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CHARITY.

intended to insist reduced into a written that man of the world, that man of pleasure, form; for fear the sight of her should not places charity to the distressed at the head of leave him enough master of himself. Like a rational pleasures.-See the Letter on Extrue mathematician, he proceeded by rule penses, vol. ii. 800. and line, and made his calculations when his 6. There is no state of life, which does not head was cool.

furnish employment for care and industry: 42. Alexander sent Phocion 100 talents. the mean must serve the great out of neces“Why to me, more than others ?”—“ Be- sity; and the great are equally bound to cause he looks upon you as the only just and serve the mean out of justice and charity.virtuous man.”—Then let him suffer me to Heylyn, ii. 325. continue so.”—Philip before had offered him 7. At man's first creation, charity was the a large sum. He was pressed to take it, if divine principle implanted in his heart by not for himself, yet for his children. “If his Maker. The adversary, by temptation, my children,” cried Phocion,“ resemble me, displaced it, and left self-love in its room, the little spot of ground, with the produce which was cherished by man, to the destrucof which I have hitherto lived, and which tion of himself and his posterity. Thus a has raised me to the glory you mention, will certain mischievous bird repairs to the nest be sufficient to maintain them. If it will of one that is harmless, and having devoured not, I do not intend to leave them wealth, the eggs of the little innocent owner, lays merely to stimulate and heighten their one of her own in their place : this the fond luxury.”

foolish bird hatches with great assiduity, and, when excluded, finds no difference in the

great ill-looking changling from her own. 1. In the world, no man liveth or worketh To supply this voracious creature, the credufor himself alone; but every tradesman, me-lous nurse toils with unusual labor, no way chanic, husbandman, &c. contributeth his labor sensible that she is feeding an enemy to her and his skill towards supplying the different race, and one of the most destructive robbers exigencies of the public, and rendering society of her future progeny.—See Goldsmith, comfortable. So ought it to be among Chris- v. 264. tians in the church, which is a body com- 8. It is not easy to conceive, how much posed of many members, and requireth that sin and scandal is occasioned by a severe each member should perform its proper office quarrelsome temper in the disciples of Christ. for the benefit of the whole.

It stirs up the corruptions of those with 2. Among the ancient Romans there was whom they contend; and leads others to a law kept inviolably, that no man should think meanly of a profession which has so make a public feast, except he had before little efficacy to soften and sweeten the temprovided for all the poor of his neighborhood. pers of those who maintain it. Doddridge,

So the Gospel_“ Thou, when thou makest Fam. Expos. ii. 186. a feast, call the poor,” &c.—See Rule of Life, 9. Bees never work singly, but always in 166.

companies, that they may assist each other. 3. Let him, who has not leisure or ability A useful hint to scholars and Christians. to penetrate the mysteries of the SS. take

10. An Abbé, remarkable for his parsicomfort in this saying of Austin: “Ille tenet mony, happened to be in company where a et quod patet et quod latet in divinis sermoni- charitable subscription was going round. bus, qui charitatem tenet in moribus.”—“He The plate was brought to him, and he conis master of all that is plain, and all that is tributed his louis-d'or. The collector, not mysterious in the Scriptures, who is possessed observing it, came to him a second time. I of the virtue of charity.”

have put in, said he. If you say so, I will 4. The end of knowledge is charity, or the believe you, returned the collector, though I communication of it for the benefit of others. did not see it.I did see it, cried old FonteThis truth may be finely illustrated by a pas- nelle, who was present, but did not believe it. sage in Milton. P. L. viii. 90 et seq. 11. There are many deceptions concern

ing charity. 1. It may be practised on -Consider first, that great

false motives; interest, custom, fear, shame, Or bright infers not excellence : the earth, Though, in comparison of heav'n, so small,

vanity, popularity, &c. 2. It is a mistake tó Nor glist'ring, may of solid good contain imagine it will atone for a want of other virMore plenty than the sun that barren shines; tues, or for a life of vice and dissipation.Whose virtue on itself works no effect,

See Dupré, Serm. iii. Crit. Review, April But in the fruitful earth; there first receiv'd His beams, unactive else, their vigor find

1782, p. 260.–Mr. Law's character of Ne

gotius. Voltaire says, “the effect is the 5. It is very remarkable, that Chesterfield, I same, whatever be the motive.” But surely the worth of every action must be estimated Worn in the furrow shines the burnish'd share.

DRYDEN. by the motive on which it is performed. He who attends me when I am sick, with a

4. In China, the aspirants, in a literary my estate, is a very different man from him way, are examined by the eminent men, for

their degrees. The Emperor Kang Hi, findwho does it only because he loves me. Yet the effect may be the same : I may be equally took it into his head one day, to examine the

ing matters did not go on as they should do, taken taken care of in either case.

We are to be judged by one who knows the thoughts packing into the provinces

, for insufficiency.

examiners, and sent several of the old dons of our hearts, and will judge us accordingly. The dread of such another examination,” Charity made consistent with vice-Brown's Sermons, 278.- See Charity well described

says our author, “ keeps those chiefs of the

literati close to their studies.” under the idea of Generosity, Fitzosborne's Letters, 123.

CHRISTIANITY. 12. Mickle, the translator of the Lusiad, inserted in his poem an angry note against

1. With difficulty men are induced to Garrick, who, as he thought, had used him give up their favorite opinions : still harder ill, by rejecting a tragedy of his. Some time is the task to draw them from their favorite afterwards, the poet, who had never seen vices. Could a religion be less than divine, Garrick play, was asked by a friend in town which caused the Heathen world to quit to go to King Lear. He went, and, during both ? the first three acts, said not a word. In a

2. “ Religion,” say some,“ was invented by fine passage of the fourth, he fetched a deep priests and politicians, to keep the world in sigh, and, turning to his friend, “I wish,” order." It is a good thing, then, for that said he, “the nole was out of my

book !"
purpose

at least. But the misfortune is, none How often, alas ! do we say and write bitter of the supposed impostors of this kind have things of a man, on a partial and interested ever been named, who lived till after the view of his character, which, if we knew it general principles of religion were found disthroughout, we should wish unsaid or un- seminated among mankind, as the learned written!

Stillingfleet shows at large (Orig. Sac. b. i.

chap. 1,) even from the testimonies of the 1. It is an odd circumstance, that when a

Egyptians and Greeks themselves.

3. The differences among Christians, about man dies, among the Chinese, the relations and friends wait three days, to see whether and fundamental points in which they all

lesser matters prove the truth of those great he will rise again, before they put the corpse into the coffin. Voyages and Travels, iv.

agree.

4. The little effect which Christianity hath 92, from Navarette. We are told, from the same author, that many in that country, in on the lives of its professors, is frequently their life-time, get their coffin made, and to philosophy, the same objection is thus put

an argument against it. So with regard give a treat to their acquaintance on the day and answered'in Cicero's Tusc. Quest. lib. ii. it comes home. It is customary for the em- sect. 5.-A. Nonne verendum est igitur, ne peror, in particular, to have his coffin some time with him in the palace. Many keep it philosophiam falsâ gloriâ exornes ? Quod est in sight for several years, and now and then enim majus argumentwn, nihil eam prodesse,

quam quosdam perfectos philosophos turpiter go into it. Ibid.

vivere? M. Nullum verò id quidem argu2. It should be in a university, as in the

Nam ut agri non omnes frugiferi empire of China, where “no husbandman is ever idle, and no land ever lies fallow.”

sunt qui coluntur, sic animi non omnes culti

fructum ferunt. Atque ut ager quamris ferIbid. 121.

tilis sine cultura fructuosus esse non potest, sic 3. Accomplishments of every

sine doctrinâ animus: ita est utraque res sine acquired and preserved by use and practice; alterâ debilis. See Lactant. De fals. Sap. vol. and the scholar and Christian would do well iv. 226. to reflect upon a piece of discipline in the

A. Is it not then to be feared, that you Chinese armies

, by which a soldier who suf- ascribe to philosophy a glory that does not fers his arms to contract the least rust is pun- belong to it? For what can afford a stronger ished on the spot with thirty or forty blows argument of its inefficacy, than the vicious of the batoon. Ibid. 286, from Le Compte, lives of some of its most learned professors ? and Duhalde—313, 216.

M. That argument is not conclusive. For Sulco attritus splendescere vomer,

as agriculture cannot render all soils fruitful, GEORG. i. 46. so neither are all minds equally improved by

CHINESE.

mentum est.

kind are

instruction. Yet neither can any soil, nor pleasing to God as variety of flowers. Now any mind, bring forth good fruits by the unas- there can be but one religion which is true; sisted force of its natural fertility; but both and the God of truth cannot be pleased with must remain unproductive without the aid of falsehood, for the sake of variety. cultivation.

7. Nothing is more common than for a 5. In Constantinople behold the judgments religious or political sect to disclaim a prinof God on apostates from true religion, and ciple, and then resume it under another corrupters of it: see Jews and Christians form: as the Circoncelliones used no swords, perpetrating on each other the most enor- because God had forbidden the use of one to mous villanies, as the price of obtaining the St. Peter; but they were armed with clubs, favor of the Turks! At the same time be- which they called the clubs of Israel, and hold the Greek prelates, even while groaning with which they could break all the bones in under the yoke of the oppressor, employing a man's skin. See Le Beau, i. 170. See their time, their wealth, and their interest, in Jortin's Remarks on Eccl. Hist. iv. 388. over-reaching and supplanting each other for 8. The heat and acrimony with which a metropolitan see, or a patriarchate, at the some men write against revelation remind court of that oppressor !

one of the cruelties practised by the above6. Christianity has, in every age, produced mentioned fanatics, who covered the eyes

of good effects on thousands and tens of thou- the catholics that fell into their hands with sands, whose lives are not recorded in eccle- lime diluted with vinegar. Ibid. siastical history; which, like other history, is 9. Apply to quarrels among Christians the for the most part a register of the vices, the following lines, addressed by Adam to Eve, follies, and the quarrels of those who made a after their mutual accusations and upbraidfigure and a noise in the world. Socrates, in ings: the close of his work, observes, that, if men were honest and peaceable, historians, would But rise ; let us no more contend, nor blame be undone for want of materials.—Jortin's In offices of love, how we may lighten

Each other, blamed enough elsewhere ; but strive, Remarks, b. ii. ad fin.

Each other's burden in our share of woe. 7. Theft was unknown among the Caribbees, till Europeans came among them. When 10. Upon viewing many of our places of they lost anything, they said innocently- worship in the country, one would be “ The Christians have been here!"

tempted to think the church of England had adopted the maxim laid down in a neighbor

ing kingdom,“ That cleanliness is not essen1. The enemies of the church are encour- tial to devotion.” A church of England lady aged to proceed in their attacks by the once offered to attend the kírk there, if she timidity of her friends; as Lysander, at the might be permitted to have the pew swept siege of Corinth, bade his men be of good and lined. “ The pew swept and lined !” courage, when he saw a hare run along upon

said Mess John's wife, “my husband would the walls.

think it downright popery." 2. Learned and good men are often deterred

11. If the intended reformation of our from engaging the adversaries of religion, liturgy goes on, the reformers may hereafter more through fear of their ribaldry than bring us in a bill like that of the Cirencester their arguments; as Antipater's elephants, painter : which beheld the apparatus of war unmoved,

Mr. Charles Terebee to Joseph Cook, debtor. ran away at the grunting of the Megarensian To mending the Commandments, altering the 1. 8. d. hogs.

Belief, and making a new Lord's Prayer, J110 3. To admit all the jarring sects and opinions into the church by a comprehension, 12. It is a principle advanced by president would be, as one well observes, to jumble Montesquieu, that, where the magistrate is together an indigested heap of contrarieties satisfied with the established religion, he into the same mass, and to make the old chaos ought to repress the direct attempts towards the plan of the new reformation.

innovation, and only grant a toleration to 4. Those clergymen, who betray the cause other sects.—B. xxv. ch. 10.–See Hume, of their master, in order to be promoted in his vol. vii. p.

40 and 41. church, are guilty of the worst kind of 13. Sir Matthew Hale used to say, “ Those simony, and pay their souls for the purchase of the separation were good men, but they of their preferments.

had narrow souls, or they would not break 5. Heresies seem, like comets, to have the peace of the church about such incontheir periodical returns.

siderable matters, as the points in difference 6. Some think variety of religions as were."

CHURCH.

14. Lord Clarendon, somewhere in his

COMPOSITION. Life, makes this severe reflection—“That

1. Distension in the bowels is a sign of a clergymen understand the least, and take the worst measure of human affairs, of all man

bad digestion. In an author it is a symptom

of the same infirmity. kind that can read and write.” Cited by

2. If a man's studies are dry, his composiTemple, in his Essay on the Clergy, p. 22. See his last chapter, On the service clergy

tions will be insipid. Distil a bone, and you men may do their country in matters civil will have a quantity of water.

3. He that would write well in and temporal.—The reason of the above

any tongue mentioned circumstance it might be curious must follow this counsel of Aristotle ;-to to investigate.

think with the learned, but speak with the 15. The person presiding over a church common people, that these may understand, should diligently mark the very first starting

and those approve him.-Ascham, p. 57. of an error, or heresy, and employ a proper

4. Aptness, knowledge, and use make all hand immediately to check and extinguish things perfect; but they must join forces, or it; as, by order of the New River Company

nothing will be well done. The first is the in London, a watchman is nightly fixed at gift of God; the second we must have from such a height, near the river head, as to be others; the third we attain by our own diliable to overlook the whole town, and, on the gence and labor.—P. 117. momentary appearance of any conflagration, in their effects, when drawn up and urged

5. The same arguments are quite different to turn the water full on the mains leading so the respective quarter, however remote by a man of genius. They go farther, and the situation : by which wise and commend- pierce deeper, like the shafts of Hercules, able measure, the water generally arrives at which, Hesiod tells us, were winged with the place of destination before the fleetest

eagles' feathers.

6. He who would excel in anything (oramessenger.—Morning Chronicle, Jan. 27, 1781.

tory, e. g.) must not servilely copy any one 16. “ As I do not check any suspicions in orator throughout, but from different persons my own mind, I shall not easily be restrained

select the accomplishments for which they from uttering them, because I know not how are severally eminent. I shall benefit my country, or assist her coun

7. It was Cicero's opinion, that he who sels, by silent meditations.”—Pulteney, in

would speak well, must write much : Johnson's Debates, vol. i. p. 5. A friend of

Caput autem est, quod (ut verè dicam) the church, who is able to write or speak, in minime facimus (est enim magni laboris, quem these days, should make the same reflections. plerique fugimus,) quàm plurimùm scribere. 17. A right good man may be a very

De Orat.—But the principal point is one from

unfit magistrate : and, for discharge of a bishop's labor that attends it; I'mean frequent and

which most of us shrink, on account of the office, to be well minded is not enough ; no, much composition. not to be well learned also. Skill to instruct is a thing necessary, skill to govern much

8. Depth of sentiment, illustrated by a more necessary in a bishop. It is not safe bright imagination, is like the sea when the for the church of Christ, when bishops learn sun shines upon it and turns it into an ocean what belongeth unto government as empirics

of light. learn physic, by killing of the sick. Bishops where they are fetched from something near

9. Illustrations are peculiarly beautiful, were wont to be men of great learning in the akin to the subject which they are employed laws both civil and of the church; and while they were so, the wisest men in the land for

to adorn : as e. g. Sprat's observations on the counsel and government were bishops.- thinks that small spot of civil arts, compared

age of learning among the Arabians—« MeHooker, vii. 24. p. 398.

to their long course of ignorance before and

after, bears some resemblance with the counCOLLINS (ANTHONY.)

try itself; where there are some few little This person, on his death-bed, was under valleys, and wells, and pleasant shades of great anxiety, and, just before he expired, palm-trees; but those lying in the midst with a deep sigh pronounced the following of deserts and unpassable tracts of sand.” wordsLocke has ruined me! His niece, Hist. of Roy. Soc. p. 45. who attended him at the time, related this 10. Zeuxis, the famous painter, before he circumstance to Mr. Wogan, the pious author sat down to a picture, used to animate his of an Essay on the Proper Lessons; as he fancy by reading some passage in Homer assured a friend of mine, the Rev. Dr. Mer- relative to his subject.-A good hint to those rick of St. Ann's, Soho.

who are about to compose in prose and verse.

CONSCIENCE.

)

CONTENTMENT.

11. Every man has a certain manner and character in writing and speaking, which he spoils and loses by a too close and servile which he knows himself to be innocent,

1. A man reproached with a crime of imitation of another; as Bishop Felton, an should feel no more uneasiness than if he was imitator of Bishop Andrews, observed—“I

said to be ill when he felt himself in perfect had almost marred my own natural trot, by

health. endeavoring to imitate his artificial amble."

2. When Cleomenes was on the point of Wanley, 647.

12. It was a rule with Archbishop Williams, taking a bribe from Aristagoras, his virtue was to give himself some recreation before he preserved by his daughter, a child of nine sat down to compose, and that in proportion years old, who exclaimed, “Fly, father, or to the importance of the composition. See this stranger will corrupt you.”—Conscience his Life in Lloyd's Worthies, p. 379.Dr. will often perform this office for us, if we

would attend to its admonitions. , “Now, for these three months, I will neither for us, respecting our passions and appetites,

what an attendant was ordered every day at think a wise thought, nor speak a wise word, nor do an ill thing.”—Life in the Biog. Sardis

, respecting his enemies—cry out, Re

dinner to do for Darius, after the burning of Dict.

member the Athenians. 13. In an oration, one would wish that the whole should be well composed, and suitable to the dignity of the -subject. But let the progress to what is great and brilliant be gentle 1. When Christ bade us limit our cares to and gradual. Such is the rule and method of the day that is passing over us, he consulted nature in all her works. At the first dawn- our natural quiet no less than our spiritual ing of the brightest day that ever shone, light welfare ; since the chief sources of most and darkness were scarcely distinguishable. men's uneasiness are chagrin at what is past, Lawson, 380.

and forebodings of what is to come. Whereas, 14. In compositions, young writers pro- “ what is past ought to give us no uneasiness, duce the most, but old ones the best, as Lord except that of repentance for our faults; and Bacon observes of grapes.—“The vine bear- what is to come ought much less to affect us, eth more grapes when it is young, but grapes because, with regard to us and our concerns, that make better wine when it is old; for it is not, and perhaps never will be.” that the juice is better concocted.”

2. Plutarch, speaking of that inviolable 15. Style should resemble the atmosphere friendship which subsisted between Pelopidas of Italy, which “ embellishes all objects by and Epaminondas, says, “The true and only showing them with clearness; for which cause of this excellent conduct was their virreason, its gulfs, its woods, its cascades, and tue, which kept them, in all their actions, its meads, have a grace unknown beneath from aiming at wealth and glory, which fatal other skies.” M. Sherlock's Letters, p. 21. contentions are always attended with envy;

16. The author of Hudibras had a com- but being both equally inflamed with a divine mon-place book, in which he had reposited, ardor to make their country prosperous and not such events or precepts as are gathered happy by their administration, they looked by reading; but such remarks, similitudes, upon each other's success as their own.” allusions, assemblages, or inferences, as oc- 3. In general, as he observes, among the casion prompted, or meditation produced; Grecians, the personal enmity borne by great those thoughts th were generated in his men of the same city to each other, exceeded own mind, and might be usefully applied to that which they bore to the enemies of their some future purpose. Such is the labor of country.—The same passions have operated those who write for immortality. Johnson, in the same manner among Christians; of i. 288.

which we have a remarkable instance at the 17. Augustus loved correctness and accu- siege of Constantinople by Mahomet II. when racy in all his compositions, and never de- such was the animosity subsisting between the livered his mind on any serious matter, even Greeks and Latins, within the city, that one in his own family, without memorials or of the former declared, he had rather see a written notes. Ferguson, Rom. Hist.—A Turk’s turban in Constantinople than a Carmethod practised and recommended by Boling- dinal's cap. broke and Chesterfield, to attain a habit of 4. When old Dioclesian was called from correctness in speaking.–So Bishop Atter- his retreat and invited to resume the purple, bury of writing, “ Let nothing, though of a which he had laid down some years before, trifling nature, pass through your pen negli- “Ah! (said he) if you could see those fruits gently.” Letters, i. 118.

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