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Ellicott's Journal, &c. Philadelphia. 1803.
Letters of a Planter.)
New Discovery. Utrecht. 4697.
Translated. London, 1763.
Historical Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana, &c. Philadelphia. 1784. History of the conquest of Florida by De Soto. Paris. 1685 - London. 1696. Hall's Memoir of Harrison. Philadelphia and Cincinnati. 1830. Hunt's History of the Mormon War. St. Louis. 1844. Hesperian. (Periodical.) Columbus and Cincinnati. Hal's Wilderness and War.path, in Wiley and Putnam's Library. New York. 1846. Independent Chronicle and General Advertiser. Boston. (N. B.-Democratic.) Imlay's Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America. Published in one
volume in London, in 1792, 1793 and in 1797.-The edition of 1797 contains Pownal's Topo graphy; Filson's Kentucky; the two works of Hutchins, and ten other additions. It was repub
lished in 2 vols. at N. Y., 1793.
Notes on Virginia. London. 1787.
Original edition published from year to year.
French. 3 Vols. Paris, 1787. [N. B.-Contains map of Scioto, from General Richard Butler : do. of Big Beaver from " White Mingo;" do of Muskingum from Bouquet, Hutchins, and White
eyes. A fourth volume gives Filson's Account of Kentucky.]
• Since this work went to press, a translation of the Letters referred to in it has been published in New York, in a couple of volumes entitled " Early Jesuits in North America. Translated by Rev. William Ingraham Kip."
† Since this work went to press, a volume called “ Notes on the Northwest by Wm. J. A. Bradford," has reached us, in which an attempt is made to throw discredit opon Marquette's alleged discovery. The attempt is, however, based upon an error, viz. that Marquette's account was not published till 1637, after La Balley Voyage, whereas it appeared in 1681, the year before La Salle reached the Mississippi. Mr. Bradford had never seen the original edition of Thevenot. See his “ Notes," p. 68
Memoirs on the Last War in North America. 3 Vols. Yverdon. 1781. [N. B.-This work is in
French. The Scioto is here written Sonbioto.)
1838 and 1840.
American Review. Boston.
Trumbull. New Haven. 1774. Present state of Virginia, &c. By Hugh Jones. London. 1724. Present Siate of European Settlements on Mississippi. By Captain Philip Pittman. London. 1770. Pitkin's History of the United States. New Haven. 1828. Revised Statutes of Virginia. Richmond. 1819. Report of the Committee to inquire into the conduct of General Wilkinson, February, 1811. Wash
ington. 1811. Review of the Military Operations in North America, from 1743 to 1756. By Governor Livingston,
of New Jersey. Londun. 1757.
documents relative to Law's Mississippi Company.
Franklin. 10 Vol, Boston, 1840.
Life of Morris. Boston, 1832. Stuart's Memoirs of Indian Wars, Stone's Life Brandt. 2 Vols. New York. 1838. Smollett's History of England. Stoddard's Sketches of Louisiana. Philadelphla. 1812. Set of Plans and Forts in North America, reduced from actual survey. 1763. Probably published at
London. State of British and French Colonies in North America. In two letters to a friend. London. 1755. St. Clair's Narrative of his campaign. Philadelphia. 1812. Smyth's Travels in America. 3 Vols, London. 1784. See p. 135 of this volume. (N. B.-Ly.
man C. Draper, of Baltimore, who has tested Dr. Smyth's work by original documents in his posses slop, pronounces it full of entire falsehoods ; not mere exagerations, but shameless lies.-Mang
scripi letter to Cincinnati Historical Society ] Secret Journals of Congress. 4 Vols. Boston. 1820. Slipp's Miscellany. Xenia, Ohio. 1827. State of the case relative to United States Bank in Ohio. Cincinnati. 1823. Thatcher's Lives of the Indians. 2 vols. N. Y. 1832. Transactions of American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, Mass. 1820. Tonti's Account of La Salle's Discoveries. Paris. 1687. [Spurious.] Todd & Drake's Life of Harrison. Cincinnati. 1840. Travels in North America in 179.3, '96 and '97, by Isaac Weld. 2 Vols. London. 1799. Travels in Louisiana. By - Bossu. Translated by J. R. Forster. London. 1771. Transactions of Ohio Historical Society, containing Burnet's Letters. Cincinnati. 1839. Universal Modern History. London. 1763. United States Gazelle, edited by John Fenno. Published at New York from April 15, 1789 to Nov.
ember, 3, 1790 ; tben transferred to Philadelphia. It was Federal. Volney's View of the Climate and Soil of the United States. London. 1804. View of the Title to Indiana, a tract of country on the river Ohio. Philadelphia. 1776. (N. B.
See page 107 of this volume. This contains the treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768.]
Life of Fitch. (In American Biography, New Series, vi.) Boston
[N. B.-On this map the Sciolo is called " Sikoder," and lake Erie Erri or Okswego.” This last name is also given lake Erie on the map to Colden's history of the Iroquois. Lundon, 1755. On
the Cumberland is marked " Walker's settlement, 1750." See page 111 and note of this volume.] Wetmore's Missouri Gazetteer. St. Louis. 1837. Wilkinson's Memoirs. 3 Vols. Philadelphia. 1816. Western Messenger. Periodical. Cincinnati. Western Garland. Periodical. Cincinnati,
SPANISH AND FRENCH DISCOVERIES.
In the year 1512, on Easter Sunday, the Spanish name for which is Pascua Florida ;* Juan Ponce de Leon, an old comrade of Columbus, discovered the coast of the American continent, near St. Augustine; and, in honor of the day, as well as because of the blossoms which covered the trees along the shore, named the new-found country Florida. Juan had been led to undertake the discovery of strange lands, partly by the hope, common to all his countrymen at that time, of finding endless stores of gold, and partly by the wish to reach a fountain that was said to exist, deep within the forests of North America, which possessed the power of renovating the life of those who drank of, or bathed in, its waters. In return for his discovery he was made Governor of the region he had visited, but various circumstances prevented his return thither until 1521, and then he went only to meet with death at the hands of the Indians.
In the mean time, in 1516, a roving Spanish sea captain, Diego Miruelo, had visited the coast first reached by Ponce de Leon, and in his barters with the natives had received considerable quantities of gold, with which he returned home, and spread abroad new stories of the wealth hidden in the interior.
Ten years, however, passed before Pamphilo de Narvaez undertook to prosecute the examination of the lands north of the Gulf of Mexico; the shores of which, during the intervening years, had been visited and roughly surveyed. Narvaez was excited to action by the late astonishing success of the conqueror of Montezuma, but he found the gold for which he sought, fly constantly before him; each tribe of Indians referred him to those living still farther in the interior, and from tribe to tribe
Pascua, the old English “ Pasch” or Passover ; “Pascua Florida" is the “Holy. day of Flowers.”
De Soto in Florida.
he and his companions wandered, weary and disappointed, during six months; then, having reached the shore again, naked and famished, they tried to regain the Spanish colonies; but of three hundred only four or five at length reached Mexico. And still these disappointed wanderers persisted in their original fancy that Florida* was as wealthy as Mexico or Peru; and after all their wanderings and sufferings so told the world.t
Among those to whom this report came, was Ferdinand de Soto, who had been with Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, and who longed for an opportunity to make himself as rich and noted as the other great Captains of the day. He asked leave of the King of Spain to conquer Florida at his own cost. It was given in 1538; with a brilliant and noble band of followers, he left Europe; and in May 1539, after a stay in Cuba, anchored his vessels near the coast of the Peninsula of Florida, in the bay of Spiritu Santo, or Tampa bay. I
De Soto entered upon his march into the interior with a determination to succeed. He had brought with him all things that it was supposed could be needful, and that none might be tempted to turn back, he sent away his vessels. From June till November, of 1539, the Spaniards toiled along until they reached the neighborhood of Appalachee bay, finding no gold, no fountain of youth. During the next season, 1540, they followed the course suggested by the Florida Indians, who wished them out of their country, and going to the north east, crossed the rivers and climbed the mountains of Georgia. De Soto was a stern, severe man, and none dared to murmur. Still finding no cities of boundless wealth, they turned westward, towards the waters
* By Florida the Spaniards of early times meant at least all of North America south of the Great Lakes. + For facts in relation to Florida see Bancroft's Hist. U.S., Vol. I.
The original authorities in relation to De Soto, are an anonymous Portuguese writer, a gentleman of Elvas, who claims to have been an eye-witness of what he relates; and Luis Hernandez de Biedma, who was also with the expedition, and presented his account to the Spanish King in 1544. We have also a letter from De Soto, to the authorities of the city of Santiago, in Cuba, dated July 9, 1539. These authorities in the main agree, though the Portuguese account is much the fullest, and the Governor's letter of course relates but few events. The Portuguese narrative was published in 1557; Hakluyt gave it in English in 1609, and it was again published in London in 1686; a French translation appeared in Paris in 1685. Its credibility is questioned. See Sparks in Butler's Kentucky, 2d Ed. 498; also, Bancroft's U.S.I; 66. note. The account by Biedma and De Soto's letter are in a work published in Paris, called “Voyages, Relations, et Memoires originaux pour servir a l'histoire de la decouverte de l'Amerique.” One volume of this collection relates to Florida, and appeared in 1841. We have epitomised the account as given by Bancroft in his first volume.
3 of the Mobile, and following those waters, in October (1540,) came to the town of Mavilla on the Alabama, above the junction of the Tombecbee. This town the Europeans wished to occupy, but the natives resisted them, and in a battle which ensued, the Indians were defeated.
Finding himself, notwithstanding his victory, exposed to constant attacks from the redmen at this point, De Soto resumed his march towards the Mississippi, and passed the winter, probably, near the Yazoo. In April 1541, once more the resolute Spaniard set forward, and upon the first of May reached the banks of the Great River of the West, not far from the 35th parallel of latitude. A month was spent in preparing barges to convey the horses, many of which still lived, across the rapid stream. Having successfully passed it, the explorers pursued their way northward, into the neighborhood of New Madrid; then turning westward again, marched more than two hundred miles from the Mississippi to the highlands of White river. And still no gold, no gems, no cities; only bare prairies, and tangled' forests, and deep morasses. To the south again they toiled on, and passed their third winter of wandering upon the Washita. In the following spring (1542) De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, descended the Washita to its junction with the Mississippi, wishing to learn the distance and direction of the sea. He heard, when he reached the mighty stream of the West, that its lower portion flowed through endless and uninhabitable swamps.Determined to learn the truth, he sent forward horsemen; in eight days they advanced only thirty miles. The news sank deep into the stout heart of the disappointed warrior. His men and horses were wasting around him; the Indians near by challenged him, and he dared not meet them. His health yielded to the contests of his mind and the influence of the climate; he appointed a successor, and upon the 21st of May died. His body was sunk in the stream of the Mississippi.
Deprived of their energetic though ruthless leader, the Spaniards determined to try to reach Mexico by land. They turned West again therefore, and penetrated to the Red river, wandering up and down in the forests, the sport of inimical Indians. The Red river they could not cross, and jaded and heartless, again they went eastward, and reached in December 1542, the great Father of waters once more. Despairing of success in