3d Tuesday in January, 1859),

$1,3333 Alfred P. Robinson, Georgetown, Secretary of State, Fees and $ 400 William Cannon, of Bridgeville, State Treasurer,

500 George B. Dickson, of Dover, Auditor,

500 John M. Philips, of Laurell, President of the Senate. William Huffington,

of Dover, Clerk.
John R. McFee, of Georgetown, Speaker of the House.
Clayton A. Cowgill,


Superior Court.
James Booth,
of Newcastle, Chief Justice,

$ 1,200 Samuel M. Harrington, of Dover, Associate Justice,

1,200 John J. Milligan, of Wilmington,

1,000 Edward Wootten, of Georgetown,

1,000 Willard Saulsbury, of Georgetown, Altorney-General, Fees and 500 S. M. Harrington,

of Dover, State Reporter. Stephen W. Green, of Sussex Co., Prothonotary of Sup. Court, Fees.

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Alexander J. Taylor, of Dover, Prothonotary of Sup. Court, Fees. Wm. G. Whitely, of Newcastle,

Fees. Court of Chancery. Kensey Johns, Jr., of Newcastle, Chancellor,

1,100 Orphans' Court. The Orphans' Court consists of the Chancellor and a Judge of the Superior Court.

Probate Court.
Peter B. Vanderer, of Newcastle, Register of Wills,

Fees. Robert W. Reynolds, of Dover,

Fees. James Anderson, of Georgetown,

Principal Items of Expenditure. School Fund,

$ 15,047.62 Executive,

$ 3,033.33 Chief Sources of Annual Income. Legislative,

8,555.32 Corporation taxes, bonus, $ 27,454 68 Convention,

6,640.00 Dividends and interest on loans, 19,293.87 Judiciary, . 5,500.00 Licenses, forfeitures, &c.

6,948.51 Internal improvements,

18,500 001

Permanent Resources of the State. Invested capital, State,

$ 350,637 68 school fund,

435,505.83 Total,

$786,143.51 Common Schools. — The system provides a free school within reach of every family. The districts are laid off, numbered, and incorporated. 236 of them are organized. Each district entitles itself to a portion of the fund by establishing a school, and contributing towards its support not less than $ 25. But any district may lay a tax on itself of $300; or (by a special vote) may increase it to any sum deemed necessary for school purposes. Towns or populous districts may unite their resources and form schools of higher grades; the only condition is that they shall be free. The number of free schools in operation in the State was 236; number of scholars (in a white population of 71,169), 10,230; receipts from school fund and contributions, $ 57,738.95; expended for support of free schools, $ 49,469 30.

The following table gives the statistics of the schools in the seyeral counties, as well as in the State.

Free Schools.
No. of

Amount received from
No. of

Amount paid for Counties.

School Contribution Schools. Scholars. Tuition. Contingencies.


Tax. Newcastle, 85 3,638 $ 18,185.16 $5.587 80 $ 12,339.52 $ 14,060.34 Kent,

58 2,619 11,549 58 1.526.83 9,584.28 5,244.05 Sussex,

93 3.973 10.891.35 1,728 58 11,906.00 3,604.76 Total, 236

10,230 40,626.09 8,843.21 33,829.80 $ 23,909.15 8.843 21

23,909.15 $49,469.30



Government for the Year 1855. Thomas W. Ligon, of Howard Co., Governor (term expires Salary.

the 2d Wednesday in Jan., 1858), Use of a furnished house, and $ 3,600 Nathaniel Cox, of Baltimore, Secretary of Slate,

1,000 Dennis Claude, of Annapolis, Treasurer,


W. Pinkney Whyte, of Baltimore, Comptroller of the Treasury, 2,500 James Murray, of Annapolis, Commissioner of the Land


Fees and 200 Michael McBlair, of Baltimore, Commissioner of Stamps,

Lemuel Roberts, of Queen Ann's Co., Commissioner of Lotteries.
Joshua R. Nelson, of Harford Co.
Moor N. Falls, of Baltimore, Commissioners of Public
Charles R. Stewart, of Savage,

Wm. P. Ponder, of Baltimore,
Richard Swan, of Annapolis,

State Librarian,

1,000 John N. Watkins, of Annapolis, Adjutant-General,

500 Edward Lloyd, of Talbot Co., Pres. of the Senate, $5 per day dur. ses. Elias Ware, Jr., of Baltimore, Speaker of the House of Delegates,

($ 5 per day during session.
Court of Appeals.

Term expires. Salary. John C. LeGrand, of Baltimore, 1851, Chief Justice, 1861, $ 2,500 John T. Mason, of Marlboro, 1851, Associate Justice, 1861, 2,500 Wm. H. Tuck, of Upper Marlboro, 1851,

1861, 2,500 John B. Eccleston, of Chestertown,1851,

1861, 2,500 William A. Spencer, of Annapolis, Clerk,

Fees. The Court of Chancery, by the new Constitution, was abolished on the 4th of July, 1853. It had been continued from the adoption of the constitution to that date, to give it time to finish its business. The judicial power of the State is vested in a Court of Appeals, and in Circuit Courts.

The Court of Appeals has appellate jurisdiction only. Its judges, four in number, are elected from districts, by the voters therein, for ten years, unless they shall before reach the age of 70. They must be above 30 years of age, citizens of the State at least five years, residents of the judicial districts from which they are elected, and have been admitted to practice in the State. The Court of Appeals appoints its own clerk, to hold office for six years, and may reappoint him at the end of that time. judge of any court is interested in a case or connected with

any ties by affinity or consanguinity within the proscribed degrees, the Governor may commission the requisite number of persons, learned in the law, for the trial and determination of the case. The Governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate, designates one of the four judges as chief justice. The office of Attorney-General is abolished by the new Constitution.

Judges of the Circuit Courts. Circuit.

Elected. Term expires. Salary. 1. Peter W. Crain, of Port Tobacco, 1851 1861 $ 2,000 2. Nicholas Brewer, of Annapolis,

1851 1861 2,000 3. Madison Nelson, of Frederic City, 1851 1861 2,000 4. Thomas Perry, of Cumberland, 1851 1861 2,000

When any of the par

6. Albert Constable, of Perryville,

1851 1861 2,000 7. Philemon B. Hopper, of Centreville,

1851 1861 2,000 8. Ara Spence,

of Snowhill, 1851 1861 2,000 The fifth Circuit comprises the city of Baltimore. The judges of that Circuit, all of whom reside in Baltimore, are :William Frick, Judge of Superior Court, 1851 1861 2,500 Wm. L. Marshall, Judge of Court of Com. Pleas, 1851 1861 2,500 Henry Stump, Judge of Criminal Court, 1851


2,000 Chas. J. M. Gwinn, of Baltimore, State Attorney, 1851 1855

The State is divided into eight judicial circuits, each of which elects a judge of the Circuit Court, to hold office for ten years. The qualifications of the judges are the same as those of the Court of Appeals, except that they must be citizens of the United States, and residents for two years in their judicial district. There is in the city of Baltimore a Court of Common Pleas, with jurisdiction in civil cases between $ 100 and $ 500, and exclusive jurisdiction in appeals from justices of the peace in that city; and a Superior Court, with jurisdiction in cases over $ 500. Each of these courts consists of one judge, elected by the people for ten years.

There is also a Criminal Court, consisting of one judge, elected for six years. Clerks of the Circuit Courts in each county, and of the Baltimore courts, are chosen for six years, and are re-eligible.

Each county, and Baltimore city, elect three persons as Judges of the Orphans' Court, to hold office for four years ; a Register of Wills, for six years ; Justices of the Peace, two Sheriffs, and Constables, for two years. Attorneys for the Commonwealth are chosen in each county by the people,

for four years.


State Debt.
The whole nominal debt of the State was, September 30, 1853,

$ 15,132,909.00 The sinking fund of the State, representing, in fact, extinguished debt, was, November 30, 1853,

$2,922,751 State loan to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company included in

nominal debt, the interest of which is paid by that company, 3,616,043 Tobacco loans, the interest of which is paid out of proceeds of tobacco inspection,

163,689 Productive capital of State, consisting of bank stocks, railroad

stocks and bonds, paying dividends or interest, including Tidewater Canal bonds, about,


-12,325,566.00 Leaving,

$ 2,807,343.00 the interest on which must be provided for by taxation. Including the income from the productive capital of the State, the amount to be raised in 1854 to meet the interest on the public debt is estimated by the Treasurer to be $ 673,837.

In addition to the productive property above described, the State owns unproductive property, the value of which is estimated at $ 17,172,634.16. The new assessment gives the value of the real estate in the State, $ 166,754,455, and personal estate, $ 94,489,205 ; aggregate, $ 261,243,660. The former aggregate valuation was $ 192,781,579. Increase, $ 68,462,081. The former rate of taxation was 25 cents on the $ 100; it is now 15 cents on the $ 100.

The school fund on September 30, 1853, amounted to $ 160,542 66.

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