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On British, sea, and American inland postage, the single letter is s oz.; on foreign postage, the single letter is less than & oz.

Letters weighing oz. and under of oz. are charged two rates ; } oz. and under 1, three rates, &c.; an additional rate being charged for each quarter of an ounce. Thus, a letter directed to the East Indies by a British steamer, and weighing less than $ oz., will be charged 65 cents postage; if 4 oz. or more, and less than * OZ.,

75 cents must be paid ; the foreign postage only being doubled for each 4 oz.

On letters to the following places and countries, prepayment is optional; but when prepaid, only the United States postage of 20 cents the single letter should be prepaid, the foreign portion being collected of the receiver ; viz. Alexandria, Cairo, Constantinople, Denmark, Greece, eastern towns of Italy, Norway, St. Petersburg or Cronstadt, Sweden, and Switzerland.

On letters to Havre, or any place on the coast of France, to Germany, or any port on the Continent, where the United States steam-packets stop, the postage is 20 cents the single rate, prepayment required. Letters by this line are subject in France to an additional postage of 12 cents if weighing under 2 oz. ; 24 cents, if weighing over $ oz. and less than foz., &c. Newspapers 2 cents each, prepayment required. Postage to Mexico, South America, and the West Indies, from any Point in

the United States. On letters to Chagres, Havana (Cuba), Mexico, Panama, and other places where the rates are not fixed by postal treaty, and to the British West Indies, viz. Antigua, Barbadoes, Bahamas, Berbice, Cariaco, Demarara, Dominica, Essequibo, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Tobago, Tortola, and Trinidad, If distance from mailing office does not exceed 2,500 miles,

10 cents.

exceed 2,500 miles, 20 Newspapers 2 cents each. The postage on letters and newspapers must be prepaid.

On letters to the West India Islands (not British) except Cuba, to Carthagena, Honduras, St. Juan (Nicaragua), or to places in the Gulf of Mexico or on the Atlantic coast of South America, not in British possession, viz. Venezuela, Brazils, and Uruguay, to be prepaid, If distance from mailing office does not exceed 2,500 miles,

34 exceed 2,500 miles,

44 To St. Thomas and the other Danish islands, by U. S. packet to Kingston, the single rate is 18 cents under 2,500 miles, and 28 cents over 2,500 miles, prepayment required.

On newspapers sent, the postage (U. S. and British) is 6 cents, to be prepaid. On newspapers received, the rate to be collected is 2 cents, the British postage being prepaid.

The single postage to any part of the Argentine Republic from any point in the United States is (to be prepaid)

45 66 The postage on letters to the following places — i. e. to Guaya. quil and Quito, in Ecuador; to Cobiga and La Paez, in Bolivia; to Copiapo, Huasco, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, and St. Jago, in Chili — is (to be prepaid), On letters sent, being U. S. and British postage,

48 cents. On letters received, U. S. postage only,


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Newspapers sent, 8 cents each, to be prepaid ; those received,

4 cents each. The postage on letters to Lima, Callao, Arica, Payta, and other places in Peru, is, On letters sent (to be prepaid),

32 cents. On those received,

20 On newspapers sent, 8 cents each ; on those received, 4 cents

each. On letters sent to Bogota and Buenaventura, in New Granada, the postage is 28 cents, to be prepaid. On letters received from these places, 20 cents. Newspapers sent, 8 cents; received, 4 cents. Postage to and from Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland,

Cape Breton, and Prince Edward's Island, from and to any Point in the United States.

On letters sent not over 3,000 miles from the line in the United States,

10 cents. Sent over 3,000 miles in the United States,

15 Prepayment is optional in either country, but all is to be prepaid or none. A mail is made up for the British Provinces, via Halifax, from New York and Boston, by the English steamers. The postage on a single letter thus sent is 5 cents, to be prepaid. The postage on newspapers and periodicals to these places is at the regular United States rates, to and from the line, to be paid in the United States. Editors may exchange free of expense. Postage on Pamphlets and Magazines to and from Foreign Countries, from

and to any Point in the United States. The postage on magazines and pamphlets to all foreign countries, except Great Britain, the British North American Provinces, and the west coast of South America, is, by whatever line sent, one cent an ounce or fraction of an ounce. To the west coast of South America it is four cents an ounce or fraction of an lounce, to be collected in all cases in the United States. To and from the British North American Provinces the postage is the regular United States rate to and from the line, to be prepaid when sent, and collected when received.

On each periodical and pamphlet between Great Britain and the United States, the United States postage is 2 cents, if not over 2 ounces in weight, and 4 cents per ounce or fraction of an ounce over 2 ounces, always to be prepaid. An additional British postage of the same rate, when not exceeding 2 ounces, must be paid in England; but the third ounce raises the British charge to 6 pence (12 cents), with 2 pence (4 cents) additional for each additional ounce. When sent to or received from foreign countries, without passing through the United Kingdom, they will be charged with the regular United States rates, to be prepaid when sent, and collected when received. No pamphlet can be sent weighing over 8 ounces, and no periodical over 16 ounces, without being subject to letter postage.

Newspapers and periodicals to foreign countries, and particularly to the Continent of Europe, must be sent in narrow bands, open at the sides or end; otherwise they are chargeable there with letter postage.

9. Amounts actually credited for the Transportation of the Mails, by States

and Territories, and the Amount of Postages collected in the same, in the Year ending June 30, 1853.

Letter Newspaper Stamps

States and Territories.
Postage. Postage. sold.

Postages collected.

portation. Maine,

$ 68,300.73 $ 15,433.29 $ 41,460.92 $ 125,194.94 $ 52,767.88 New Hampshire,

43,276.13 10,740.77 27,686.63 81,703.53 31,999.45 Vermont,

41,041.08 12,000,34 25,597.44 78,638.86 62,476.85 Massachusetts,

230,526.28 31,013.50 192,427.04 453,966.801 130, 117.13 Rhode Island,

22,337.19 3,164.98 21,875.62 47,377.79 12,139.72 Connecticut,

70,545.94 15,156.57 60,661.99 146,364 50 64,173.13 New York, :

686,509.28| 111,752.43 377,254.35 1,175,516.06 455,019.76 Delaware,

9,660.381 1,989.22 4,661.11 16,310.71 9,412.00 New Jersey,

58,461.42 8,639.16 21,973.59 89,074.17 74,139.55 Pennsylvania,

273,372.91 61,001.69 153,933.70 488,308.30 238,019.69 Maryland,

83,189.05 15,443.91 53,925.15 152, 158.11 191,586.20 District of Columbia, 18,595.01 3,191.64 16,046.24 37,832.89 Virginia,

90,894.86 28,112.26 64,465.07 183,472.19 313,234.72 North Carolina,

28,838.43 12,107.45 19,805.63 60,751.51 175,630.59 South Carolina,

41,302.78 10,141.03 31,538.94 82,985.751 127,169.19 Georgia,

76,316.01! 19,079.75 47,404.38| 142,800.14 215,238.78 Florida,

8,721.69 2,447.31 5,709.83 16.878.83 38,661.99 Alabama,

53,804.18 15,491.93 26,795.74 96,091.85 178,543,35 Mississippi,

42,228.09 13,655.44 17,224.68 73,108.21 115,924.92 Texas,

29,916.73 8,078.03 9,169.70 47,164.46 139,362.19 Kentucky,

61,080.71 15,977.08 35,484.81 112,542.60 139,038.15 Michigan,

53,048.34 14,470.76 29,238.09 96,757.191 136,260 14 Wisconsin,

44,493.41 13,132.09 15,945.33 73,570.83 46,608.00 Louisiana,

80,822.52 13,440.96 33,906.70 128,170.18 90,420.73 Tennessee,

45,272.79 13,943.83 26,484.481 85,701.10 92,885.29 Missouri,

58,435.03 12,765.01 27,581.78 98,781.82 140,454.41 Illinois,

99,425.85 28,069.78 47,851.20 175,346.83 181,611.19 Ohio,

202,317.11 49,295.44 24,147.17 375,759 72 363,182.37 Indiana,

77,520.25 24,399.02 35,420.16 137,339.431 109,392.96 Arkansas,

16,188.71 4,595.27 4,321.91 25,105.89 90,859.15 Iowa,

23,776.21 7,234.61 9,969.40 40,980.22 36,393.82 California,

93,951.04 13,111.56 16,089.40 123, 152.00 174,243.02 Oregon Territory, 6,276,31 1,580.35 1,940,69 9,797.35

47,682.16 Minnesota Territory,

1,630.11 560.84

1,338.91 3,529.86 2,386.28 New Mexico Territory,

351.17 85.12

80.93 517.22

19,647.22 Utah Territory,

715.15 41.51

199.00 955.66 3,269.70 Nebraska Territory, 459.54 60.64

520 18 Washington Territory,

149.66 12.49


236.89 Total, . 2,843,752.06 611,420.06 1,629,292.45 5,084,464.57 4,199,951.68 Add Bremen postages, $ 8,925.72 Deduct miscellaneous entries, 8,712.36

213,361 86,64

30.33 Total,

2,843,963.42 611,333.42 1,629,262.12

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XIII. CONGRESS. The Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, and assemble at least once every year, on the first Monday of December, unless it is otherwise provided by law.

The Senate is composed of two members from each State ; and, of course, the regular number is now 62. They are chosen by the Legislatures of the several States, for the term of six years, one third being elected biennially.

The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, in which body he has only a casting vote, which is given in case of an equal division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President pro tempore is chosen from among the Senators by the Senate.

* In closed mails; there were, besides, 33,155 in the Prussian closed mails.

The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several States, elected by the people, for the term of two years. The Representatives are apportioned among the different States according to population, in the following manner. Under the provisions of the act of Congress of May 23, 1850, Ch. XI. $ $ 25, 26, the number of Representatives is established at 233. After each decennial enumeration, the aggregate representative population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of the Interior, by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the States, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. This aggregate is divided by 233, and the quotient, rejecting fractions, if any, is the ratio of apportionment among the several States. The representative population of each State is then ascertained in the same manner, and is divided by the above-named ratio, and this quotient gives the apportionment of Representatives to each State. The loss by fractions is compensated for by assigning to as many States having the largest fractions as may be necessary to make the whole number of Representatives 233, one additional member each for its fraction. If after the apportionment new States are admitted, Representatives are assigned to such States upon the above basis, in addition to the limited number of 233; but such excess continues only until the next apportionment under the succeeding census.

When the apportionment is completed, the Secretary sends a certificate thereof to the House of Representatives, and to the Executive of each State a certificate of the number apportioned to such State. The present number of Representatives is 234, an additional representative being temporarily assigned to California by the act of July 30, 1852. There are, besides, seven Delegates, one each from Oregon, Minnesota, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Kanzas, and Nebraska, who have a right to speak, but not to vote. A previous law (Laws of 1842, Ch. 47) requires that in each State the Representatives "shall be elected by districts composed of contiguous territory, equal in number to the number of Representatives to which said State may be entitled, no one district electing more than one Representative.” For a table of apportionments, &c. among the several States, see post, page 188.

Since the 4th of March, 1817, the compensation of each member of the Senate and House of Representatives has been $8 a day, during the period of his attendance in Congress, without deduction in case of sickness; and $8 for every twenty miles' travel, in the usual road, in going to and returning from the seat of government. The compensation of the President of the Senate pro tempore, and of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, is $ 16 a day.


[The figures denote the expiration of the terms of the Senators.)
David R. Atchison, of Missouri, President pro tempore.

New Hampshire.
Hannibal Hamlin, Hampden, 1857 Moses Norris, Jr. Manchester, 1855
Wm. Pitt Fessenden, Portland, 1859 Vacancy, *

1859 * Jared S. Williams was appointed vice Atherton, deceased, but there was no election by the Legislature.


Mississippi. Lawrence Brainerd, St. Albans, 1855 Stephen Adams, Aberdeen, 1857 Solomon Foot, Rutland, 1857 Albert G. Brown, Gallatin, 1859 Massachusetts.

Louisiana. Charles Sumner, Boston, 1857 John Slidel, New Orleans, 1855 Vacancy,*

1859 J. P. Benjamin New Orleans, 1859 Rhode Island.

Arkansas. Charles T. James, Providence, 1857 Robt. W. Johnson, Little Rock, 1855 Philip Allen, Providence, 1859 Wm. K.Sebastian, Helena, 1859 Connecticut.

Tennessee. Francis Gillette, Hartford, 1855 James C. Jones, Memphis, 1857 Isaac Toucey,

Hartford, 1857 John Bell, Nashville, 1859 New York.

Kentucky. Wm. H. Seward, Auburn, 1855 Archibald Dixon, Henderson, 1855 Hamilton Fish, New York, 1857 J. B. Thompson, Harrodsburg, 1859 New Jersey.

Ohio. J. R. Thompson, Princeton, 1857 Salmon P. Chase, Cincinnati, 1855 William Wright, Newark, 1859 Benj. F. Wade, Jefferson, 1857 Pennyslvania.

Michigan. James Cooper,


1855 Lewis Cass, Detroit, 1857 Richard Brodhead, Easton, 1857 Charles E. Stuart, Kalamazoo, 1859 Delaware.

Indiana. James A. Bayard, Wilmington, 1857 John Pettit, Lafayette, 1855 John M. Clayton, Newcastle, 1859 Jesse D. Bright, Madison, 1857 Maryland.

Illinois. James A. Pearce, Chestertown, 1855 James Shields, Belleville, 1855 Thos. G. Pratt,

Annapolis, 1857 S. A. Douglas, Quincy, 1859 Virginia.

Missouri. James M. Mason, Winchester, 1857 David R. Atchison, Platte City, 1855 R.M.T.Hunter,Lloyds, Essex Co. 1859 Henry S. Geyer, St. Louis, 1857 North Carolina.

Florida. Geo. E. Badger, Raleigh,

1857 Jackson Morton, Pensacola, 1855 Vacancy,

1859 S. R. Mallory, Jacksonville, 1857 South Carolina.

Texas. A. P. Butler, Edgefield C.H.1855 Thos. J. Rusk, Nacogdoches, 1857

1859 Josiah J. Evans, Society Hill, 1859 Samuel Houston, Huntsville,

Iowa. Georgia. Wm. C. Dawson, Greensboro', 1855 A. C. Dodge, Burlington, 1855

1859 Robert Toombs, Washington, 1859 George W. Jones, Dubuque, Alabama.

Wisconsin. Benj. Fitzpatrick, Wetumpka, 1855 Henry Dodge, Dodgeville, 1857 C. C. Clay,

Huntsville, 1859 I. P. Walker, Milwaukee, 1859

* Julius Rockwell, of Pittsfield, was appointed vice Everett, resigned, to serve until the Legislature elects or adjourns.

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