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'The silo, which furnished the above sample of corn ensilage, was opened seven months after being filled. A layer of about six inches in thickness had to be removed from the top, and the sides of the contents of the silo to reach an acceptable fodder for cows. The highest temperature, registered by the thermometer since its introduction into the silo at a depth of two feet at the time of closing, was 97.8° F.

The main body of the ensilage was in a fine condition, of a yellowish green color, somewhat lighter than in silo No. One. It had a slightly acid smell and taste. To neutralize the free organic acids contained in one hundred weight parts of fresh ensilage, collected at the opening of the silo, required 1.130 parts of sodium hydroxide, which is equal to 1.95 per cent. of acetic acid. The amount of ensilage contained 0.027 parts of actual ammonia.

A comparison of these observations with those made in connection with the contents of silo No. One, shows that in our case the direct filling and closing of the silo produced the best results. The contents of the silo filled up at once with cut corn fodder, and subsequently carefully closed up, had suffered less serious alteration in various directions, than those that had passed through a previous heating process, in consequence of a longer exposure to atmospheric agencies. The records of the thermometers, the chemical analyses of the ensilage from both silos, and the general character of both kinds of ensilage confirm our above conclusion. Adding to these statements the circumstance that our cows decidedly preferred the ensilage from silo No. Two, we feel that we can recommend the course pursued in filling that silo. As the free acids, acetic and lactic, in a corn ensilage, however carefully prepared, steadily increase after the opening of the silo, as long as unchanged saccharine and amylaceous constituents (sugar and stareh), are present, it is very important that the access of air should be limited as far as practicable. The decision in regard to the best size of the silo should be largely controlled by the possible rate of consumption. The feeding value of the contents of the most carefully packed silo is apt to be most seriously impaired in consequence of a subsequent prolonged exposure to the air. Three to four weeks exposure altered the character of our ensilage seriously as far as its acidity was concerned. The degree of the change depends under corresponding circumstances, largely, on the surrounding temperature. It is far less during the winter months than in April or May.

The main portion of both kinds of ensilage was fed to milch cows, in connection with an experiment to ascertain the feeding value of corn ensilage as compared with that of noted root crops. The results of this trial, which extend over a period of from five to six months, will be published in full in a succeeding BULLETIN.

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100.00 The pomace which served for the preparation of the apple ensilage, was taken from a cider-mill near Amherst towards the close of October, 1885, and consisted of the clear press refuse, of a mixture of different kinds of apples. Two casks of a capacity of from fifty to sixty gallons each, were used for the experiment. They were painted inside with a black'tar varnish to render them air and water tight. The pomace was stamped down solid, and subsequently covered with tar paper, which was held down by a layer of sand, several inches in thickness, and some large stones. The casks, thus filled, were kept in a corner on the barn floor until May 17th, '86, when they were opened to examine their contents. The material was found throughout apparently as fresh as when put up; neither mouldy, or rotten, or even discolored on its surface. It had a pleasant fruit-like acid odor and taste, and contained but traces of ammonia compounds. One hundred parts of the fresh apple ensilage required 0.744 parts of sodium hydroxide for the neutralization of its free organic acids, which prove thus to be less than in either kind of corn ensilage. . The ensilage of apple pomace is highly relished by cows and swine, and is, if not superior, at least equal, pound for pound, in feeding value to the apple pomace, which served for its production. The nitrogenous constituents had increased, at the expense of the saccharine constituents; the latter had been destroyed at a higher rate by fermentation than the former.


CORN COB MEAL. (Corn and Cob).
Collected at a mill near Amherst, Mass., 1886.

Moisture at 100° C.,
Dry Matter,


9.45 90.55


Crude Ash,



Protein (nitrogenous matter),
Non-nitrogenous extract matter,

1.64 6.32 5,19 9.85 77.00

100.00 The composition of this article depends somewhat on the relative weight of cob and kernels; the former may vary from 14 to 18 per cent. in current varieties. See article - On different varieties of corn, etc.” (Secy's Report of Mass. State Board of Agriculture, 1879–80, pages 222 to 254).


YELLOW SWEET CORN. Raised on the fields of the Experiment Station, 1885. • Ears from five to seven inches in length, having eight rows of kernels. Weight of an average ear, 70.16 grammes. 66 kernels, 57.40

per cent. 12.76

or 18.2 Average weight of a kernel, 0.232

Moisture at 1000 C.,

Dry Matter,

or 81.8

66 cob,

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Crude Ash,


Protein (nitrogenous matter),
Non-nitrogenous extract matter,

2.16 2.58 4.25 12.61 78.40

100.00 The article is somewhat deficient in fat, as compared with “ Blue Mexican” or Crosby's.

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Crude Ash,

3.43 68.60 Cellulose,

3.46 69.20 6.23 9.0 Fat,

3.03 60.60 34.85 57.5 Protein, (nitrogenous matter), 16.52 330.40 218.06 66.0 Non- nitrogenous extract matter,

73.56 1471.20 1096.04 74.5

100.00 2000.00 1355.18 The material has a fair composition. Recent observations by careful observers seem to indicate that it ought not to ta the place of wheat bran in the dairy.

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Calcium oxide,
Magnesium oxide,
Insoluble matter,

17 cts. per pound,

3.39 1.12 2.65 0.29

Valuation per 2000 lbs.,

$14.66 The composition of the above sample corresponds well with that noticed on previous occasions, (see I Annual Rep., page 103). 396.

Sent on from South Deerfield, Mass.

Moisture at 100° C.,

Phosphoric acid, 5 cts. per pound, 0.44
Potassium oxide, 41“

6.62 Calcium oxide,

3.45 Magnesium oxide,

1.11 Nitrogen,

17 cts. per pound, 0.90 Insoluble matter,


Valuation per 2000 lbs., $8.83 The amount of nitrogen in this sample of tobacco stems (Havana) is exceptionally low; about one third of that found in other samples offered for sale in our section of the Connecticut River valley (see II Annual Report, page 138). The difference in nitrogen causes the low valuation per ton, as compared with that of the preceding analysis (396). The sample was handed to us with the statement that it had been used for imparting the odor of Havana tobacco to other varieties of tobacco. The odor had been removed apparently by a steaming process; for the mineral constituents, with the exceptiom of the potassium oxide, correspond fairly with those in the material described in our II Annual Report. Farmers will do well to be careful in buying the article without stated guarantee of composition.

ASHES OF COTTON SEED HULLS. 397. Sent on for examination from South Deerfield, Mass. 398. Sent on from North Amherst, Mass.



Pounds per hundred.
Moisture at 100° C.,


6.38 Phosphoric acid, 6 cts.


10.69 Calcium oxide,


13.34 Magnesium oxide,

9.15 not determined. Potassium oxide, 51 cts. 25.34

24.16 Insoluble matter,



Valuation per 2000 lbs., $36.15 $39.41 There is evidently a considerable variation in the composition of this article. Direct communication from a well informed southern source accounts for this fact by stating that more or less seeds are not un

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