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Of the Nature and State of Man with respect to

I. THE whole Universe one system of Society, ver. 7,

&c. Nothing made wholly for itself, nor yet wholly
for another, ver. 27. The happiness of Animals mu-
tual, ver. 49. II. Reason or Instinct operate alike to
the good of each Individual, ver. 79. Reason or In-
stinct operate also to Society in all animals, ver. 109.
III. How far Society carried by instinct, ver. 115,
How much farther by Reason, ver. 128. IV. Of that
which is called the State of Nature, ver. 144. Rea-
son instructed by Instinct in the Invention of Arts,
yer. 166. and in the Forms of Society, ver. 176. V.
Origin of Political Societies, ver. 196. Origin of
Monarchy, ver. 207. Patriarchal Government, ver.

VI. Origin of true Religion and Government, from the same principle, of Love, 231, &c. Origin of Superstition and Tyranny, from the same principle of Fear, ver. 237, &c. The Influence of Self-love operating to the social and public Good, ver. 266. Restoration of true Religion and Government on their first principle, ver. 285. Mixt Government, ver. 288. Various Forms of each, and the true end of all, ver. 300,







ERE then we reft; “ the Universal Cause

Acts to one end, but acts by various laws." In all the madness of fuperfluous health, The train of pride, the impudence of wealth, Let this great truth be present night and day; 5 But most be present, if we preach or pray.

Look round our World; behold the chain of Love Combining all below, and all above. See plastic Nature working to this end, The fingle atoms each to other tend, Attract, attracted to, the next in place Form'd and impell'd its neighbour to embrace. See matter next, with various life endued, Press to one centre still, the General Good. See dying vegetables life fuftain,

15 See life diffolving vegetate again : All forms that perith other forms fupply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the fea of Matter borne They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; Parts relate to whole ; One all-extending, all-preserving Soul Connects each being, greatest with the leaft; Made Beast in aid of Man, and Man of Beast ;

All VARIATION Ver. 1. In several Edit. in 4to.

Learn, Dulness, learn ! " The Universal Cause," &c.

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All serv'd, all serving : nothing stands alone; 25 The chain holds on, and where it ends, unknown.

Has God, thou fool! work’d solely for thy good, Thy joy, thy pastime, thy attire, thy food! Who.for thy table feeds the wanton fawn, For him as kindly spread the flowery lawn: 30 Is it for thee the lark ascends, and sings? Joy tunes his voice, joy elevates his wings. Is it for thee the linnet pours his throat? Loves of his own and raplures fwell the note. The bounding steed you pompoully bestride, 35 Shares with his lord the pleasure and the pride. Is thine alone the feed that strews the plain? The birds of heaven shall vindicate their grain. Thine the full harvest of the golden year? Part pays, and justly, the deserving steer ;

49 The hog, that plows not, nor obeys thy call, Lives on the labours of this lord of all!

Know, Nature's children all divide her case ;, The fur that warms a monarch, warm'd a bear. While Man exclaims, " See all things for my use!" 45 “ Sec man for mine!" replies a pamper'd goose : And just as short of reason He must fall, Who thinks all made for one, not one for all,

After ver. 46. in the former Editions,

What care to tend, to lodge, to cram, to treat him!
All this he knew; but not that 'twas to eat him.
As far as Goose could judge, he reason'd right;
But as to Man, mistook the matter quite,

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Grant that the powerful still the weak controul;
Be Man the Wit and Tyrant of the whole:
Nature that Tyrant checks; he only knows,
And helps, another creature's wants and woes.
Say, will the falcon, stooping from above,
Smit with her varying plumage, spare the dove?
Admires the jay the infect's gilded wings?

Or hears the hawk when Philomela fings ?
Man cares for all: to birds he gives his woods,
To beasts his pastures, and to fith his floods;
For fome his interest prompts him to provide,
For more his pleasure, yet for more his pride : 60
All feed on one vain Patron, and enjoy
Th’extensive blessing of his luxury,
That very life his learned hunger craves,
He faves from famine, from the savage saves ;
Nay, feasts the animal he dooms his feast,
And, till he ends the being, makes it bleft:
Which sees no more the stroke, or feels the pain,
Than favour’d Man by touch ethereal Nain.
The creature had his feast of life before;
Thou too must perish, when thy feast is o'er ! 70
To each unthinking being, Heaven a friend,
Gives not the useless knowledge of its end:
To Man imparts it; but with such a view
As, while he dreads it, makes him hope it too :
The hour conceal'd, and so remote the fear,

Death still draws nearer, never seeming near.
Great standing miracle! that Heaven assign'd
Its only thinking thing this turn of mind.

II. Whether


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II. Whether with Reason, or with Instinct bleft, Know, all enjoy that power which suits them beft; 85 To bliss alike by that direction tend, And find the means proportion'd to their end. Say, where full Instinct is th’ unerring guide, What Pope or Council can they need beside ? Reason, however able, cool at best, Cares not for service, or but serves when preft, Stays till.we call, and then not often near; But honest Instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o’ershoot, but just to hit; While still too wide or short is human Wit; Sure by quick Nature happiness to gain, Which heavier Reason labours at in vain. This too serves always, Reason never long : One must go right, the other may go wrong. See then the acting and comparing powers

95 One in their nature, which are two in ours ! And Reason raise o'er Instinet as you can, In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis Man.

Who taught the nations of the field and wood To fhun their poison, and to chuse their food ? Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand, Build on the wave, or arch beneath the fand?




After ver. 84. in the MS.

While Man, with opening views of various ways
Confounded, by the aid of knowledge strays :
Too weak to chuse, yet chufing fill in haste,
One moment gives the pleasure and distatte.

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