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Terabaschi, W. Schlegel, Meiner, vrhat, the hour and the why, unless we Eichorn, Heeren, Voigt, Hurter, Hal shelter ourselves under positivism, leavlam and Maitland. The reason may be ing the why unexplored, and relinquish as Peaskin says, that there is at the attempts to penetrate into the essence present age, one antagonistic principle of things. There is doubtless a tendat work, the pride of science which ency at the present day to accept defiimagines that the energy of Nature can nitions as sufficiently explanatory of the be explained by its analysis, and which phenomena observed, though in reality looks down upon Faith and shields it nothing is explained as far as regards self by its negation of a Deity under the cause, which sets in operation the what are termed natural laws.

laws of the world for if we believe as What do we mean by natural laws? Cowper expresses it, that They may be understood in different “When all creation started into birth

As one definition we may use The infant elements received a law that of Jevons viz. That they consist From which they severed not since, of general propositions concerning the That under force of that controlling co-relation of properties which have

ordinance they move."

We must look for the motive power been observed to hold true of bodies

which impels hitherto observed. We may accept the "A Law so vast in its demands." five different senses in which, according

If we ascribe it to nature, we but to the Duke of Argyle2 the word law is

give another name for an effect whose habitually used.

cause to the Christian is God, but to 1st. We have Law as applied simply the materialist is X or an unknown to an observed order of facts.

quantity. 2nd. To that order as involving the

The laws of Heredity are far from action of some Force or Forces, of

being simple. which nothing more may be known.

Albert Lemonie24 tells us that the 3rd. As applied to individual Forces law of Heredity is indisputable, but is the measure of whose operations has

not inflexible; it admits of tempering, been more or less defined or ascertained.

it has an elasticity peculiar to itself, and As applied to those combina- it is often effaced before the action of tions of Force which have reference to Laws inore profound. It admits then the fulfilment of Purpose or the dis- of variation. Is the problem of Herecharge of Function.

dity any more difficult than the one of 5th. As applied to abstract concep- the unity of species? Hardly so much tions of the mind not corresponding so. with any actual phenomena, but ad- There is great analogy between the duced therefrom as of thought necessary problem of Heredity and that ef the to our understanding of them. Law in unity of the human race. The question this sense, is a reduction of the pheno- once was, to find amidst diversity a law mena, not merely to an order of facts, of uniformity, but so diverse was the but to an order of thought.

human race that there were disputes In considering such laws we have to amongst naturalists aud anatomists as enter on the field opened out by the to their unity.

Some believed that 22. Jevong. Principles of Science.

23. Argyle. The Duke of Reign of Law, p. 64.


there were
separate and distinct several species has of late years

been creations of men, others adhering to the much agitated by anthropologists who the Biblical text that maintained the are divided into two schools of Monotwo following propositions:

gimists and Polygimists. 1st. Homines unius speciei esse phibi. Those naturalists ologice probatur.

who admit the principle of evolution, 2nd. Psychologice probatur unam and it is now admitted by the greater esse speciem humanam.

number of rising men, will feel, no Voltaire, as a disciple of the former doubt, that all the races of men are deschool asserted"qu'il nijа qu'un aveugle scended from a single primitire stock qui puisse douter que les Blanes, les

When the races of Negres, les Albinos, le. Hottentots, les man diverged at an extremely remote Japons, les chinois et les Americains epoch from their common progenitor ils soient des races entierement dis- they will have differed but little from tincts.” Sir Henry IIolland says: “It | each other and been few in number. has been contended not only that there :

In a series of forms is no proof of the derivation of mankind graduating insensibly from some apefrom a single pair, but that the pro- like creature to man as he now exists it bability is against it. Some have ven- would be impossible to fix on any detured to suppose an original and abso- finite point when the term “man ought lute difference of species. Many have to be used. But this is a matter of very adopted the idea of detached acts of little importance.

Finally creation through which certain of the

we may conclude that when the princimore prominent races had their origin ples of evolution are generally accepted in different localities."

as they surely will be before long the We may consider the problemi as now dispute between the Monogemists and solved, and that the Christian position the Polygemists will die a silent and is substantiated by the evidence of two unobserved death." distinct schools and by representatives Quatrefage 2is equally explicit. He of each school, Darwin and Quatrefages. way's: "Iluman groups however different Darwin 25


“Man has been stulied they may be or appear to be are only more carefully than any otiier organic races of one and the same species and being and yet there is the greatest pos- not distinct species. Therefore there is sible diversity amongst capable judges but one human species. All men bewhether he should be classed as a single long to the same species and there is but species or race or as two (Virey) as one species of men. Species is then a three (Jacquinot) as four (Kant) five reality, and science may aflirm that (Blumbach) six (Buffon) seven (Hunter) from all appearances each species has eight (Agassiz) eleven (Pickering) had, as point of departure, a single fifteen (Bory St. Vincent) sixteen (Des primitive pair." Moulins) twenty-two (Morton) sixty External and internal influences have (Crawford) or sixty-three according to moditied and altered the physical and Burke.

The question ' moral qualities of man, and the various whether mankind consists of one or 25, Darwin. Descent of Man, p. 226, 229.

Sir H. Holland. Essays on Scientific Subjects, C'Instinct et L'Habitude. p. 118.

24. Lemonie.

P. 469.

time upon

influences which have produced these own families, or in your own social changes have

have been explained by circle, one of the simplest forms of Theistie, Pantheistic, Atheistic and heredity, the heredity of external strucMaterialistic writers, so that amidst ture, thus you find children resembling diversity a certain law of miformity their fathers, mothers, grandfathers, has been observed.

etc., in countenance, features, expresSimilarly with "Heredity” we have to tion, or in some individual peculiarity. search for uniformity amidst diversity. This forin has been recognized from the

The result of my inquiries has led me earliest periods of history. We find it to adopt the views maintained by the mentioned in the Manava Darma Shastra school, which through evil repute and in the Biblical records, in the old poems good repute, adhered to the belief that representing the traditional beliefs of the whole human family were derived various countries. Catullus, IIorace, from a primitive pair. I hope to prove and the Latin poets frequently allude to that hereditary tendencies range over it, and the Romans applied names dethe whole field of human life, but at the rived from llereditary peculiarities to same time they are checked and kept certain families, as Nasones, Labeones, under control by other tendencies, Buccones, Capitones. This is rudimenpowers and laws.

tary ground, for nothing is more undisI therefore agree with the following puted than the heredity of the physical proposition:

structure so that I need not waste much “Ea enim velut naturae lex est, ut

this physiological porquallibet entia viventia cum prognatio

tion, concerning heredity of the healthy suis pleraque bona et mala, vires et des

physical state. fectus, quibus ipsa predita sunt via

The heredity of disease or of malforgenerationes communicent. Unde fit ut

mation is equally well proved, and there probibus parentum vitia, propensiones,

are many instances which I might lay praesertim cupiditates animales, etc., passim ingenita suit, non minus quam

One of the strangest and best known vultus et totius corporis figura, habitus,

examples of this, is that of Edward temperamentum."

Lambert, whose whole body, with the “Porro quemadmodum horum omnium

exception of the face, the palms of the transmissia ad proles minui vel impediri

hands and the soles of the feet, was potest, si parentum constitutio, ita dif

covered with a sort of carapace of horny fert ut unius vitium compensetur vir

excrescences, which rattled against each tute alterius, ita soboles eo citius et eo

other. Ile

the father of six pejus ejusmodi vitius naturis inficientur, children, all of whom, from the age of ubi utriqui parentes eodem malo

six weeks, presented the same singulaborant.??" I shall consider subsequently the

larity. The only one of these who sur

vived transmitted it to all his sons; and various conditions by which the

this transmission going from male to above law is controlled.

male was kept up during five generaII.

tions.28 Most of you have observed in your

Another iustance is to be found in 3. Quatrefages, The Human Species. . ('baghs. Anthropologia 1848.

the Colburn family which presented one

before you.


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of the most curious instances of six digi- child which it will be remembered caused tism. The members of this family had extensive anterior distension. The each a supernumary finger and toe. The same phenomenon was noticed, but in anomly continued through four genera- less marked degree with the two suetions, but, says Burdach “the normal ceeding pregnances.

She noticed some was steadily gaining on the abnormal." swelling of the abdomen after each of

The Heredity of montrosities is the three last deliveries, but the enlargeamply proved by Lucas in his great ment whatever it was would pass away work.

after the lapse of from a few weeks to 2. Catullus- Ode to manlius-LXI.

a few months. It

not however Horace-Ode. (To be Continued.)

until after her last labor that she noticed

this bulging of the belly whenever she A NEW OPERATION FOR THE

was on her feet. RADICAL CURE OF VENTRAL

The obstetric binder had not been HERINA WITH REPORT OF A CASE.

used after her last three deliveries, a

circumstance which I believe had nothBY (HARLES A. L. REED, M. D., CINCINNATI, OHIO.

ing whatever to do with the causation Professor of Gynecology in the Cincinnati College

of her rnpture. of Medicine and Surgery. Read before the Cincinnati Academy of Medicine

None of her labors bad ever been so September 3d, 1888.

severe as to demand the forceps. BEG leave to call attention to what

I saw her for the first time August I believe to be a new operation for

9th, 1888, with her family physician, the radical cure of ventral herina.

Dr. R. D. Higgins of West Alexandria, I have been seeing these cases, from

Ohio. At that time when the patient time to time, for the last fifteen years

was standing in ordinary attire, the enand have invariably dismissed them with a belly band and a gloomy prog

largement suggested either a large

tumor nosis. It always seemed to me that

or a pregnancy at term; but

when the abdomen was exposed, the more ought to be done for them and this conviction was forced into action patient still standing, it was found to by the humane appeal of the following in either of these conditions.

be much more pendulous than is usual

. The

lower border of the pouch extended Mrs. D., aged 35, has been married

quite three inches below the level of nine years and has had five children. the pubes. When the patient laid down She was fifteen hours in labor with her this mass would not entirely disappear first child; her second labor was short by force or gravity, but a very little and she got up on the second day; her manipulation would effect reduction. third labor was not difficult but she When now, she made an effort to rise "carried the child so far forward" dur directly from her back the pouch would ing pregnancy; her fourth labor lasted be at once reformed, the corrugations over twenty-four hours and was

on either side of the abdomen indicatally severe; her last child was born ing the location of the contracted recti within ten minuts after the first pain. muscle, quite eight inches apart. She noticed extensive discoloration of On the assurance being given that the abdomen while carrying her third conservative measures could only bring


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relief without cure, an operation was the usual way by a superficial line of asked for, the patient consenting to interrupted silk sutures. enter the private wards of St. Mary's The patient made an uninterrupted Hospital for the purpose.

recovery. Operation, August 23d, 1888.-Pres

In subsequent cases of this kind I shall ent and assisting, Drs. Geo. E. Jones, modify the foregoing techinque, first William Judkins and W. II. Wenning. by making no effort to go below the An incision was made in the median superficial fascia, and next, by introline from an inch and a half below the ducing successive rows of cat gut sutures ensiform cartilage to within an inch of until, little by little, the recti muscles the pubes. This was carried only to

are drawn together. the superficial fascia. A director was

The question arises whether or not now used to raise the superficial fascia it would have been better to have boldly from the underlying structures but resected the wall in its entirety carrying when the cut was inade it was found to the ellipsis through skin, fat, fascia, have entered the peritoneum which was pentoneum and all. I prefer the course lying immediately below and intimately which I pursued because resection of coherent to the fascia. The finger in the peritoneum is not destitute of dantroduced into the cavity now confirmed ger; and because the infolding of the the previous diagnoses as to the posit- fascia as described and suggested results ion of the recti muscles. The short in the formation of a sort of column peritoneal opening was now closed by which furnishes valuable support to the continuous cat gut suture. The dis- viscera. section was then carried back on either NOTE.—September 19. The patient side between the subcutaneous fat and left the hospital September 14th. The the fascia to a point corresponding to wound had entirely healed. When the the anterior border of the recti muscles. patient stood on her feet without the Interrupted sutures of heavy cat gut bandage the redundancy of the abdomen were now intro-luced at intervals of

was found to have disappeared. half an inch, in and out on either side, through the fascia and taking a “bite"

PEDICULUS Pubis,—The treatment of into but not through the muscle. As

pediculus pubis by the usual blue ointthese sutures were tightened the inter

ment has so many inconveniences, with vening tissues (fascia and peritoneum) its disagreeable application and its were folded inwards by a long sound. toxic after-effects, that the use of the In this way the redundancy of the in- well-known antiparasitic action of terior layers of the wall was disposed salicylic acid has of late been much exof. The external layers (fat and skin) tolled. The formula given is:

R Salicylic acid

2 to 3 parts. were now found to be too big for the

Toilet vinegar

25 parts. narrowed abdomen, so a strip of tissue

Alcohol (80 per cent) 75 parts. was removed from either side of the

The parts are to be rubbed with a median incision, the two forming an piece of flannel wet with the mixtre. In ellipsis nine inches long by four inches most cases a single application will be wide. The wound was now closed in enough to destroy the pediculi


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