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There are in the city about 45 charitable societies. Many of the private dwellings are beautiful.
This institution was organized the 17th September, 1801. Mrs. Ann Clay was called to the chair, and the following ladies elected Managers, viz. : Mrs. Elisabeth Smith, Mrs. Ann Clay, Lady Ann Houstoun, Mrs. Margaret Stephens, Mrs. Hannah McAllister, Mrs. Frances Holcombe, Mrs. Jane was oncem EVA Smith, Mrs. Margaret Hunter, Mrs. Phebe Mosse, Mrs. Sarah Lamb, Mrs. Susanna Jenkins, Mrs. Ann Moore, Mrs Rebecca Newell, Mrs. Mary Wall. Mrs. Elisabeth Smith was elected First Directress, and Mrs. Ann Clay the Second. Mrs. Jane Smith and Mrs. Sarah Lamb, the Secretaries, and Mrs. Margaret Hunter, Treasurer.
The compiler has been politely favoured with the following account by JAMES O. MORSE, Esq., Civil and Mechanical Engineer, of NewYork, the gentleman who designed and is engaged in constructing the works, with whom is associated H. R. Worthington, Esq., of the same place, the patentee and builder of the pumping apparatus :
THE SAVANNAH WATER-WORKS, now in process of construction, were commenced in the winter of 1852-3, and are to be completed in 1854. A brief description of this important public work will perhaps be deemed interesting.
The supply is obtained from the Savannah River, the water of which, though turbid in its appearance, (rendered so by the minute particles of clay held by it in suspension,) is nevertheless of remarkable purity-inasmuch as it contains no soluble impurities, the sources of the river being in regions of a primitive formation.
The water is taken from the river above the city, and received into a reservoir located on the low lands west of the Ogeechee Canal. In order to free the water from the earthy matter it holds in suspension, this reservoir is divided into four compartments, rendered distinct from each other by partitions faced with masonry. Into any or all of these compartments, or basins, the water is admitted by means of iron gateways; the contents of one basin, therefore, can be used while the process of sedimentation is going on undisturbed in the others, Each one of these basins is made to communicate, by means of culverts of masonry and iron gateways, with a chamber, or “pump-well,” of masonry, situated underneath a building which contains the boilers and engines of the pumping apparatus, by means of which the water is forced into the city.
The plateau upon which the city of Savannah is built has an altitude of about forty feet above the river. Upon this elevation is built the Distributing Reservoir, having a height of about eighty feet above the general grade of the streets. This structure, a representation of which is annexed, consists of a circular tower of substantial masonry, upon which is placed the reservoir, of iron. From this reservoir, having an elevation sufficient for all purposes, the water is distributed throughout the city in the usual manner, by means of cast-iron pipes, furnished with all necessary fire hydrants, stop-gates, etc.
The whole height to which the water is raised by the pumping engines is one hundred and twenty feet; the distance from the receiving to the distributing reservoir is somewhat more than half a mile.
Most of the cities in the United States that are supplied with water under pressure sufficient to carry it to all parts of the buildings, are so situated as to have in their vicinity ground of sufficient elevation to command the town, and on which the reservoir is built. The city of Savannah having no such advantages, it became necessary in the design for these works to devise some means whereby an ample supply of water might be delivered into the town with height, or “head,
sufficient to give the necessary pressure in the pipes of distribution, without incurring the enormous expense of creating an artificial elevation of large area on which to build the usual plan of reservoir containing many days' supply. The plan adopted to effect the object required is this : Upon a tower of masonry, a tank, or reservoir, is erected, of a capacity to hold the quantity of water required for the night supply; while the pumping apparatus is so arranged as to place beyond all contingency of failure the ability of the apparatus to preserve in the reservoir the quantity of water necessary for the day supply.
The pumping apparatus consists of three direct action, condensing pumping engines, each one independent of the other, and each capable of delivering into the reservoir one million of gallons in twelve hours. These are supplied by two steam-boilers, each in like manner independent of the other. From these engines, situated, as before mentioned, at the lower or receiving reservoir, two distinct lines of forcing pipes, or “mains," are laid to the upper or distributing reservoir, and from thence the water is conveyed, under the pressure due to the height of this reservoir, throughout the streets of the city.
By this arrangement it will be seen that not only is the apparatus amply able to meet the demands that the town makes upon it, but that it is sufficiently large to respond to the increased wants due to an increase of population.
The Custom-House, at the corner of Bull and Bay streets, is an imposing building. Length 110 feet, depth 52 feet, and in height, from the pavement to the ridge of the roof, 52 feet. The basement story is devoted to the use of the Post-office and the appraisers' department. The first or principal floor is used for Custom-house purposes. The third, or upper story, for United States Court-rooms. It is built of 5 Quincy granite. The structure is fire-proof.
CUSTOM-HOUSE. INDEPENDENT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.-To the Rev. Dr. Preston, its present pastor, we owe our thanks for the following information :
The exact date of the organization of this church is not known. In 1755 à grant was obtained for a site on which to erect a house of worship, and a charter was granted by the Assembly, and Trustees appointed. The Confession of Faith was substantially the doctrines of the Church of Scotland, agreeably to the “ Westminster Confession of Faith,” but not in ecclesiastical connection with that church, having from the first declared themselves an Independent Presbyterian Church, and by that style and title were originally incorporated, and by this name it has always