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ous by one-half than illustrious men- known, the female line is likewise very it will be found to be as follows:

much inferior to the male, as is shown In the first degree, for the father as in columns two and three of table ill. one to six; for each brother as one to The author thinks that a more satisseven; for each son as one to four. In factory solution would be to admit that the second degree, for each of the grand- the aunts, sisters and daughters of fathers, as one to twenty-five; uncle illustrious men being accustomed at one to forty; nephew one to forty; home to an intellectual and moral atgrandson, one to twenty-nine. In the mosphere above the common du not on third degree, for each cousin germain, an average, marry as much as other one to one hundred; each of the other women, and he is of opinion that his relatives, one to two hundred.

hypothesis would bear the test of facts, Before we dismiss statistics we must though he confesses that it is impossible clear up one point. In table 11, the | to apply the test.



The Judges.

a Generals.

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• Averages.




70 30




Male line,
74 64


85 27 Female line,

32 26

73 Total,

| 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 | 100 father stands for mother as well, and Lastly, 1 may allude to the heredity brother includes sister as well; in a word of the sentiments and passions and I the male and female relatives are indi- mention a few peculiar instances of the cated by one term. We have now to heredity of certain peculiar instincts, determine the respective positions of strange propensities and dislikes. the male and females in the eight

Thus families have been known in groups of one hundred families each.

the members of which the smallest On comparing the two averages, doses of opium produce a convulsive seventy for males, thirty for females, state. Zimmerman speaks of a family we cannot fail to be struck by the


on whom coffee had a soporific effect, difference between the two, and the acting like opium, while opium itself marked preponderance in the male line. produced no effect. Some families can

Galton has inquired into the cause of hardly endure emetics, others purgative this, but without arriving, as he himself medicines, others blood letting. Manadmits, at any very satisfactory con- taigne, who took an interest in the quesclusion. IIe allows but little weight tion of Heredity, because he derived to the hypothises that in the biographies from his family a tendency to stone, of great men, that if their mothers are inherited also an invincible repugnance mentioned, but little is said with regard for medicine. "The antipathy” he to their other female relations; for in says, “is hereditary.” My father lived the case of statesmen and great com- seventy-five years, my grandfather manders, whose genealogy is well / sixty-nine, and my great-grandfather


almost eighty and never tasted nor took police can tell them by their structural any kinds of physic, and for them any- peculiarities. Dickens has left us án thing not in common use was a drug. immortal impersonation in Bill Sykes, My ancestors by some secret instinct and you have only to visit our criminal and natural inclination, have ever courts, to become familiar with the loathed all manner of physic—the very

the type, to recognize the degradation sight of drugs was an abomination to or degeneration of some of our race. my father. The Seigneur de Gerirac, Our criminal classes are the results of my paternal uncle, who was an ecclesi- ignorance and passion; they are proastic, and sickly from birth, and who, duced by want, intemperance, foul air, notwithstanding, made his weak life bad diet, intermarriage with hold out till the age of sixty-seven. another, and other causes. Falling once into a high protracted

Morel, the great French alienist, has fever, the physicians had word sent to

furnished us with some sad illustrations him that he must surely die if he would not take some remedy. The good soul,

of the heredity of crime, of passion, and affrighted as he was at this terrible

of sin; of forgeries, murders, suicides, moment, said “Then it is all over with

committed by men who have had a me.” But God soon after made their hereditary taint. Most English writers prognostications to prove vain.

on mental disease have observed similar Possi

facts. bly I have received from them my natural antipathy to physic.”*34

The criminal class is a morbid deviaI am glad to say that Montaigne's tion from the normal type of humanity. experience does not extend to the It is a production of civilization, though majority of the present generation, for

a degeneration, though we may take if so it would be a bad thing for my

some consolation in the thought that as profession. We are living in a physic- man is capable of improvement, of deloving generation, witness the enormous

velopment, so there are morals hygienic sales of patent medicines, and the

measures which can remedy the imperfortunes amassed by such men as Hol- fections which have arisen from tne loway, Morrison and other venders of neglect of the lessons of nature; from patent medicines, so that the next gen

the departure from the laws of morality, eration, if the hereditary habit be trans

so that I hold that our criminal classes mitted, will have to swallow an enorm

are capable of improvement, of ameliorous mass of gilded or coated physic.

ation. I look upon it as one of the best From the sentiments I am led on to

signs of our times, that we have armies the passions and the hereditary nature of workers, who are engaged in the of crime.

work of social regeneration, in the This is one of the saddest passages in spread of knowledge, in the improvethe history of humanity, the heritage of ment of the dwellings, and social surcrime, and yet it is one of the best sub-roundings of these classes, from whose stantiated. We have a distinct criminal

ranks the criminal classes have been class, physically and psychically our largely recruited. 34. Montaigne Essays, ii, p. 37.

(To be Continued.)


ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. their patients, and the public. The phy

sician who would save himself the THE EXTENT AND DISTRIBU- trouble of making a return of deaths TION OF CONSUMPTION IN

by evading or ignoring the law, would NEW HAMPSHIRE.

neglect any other duty tending to make Read before the New Hampshire Medical Society, at the Annual Meeting, June, 1888.

our practice more scientific and BY IRVING A. WATSON, M. D. knowledge of disease more exact; and Secretary State Board of Health and Registrar of Vital Statistics, Concord, N. H.

I am glad to be able to say, as registrar BEG the indulgence of this society of vital statistics for the state, that so

for a brief time in order to present far as I know there is no opposition to some facts which have been deducted such a requirement on the part of the from the registration of deaths in New profession. Se much for the digression. Hampshire for the past three years, in

in Pulmonary consumption is by far the relation to pulmonary consumption. most fatal disease with which mankind But almost before I begin, let me dig- is afflicted. In the aggregate, the deress for a moment to say that the regis- vastating plagues of the sixteenth centration of vital statistics in this state tury, and the frightful epidemics of has become sufficiently accurate to be cholera which have since occured, are already of great value in considering tame in their ghostly havoc compared certain questions affecting the welfare with the terrific onslaughter of consumpand happiness of our citizens. It only tion. No race or clime is exempt from needs the analytical mind and the care- its terrible blight; even among the ful hand to bring forth an array of facts salubrious granite hills and the healthrelating to the prevalence of disease ful valleys of New Hampshire it stalks, among us, that will not only enlighten year in and year out, destroying nearly the public mind, but also prove intel- twice as many lives as any other disease. lectual food for ourselves. It is forty With an insidious tread, whose faintest years since this society made its first footfall is first heard in the occasional strong effort to secure a registration of bronchial cough, and whose form is first deaths such as we have reached within seen in the hectic flush that sometimes the past three years; and it is only a counterfeits the bloom of health, it small fraction of the recorded facts of grasps its victims, and, with a hand so those three years that I shall bring be- gloved as to be almost unfelt, crushes fore you at this time. When another out life after life in its silent conquest. forty years shall have been added to the It has no pity for age, sex, education, countless decades of the past, if our or wealth; it pursues the mendicant; system of registration is maintained the it is domiciled with the rich. Its termembers of the profession in New rible reality is so interwoven with civilIIampshire will be in possession of cer ization that we regard it a concomitant tain mortuary laws which are to-day of every community, scarcely inuuiring unknown, or, at most, largely conjec by what decree it becomes a part of our tural, and will have a topographical heritage. Public opinion has already knowledge of the diseases that invade too long ascribed the inheritance to the or are indigenous to the state that will caprices of a much-abused Providence, be of incalculable value to physicians, or to some other mysterious edict, from

which there is no escape. It is time that 1,347 from old age, 918 from cholera such views be consigned to the great infantum, 637 from cancer, +64 from dump-heap where the carts of super- typhoid fever, and 411 from diphtheria. stition are—thank God!-unloading the It will be seen that diphtheria and intellectual garbage of generations, and typhoid fever appear almost insignifithe true relation of cause to effect be cant upon the diagram compared with studiously and scientifically examined. the great mortality from consumption, To do this, we must get at all the facts although the former will cause far that have in any way a casual relation greater anxiety and excitement in any to the disease. First, the extent of its community. Gver fifteen per cent. of prevaleuce must be known; the age, sex, all the deaths that occur in New Engand condition of its decendents; the land are from consumption. Diagram season, topography, and other factors No. 2 shows the percentages of deaths that can only be obtained by a careful from consumption, by specified ages, to and systematic registration.

the total mortality from consumption, With a view of presenting some of for tine years 1885, 1886, 1887. This these essential facts for your considera- diagram represents the disease as it tion, I have prepared a few diagrams actually exists. The percentage of deand tables which I trust will not weary cendents is

as follows: Under one, yon to follow.

2.44; one to five, 2.07; five to ten, 0.78;

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Diagram No. 1 shows the proportional ten to fifteen, 1.53; fifteen to twenty, relation of consumption to eight of the 9.74; twenty to thirty, 26.78; thirty to most fatal diseases in the state, arrang- forty, 18.98; forty to fifty, 12.60; fifty ed in their numerical order of fatality. to sixty, 9.08; sixty to seventy, 8.33; It should be remembered that these seventy to eighty, 5.22; over eighty, Jiagrams cover a period of three years, 2.40. 1885, 1886, 1887. There were 2,432 This table, taken by itself without deaths from consumption, 1,536 from reference to the living of the respective heart disease, 1,526 from pneumonia, ages given, is exceedingly misleading, 1 421 from apoplexy and paralysis, inasmuch as, without considering the

latter factor, it would leave the impres- been reached. I have therefore taken sion that between the ages of twenty some pains and time to study the suband forty the liability to the disease is ject, and am able to prove by figures nearly twice as great as at any other that such a supposed “consumptive period of life. A greater number die, period” does not exist, except to a very as this diagram and the table show, limited degree.

This fact is shown in Diagram No. 3, which represents the percentages from consumption for the three years

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DIA-M :3 before mentioned, by specified ages, to

the total population of those ages. The DIA’M 2

percentages are as follows: between those ages, but there is a much Under one, .32; one to five, .06; five larger living dopulation between those to ten, .02; ten to fifteen, .04; fifteen same ages. My observation has long to twenty, .24; twenty to thirty, .34; led me to doubt that there was any thirty to forty, .32; forty to fifty, .25; period of life that could be classed as fifty to sixty, .22; sixty to seventy, .38; "consumptive," in contradistinction to seventy to eighty, .29; over eighty, .41. any other period offering exemption Standing in another way, the ratio of from the disease, after adult life has I deaths from consumption to the living

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