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of the same age is—under one year of periods of life. This is the true diaage, 32 deaths to 10,000; between one gram from which to judge the disease, and five, 6; between five and ten, 2; because it shows its ravages by ages between ten and fifteen, 4; between among the people of the state. The fifteen and twenty, 24; between twenty popular idea of the prevalence of conand thirty, 34; between thirty and forty, sumption, and an idea to some extent 32; between forty and fifty, 25; be entertained by the medical profession, tween fifty and sixty, 22; between sixty is that represented by Diagram No. 2, and seventy, 28; between seventy and which shows the actual mortality from eighty, 29; over eighty. 41.
consumption, without taking into acFrom these figures and the diagram, count the living; it is, in fact, a diagram it will be seen that the mortality from of the dead alone, while Diagram No. 3 consumption is very great during the is the ratio of the dead to the living. first year of life--equal to the percent It is upon a knowledge of the disease age of mortality between the ages of as represented in Diagram No. 2 that thirty and forty. The greatest im- mistakes are made in the acceptance of munity from the disease is between two subjects for life insurance, under the and fifteen
supposition that hauing passed the age by the large gap in the diagram. From
of forty, the chances of death from conthe fifteenth year to over eighty the mortality is large. The highest death sumption are constantly lessening. Diarate from this disease in the active gram No. 3 show that the chances do period of life is reached between the lessen a little from forty to sixty, and ages of twenty and thirty; from thirty after that constantly increase to the end to sixty there is a slight diminution in of life. This diagram shows exactly its percentage of mortality; while from the liability to the disease, according sixty to eighty it constantly increases. to age, based upon the mortality of the
This computation is based upon the disease in New Hampshire for the last living of those ages according to the three years. census returns, and is, without doubt, Now let us for a moment compare the approximately correct. The census mortality rate from consumption to the returns of 1880 gave the living of the mortality from all causes, to the living state as follows:
of the ages given. Total, 346,991. Under one, 6,144;
Diagram No. 4 represents the perone to five, 24,432; five to ten, 30,230; centages of deaths from all causes to ten to fifteen, 30,669; fifteen to twenty, the living of those ages. The exact per32,055; twenty to thirty, 63,252; thirty centages are as follows: to forty, 46,532; forty to fifty, 39,344; Under one, 1.42; one to five, 1.92; fifty to sixty, 31,998; sixty to seventy, five to ten, 0.49; ten to fifteen, 0.33; 23.417; seventy to eighty, 14,227; over fifteen to twenty, 0.61; twenty to thirty, eighty, 4,695.
0.74; thirty to forty, 0.88; forty to The facts represented by Diagram fifty, 1.04; fifty to sixty, 1.52; sixty to No. 3 are very important in showing seventy, 3.12; seventy to eighty, 6.78; the danger from consumption at all lover eighty, 17.50.
Comparing these figures with those of forests and different atmospheric upon which Diagrrm No. 3 is construct conditions. To account specifically for ed, we find that, were it not for con- the variations exhibited in the diagram, sumption, the mortality rates between the exemption from and prevalence of the ages of fifteen and forty would be other diseases would have to be considvery small; in fact, that period of life ered. For instance, in. Hillsborough could be considered almost exempt, as county the mortality rate from conit should be, from fatal diseases.
sumption in children under five years of age is doubtless greatly reduced by the
UNDER 1 YEAR
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
DIA:M25 Diagram No. 5 shows the percentages heavy mortality rate from cholera inof deaths from consumption for the fantum; in like manner, the mortality years 1885, 1886, 1887, by counties, to rate from consgmption varies in other the total mortality of those counties. | localities. The diagram is simply given The uneven distribution of the disease
to present the actual facts, rather than is to be accounted for only after the to enlarge, at this time, upon the causes consideration of many factors affecting that are responsible for the variations different localities. A low elevation exhibited. A study of the death rate and soil moisture doubtless have much from consumption by seasons seems to to do with the high rates of Rocking to show that there is no very marked ham and Strafford counties, while the variation from month to month. For low rate of Coos is from a reverse topo- the past three years the rate is as folgraphical condition, with a large area lows: January, 288; February, 235;
March, 232; April, 234; May, 252; Diagram No. 6 shows the mortality June, 231; July, 198; August, 177; from consumption during the past year September, 173; October, 208; Novem- (1887) by weeks, the greatest number ber, 198; December, 189. The greatest of deaths occurring in the last week of
NN to it
number of deaths was in May and the October, and the least number in the fewest in September. There is a same second week of August. ness in the mortality of consumption by A glance at the Diagram No. 7, showmonths not characterized by any other ing the deaths from acute lung diseases disease.
for the same period, show vividly an
effect of season which is not manifest fact that women are subject, to a far in pulmonary consumption. This dia- greater extent than men, to the evils of gram includes pneumonia, acute bron- non-ventilated living-rooms, as well as chitis, asthma, and pleurisy.
to the pernicious influences of other
The death rate by sex in consumption | unsanitary surroundings. is largely among women. During the Occupation, no doubt, has its influence past three years the mortality by sex is in developing the disease; but our regisas follows: Males, 1,051; females, 1,369. tration does not yet cover a sufficient This is readily accounted for from the number of years to present any facts of
value upon this subject.
five years ending 1884, 16.30 per cent. From a careful study of this disease This shows a greater freedom from the in New Hampshire for the past six disease in New IIampshire than in the years, but more especially from the two states mentioned. registration returns of the years 1885, In this very brief paper I have at1886 and 1887, the following conclu- tempted to show only a few leading and sions are arrived at:
important facts relating to pulmonary 1. The disease prevails in all parts of consumption. In military warfare, it the state, but is apparently influenced is necessary to know the strength of the by topographical conditions, being enemy in numbers, how he is fortified, greater at a low elevation with a maxi- from what direction he is likely to make mum soil moisture. than in the higher an attack, or how garrisoned, in order elevations with a less moist soil. The to be assured of a reasonable chance of prevalence of other diseases also affects success in repelling his advance, or of the death rate from consumption. capturing his position. To rely upon
2. That the season has only a small the means at his command without this influence upon the mortality from this knowledge would be to invite defeat disease. The popular idea that the from the start. So in dealing with the fatality is greatest in the winter is fearful disease under consideration, it shown to be erroneous, the greatest is necessary that the physician shall number of deaths occurring in May. have a full knowledge of the founda
3. That the mortality is considerably tion upon which is reared this appalling greater in the female sex.
structure of death. Prescriptions of 4. That no age is exempt from this cod liver oil will check this advancing disease, but that the least liability of its enemy with no greater rapidity than develoyment exists between the ages of the rain will wash away the eternal rock two and fifteen, and the greatest be- of Gibraltar. tween twenty and thirty. Advanced
The mortality from pulmonary conage does not assure any immunity from sumption has already been reduced durthe disease, as is generally supposed, land; but the reduction has been secur
ing the present generation in New Engbut the smaller number of decedents is ed through a better knowledge of how due to the fewer living persons of that
to avoid it, rather than from any system advanced period of life.
of medication. By a well directed ap5. The death rate from pulmonary plication of the preventive knowledge consumption is relatively much the which has been gained by a study of larger among the foreign born.
the history of the disease, its rate of 6. The average death rate from con fatality should be greatly lessoned in sumption for the years 1885, 1886 and in the future. 1887, is 12.86 per cent. of the total mortality of the state. In Massachusetts, SALOL IN DIARRICAL AFFEC
TIONS. for the ten years ending 1886, deaths
BY E. V. SMITH, M. D., NEWTOWN, CONN. from consumption averaged 16.10 per
the Fairfield County Medical Society. cent. of the total mortality; and in N presenting this paper upon Salol in Rhode Island, for a period of twenty diarrheal affections to you to-day, I