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vib PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. If 9 yards of cloth cost 41. 3s. 7 d. what is that per yard ?

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2. If 11 tons of hay cost 231. Os. 211. what is that per tun?

Ans. £2 ls. 10d. 3. If 12 gallons of brandy cost 41. 15s.6d. what is that per gallon?

Ans. 7s. 114. 2qrs. 4. If 84 lbs. of cheese cost 11. 16s. 9d. what is tha per pound?

Ans. 5 d. 5. Bought 48 pairs of stockings for 111. 2s. how much a pair do they stand me in?

Ans. 4s. 70. 6. If a reckoning of 5l. 8s. 10 d. be paid equally amore 13 persons, what do they pay apiece ? Ans. 8s. 4 d.

7. A piece of cloth containing 24 yards, cost 181. 6. what did it cost per yard ?

Ans. 15s. 3d 8. If a hogshead of wine cost 331. 12s. what is it a ga! lon?

Ans. 10s. Bd. 9. If I cwt. of sugar cost 31. 10s. what is it per pound.

Ans, 7d.

10. If a man spend 711. 14s. 6d. a year, what is tha' per calendar month ?

Ans. £5 19s. 6 d. 11. The Prince of Wales' salary is 150,0001. a year what is that a day?

Ans. £410 19s. 2d. 12. A privateer takes a prize worth 12465 dollars, of whicl the owner takes one half, the officers one fourth, and the re. mainder is equally divided among the sailors, who are 125 ir number; how much is each sailor's part? Ans. $24 93 cts.

13. Three merchants A, B, and C, have a ship in com pany. A bath , B , and Cį, and they receive for freigh 2281. 16s, 8d. It is required to divide it among ers according to their respective shares.

Ans A's sharc £143 Ös. 511. B's share £57 4s. 211 ("s share £28 12s. ld.

11 A privateer having taken a prize worth $6850, it i

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divided into one hundred shares ; of which the captain is to hive 11; 2 lieutenants, each 5; 12 midsipmen, each 2; and the remainder is to be divided equally among the sailors, who are 105 in number.

Ans. Captain's share $753 50 cts.; lieutenant's, $342 50 cts.; a midshipman's, $137, and a sailor's, $35 88.

REDUCTION, TEACHES to bring or change numbers from one name to another, without altering their value.

Reduction is either Descending or Ascending,

Descending, is when great names are brought into small, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, &c.This is done by Multiplication.

Ascending, is when small names are brought into great, is shillings into pounds, hours into days, &c. This is peryrmed by Division.

REDUCTION DESCENDING. Rule.- Multiply the highest denomination given by so many of

next less as make one of that greater, and thus continue till you ave brought it down as low as your question requires.

Proor. Chanye the order of the question, and divide your last 0.0.fuct by the last multiplier, and so on.

EXAMPLES. 1. In 251. 15s. 9d. 2grs. how many farthings?


25 - 15 9 2 Proof.

4)24758 Ans. 24758.

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3.247,3 farthings:

Note. In multiplying by 20, 1 added in the 158.-by 12 ne 91.--and by 4 the Pqrs. which must always be done in Ike cases. 2. loi 311. 11s. 10d. Iqr. how many farthings ?

Ans. 30329.

3. In 461. 5s. 11d. 3qrs. how many farthings?

Ans. 44441. 4. In 611. 12s. how many shillings, pence, and farthing: 1

Ans. 1232 s. 14784d. 59136qrs. 5. In 841. how many shillings and pence?

Ans. 1680s. 201601 6. In 18s. 9d. how many pence and farthings?

Ans. 225d. 900grs. 7. In 3121. 8s. 5d. how many half-pence? Ans. 149962. 8. In 846 dollars, at 6s. each, how many farthings?

Ans. 243648. 9. In 41 guineas, at 28s. each, how many pence?

Ans. 13776. 10. In 59 pistoles, at 22s. how many shillings, pence and farthings? Ans. 1298s. 15576d. 62304

qrs. 11. In 37 half-johames, at 48s. how many shillings, six pences, and three-pences ?

Ans. 1776s. 3552 sir-pences, 7104 three-pences. 12. In 121 French crowns, it (s. 81. each, how mars pence and farthings?

Ans. 9680.). 38720qrs. REDUCTION ASCENDING. Rule.--Divide the lowest denomination given, by so many of this name as make one of the next higher, and so on through all tho de nominations, as fier as your question requires. 1r00F. Multiply Hersely by the several divisors.

EXAMPLES. 1. 11. 224765 farthings, how many pence, shillings and pounds ?

Farthings in a penny=4)224765
Pence in a shilling =12)56191 I gr.
Shillings in a pound =20)4682 711.

£234 2s. 7d. I gr.

Aus, 56191d. 4682s. 2341. NOTE. The remainder is always of the same name at the dividead. 2. Bring 30329 farthings into pounds.

dis. £:31 11... 101. Igr.

3. In 44447 farthings, how many pounds ?

Ans. £46 5s. 11d. 3qrs. * 4. In 59136 farthings, how many pence, shillings, and jounds?

Ans. 147840. 1232s. £61 12s. 5. In 20160 pence, how many shillings and pounds?

Ans. 1080s. or £84. 6. In 900 farthings, how many pounds?

Ans. £0 18s. Od. 7. Bring 74991 half-pence into pounds. Ans.£156 1s.2 d. 8. In 243648 farthings, how many dollars at 6s. each?

Ans. $846. 9. Reduce 13776 pence to guincas, at 28s. per guinea.

Ans. 41. 10. In 62304 farthings, how many pistoles, at 22s. each?

Ans. 59. *11. In 7104 three-pences, low many half-johannes, at 18s. ?

Ans. 37. 12. In 38720 farthings, how many French crowns, it *38. 8d. ?

Ans. 121.

Reduction Ascending and Descending.

1. MONEY. 1. In 1211. Os. 9d. how many half-pence? Ans. 58099. 2. In 58099 half-pence, how many pounds?

Ans. 1211. Os. 9d. 3. Bring 23760 half-pence into pounds. Ans. £49 10s. 34. In 2141. Is. 3d. how many shillings, six-pences, threerences, and farthings? Ans. 4281 s. 8562 six-pences,

17125 three-pences, and 205500 farthings. 5. In 1371. how many pence, and English or French owns, at Os. 80. each?

Ans. 32880d. 411 crowns. 6. In 249 English half-crowns, how many pence and pounds?

Ans. 9960d, and £41 10s. 7. In 346 guineas, at 21s. each, how many shillings, groats, and pence? Ans. 7266s. 21798 gr'ts, and 87192d, 148. In 48 guineas, at 28s. each, how many 4 d. pieces?

Ans. 358. 9. In 81 guineas, at 27s. 4d. each, how many pounds ?

Ans. £110 1.45.

10. In 24396 pence, how many shillings, pounds, a .d pistoles ? Ans. 2033s. £101 13s. and 92 pistoles. 9s. over.

11. In 252 moidores, at 36s. each, how many guineas at 28s. each ?

Ans. 324. 12. In 1680 Dutch guilders, at 2s. 4d. each, how many pistoles at 22s. each ?

Ans. 178 pistoles, 4s. 13. Borrowed 1248 English crowns, at 6s. Bd. each, how many pistareens, at 14 d. each, will pay the debt ?

Ans. 6885 pistareens, and 7d. 14. In 501. how many shillings, nine-pences, six-pences, four-pences,


pence, and of each, an equal number ? 12d.+9d. +6d. + 4d.+1d.=32d. and £50=

12000d. :-32=375 Ans.

Examples in Reduction of Federal Money. 1. Reduce 2745 dollars into cents. 2745 dollars Here I multiply by 100, the cents in 100 a dollar; but dollars are readily brought

into cents by annexing two ciphers, Ans. 274500 and into mills by annexing three ci

phers. Also, any sum in Federal money may be written down as a whole number, and expressed in its lowest denomination; for, when dollars and cents aro joined together as a whole number, without a separatrix, they will show how many cerits the given sum contains; and when dollars, cents, and mills, are so joined together, they will show the whole number of mills in the given sum.-Ilence, properly speaking, there is no reduction of this money; for cents are readily turned into dollars by cutting off the two right hand figures, and mills by pointing off three figures with a dot; the figures to the left hand of the dot, are dollars; and the figures cut off are cents, or tents and mills. 2. In 345 dollars, how many cents, and mills ?

Ans. 34500 cts. 345000 mills. 3. Reduce 48 dols. 78 cts. into cents. Ans. 4878 4. Reduce 25 dols. 8 cts. into cents. Ans. 2508 5. Reduce 54 dols. 36 cts. 5 m. into mills. Ans. 54365 6. Reduce 9 dols. 9 cts. 9 m. into mills. Ans. 9099

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