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July 14th, 1742.- Read an act to repeal so much of an act made in the eighth year of the reign of his present Majesty, entitled an Act to prevent the importation and use of Rum and Brandies, in the Province of Georgia, as prohibits the importation of Rum into the said Province from the other British Colonies.

Ordered: That an Instruction be sent to William Stephens, Esq., that he do make an inquiry among the people of the Province, whether it is their opinion in general that it is proper to admit the use and introduction of Negroes in the said Province ? and that he do, as soon as he can, certify their opinion, and his own, how far it may be proper under any, and under what limitations and restrictions.

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to consider how far it may be convenient or proper to admit the introduction and use of Negroes in the Province of Georgia, and under what limitations and restrictions.

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July 15, 1742.-Read a paper from Mr. Joseph Avery, stating that he had dig. covered a large river called the Great Ogeechee, and that it would be of great service to the British nation to have a dock-yard and settlements upon the said river, &c.

July 26, 1742.-Read a petition of Christian Steinharell, Theobald Keifer, and others, in' behalf of the German servants in Savannah, setting forth that by indenture, they bound themselves to serve the Trustees in Georgia for five years after their arrival there, and that their children who were males, and under the age of 20, were to serve until they arrived at the age of 25, and their female children, who were above the age of 6, were to serve until they arrived at the age of 18; and as the time of the petitioners' Indentures with the Trustees, as to themselves, is growing near to a conclusion, and they are desirous and willing to settle in Georgia, having procured already a small stock of cattle for that purpose, they must unavoidably labor under great difficulties by being deprived of the freedom of their children, without whose assistance it will be impossible for them to make any progress in cultivating of land, being most of them advanced in years; and therefore praying the Trustees to grant them the freedom of their children, at the expiration of the five years for which the petitioners are bound.

That we recommend to the Common Council to grant the Petitioners the freedom of their children at the expiration of the five years, as they desire.

August 7, 1742.-Resolved, That it is recommended to the Common Council to give Mrs. Camuse a gratuity for every person who shall be certified to be properly instructed by her in the art of winding of silk.

Dec. 21, 1742.--An act was read to repeal so much of an act to prevent the importation and use of rum and brandies in Georgia, and also for suppressing the odious and loathsome sin of drunkenness.

Jany. 16, 1743-4.-A letter was read giving an account of a Silver mine dis. covered in the nation of Cherokee Indians, and of the proceedings of the Governor and Assembly of South Carolina relating thereto, and of persons applying by peti. tion to the King for a grant of the lands where the mine is, and their having purchased the said lands of the Indians, and that the said mine is southward of several branches of the river Savannah ; also, an abstract of a letter from Mr. Robert Williams relating to the said mine. Gen. Oglethorpe laid before trustees the copy of a petition from the Assembly of South Carolina to the King, transmitted to Mr. Oglethorpe from the committee of said Assembly, relating to the said mine, and setting forth that the Agriculture of the said Province, and the Plantations, must suffer greatly by the inhabitants resorting to the said mine.

The clause in the charter wherein the King grants to the Trustees all mines in the Colony of Georgia, as well Royal as others, was then read.

Ordered: That the Secretary do enter at the proper offices, in the name of the Trustees, a caveat against any grant being made of the said mine to any particular persons, before the Trustees are heard thereupon.

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June 15, 1744..Read a petition to the King, that whereas James Maxwell and Cornelius Docherty have petitioned his majesty that they had purchased of the Cherokees a tract of land 8 miles long and 6 miles wide, and that they had discovered appearances of iron, tin, lead and copper, with a mixture of silver in the said tract, and therefore praying to grant the said lands to them

The Trustees do therefore humbly represent to his Majesty, that the said mines are described to be in the midst of the Cherokee nation, and being to the Southward of one or more branches of the River Savannah, and within the limits of the Territories granted by his Majesty's Royal Charter to the Trustees, by which all mines, as well Royal Mines of Gold and Silver, or others, are granted to the Trustees.

But, if the said mines should not be found to be within the Province of Georgia, the Trustees beg leave to represent to His Majesty how dangerous it may be to grant Royal Mines to private persons, who, by being so far distant from the seat of Government, in either of the Provinces of South Carolina, may, by their disorderly behaviour, occasion great quarrels and disturbances between his Majesty's subjects and the Indians, and thereby give an inlet'to the French, which may be attended with consequences very fatal to both Provinces, especially at a time when his Majesty is engaged in a war with France.

And, therefore, the Trustees do humbly pray that no such Grant may be made, or that they may be heard before the granting of the same.

Dec. 17, 1744.--Resolved, That the civil government for the Province of Georgia, is vested in the Trustees by his Majesty's Royal Charter, in consequence of which they appointed Courts of Judicature at Savannah and Frederica, and appointed three Bailiffs and a Recorder for each Court, before whom all manner of crimes,


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***** are to be tried according to the Laws and customs of the Realm of England, and of the Laws enacted for said Province,

Resolved, Nemine contradicente, That no Military Officer, as such, ought, or hath any right, to interfere in any civil matters whatsoever, recognisable within the Courts of Judicature already established, or that shall hereafter be established, by the Trustees in the Province of Georgia.

March 19, 1749–50.--Henry Parker appointed Vice President of the Colony of Georgia.

Jan. 8, 1752.-Trustees resolve, that on account of their total inability to defray the civil government thereof, from Lady Day, 1751, to furnish the troops stationed in Georgia with provisions, or to give any encouragement for the produce of raw silk without a further supply, resolved to make an absolute surrender of all the rights, powers, and trusts vested in them by the Royal Charter, dated 9th June, 1732.


At Yamacraw, the Indian name of the bluff which Oglethorpe in 1733 had selected as the site of his town, he found among the Indians a woman named Mary, who could speak both the English and Creek. languages. The history of this woman is highly interesting, and for the information of our readers we have spared no pains in collecting facts connected with her history, from different sources, but principally from the Colonial documents copied in Europe by the Rev. C. Wallace Howard, now of Cass County.

Mary was born at the Coweta town, on the Ocmulgee, the chief town of the Creek Indians. By the maternal line, she was descended from the sister of the old emperor of the Creek nations. Her Indian name was Consaponakeeso. When seven years of age she was brought by her father from the Indian nation to Pomponne, now Ponpon, in South Carolina, and there baptised, educated, and instructed in the principles of Christianity. In 1716, Col. John Musgrove was sent by the government of South Carolina to form, if possible, a treaty of

accompanied his father on this mission, became acquainted with Mary, and married her.

In 1723, she with her husband returned to South Carolina, and about 1732, Mr. Musgrove established a trading house on Yamacraw bluff, the present site of the city of Savannah. When Oglethorpe arrived, one of his first efforts was to conciliate the Indians, and discovering the influence whïch Mary had over them, he purchased her friendship with presents. About three years afterwards, her husband died, and, at the request of General. Oglethorpe, she established a trading-house on the south side of the Alatamaha. Here she married Capt. Jacob Matthews. In 1742, Capt. Matthews died. She afterwards married Rev. Thomas Bosomworth, a clergyman of the Church of England, who at that time was in the employ of the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge. It is not our business to say what were the motives which induced the Rev. Gentleman to form this alliance, but it is fair to presume, from the great change which took place in his wife's feelings towards the colony, and indeed in her whole general character from the time of her marriage, that he must have been the chief instrument in producing this change. The year after his marriage he went to England, and wrote to the Trustees that he did not intend to return to Georgia; but after an absence of two years he did return, and commenced a line of conduct which for years kept the colony in a state of commotion. His object was twofold: first, to obtain compensation for his wife's services; and secondly, to obtain the possession of the islands of Ossaba, Sapelo, and St. Catherines, and a tract above Pipemaker's Creek, which had been reserved to the Indians in their former treaties. He engaged in his interests Major William Horton, the commander of Oglethorpe's regiment at Frederica, and other officers. Col. Heron, who arrived

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in 1747 to take command of the regiment, was also gained over to the interests of the Bosomworths, and by his arrangements a body of Indians, with Malatchee at their head, came to Frederica to have a conference with the commander. This chief delivered a speech, in which he reviewed the services of Mary, desired that Abraham Bosomworth should be sent to England to tell the King that he was Emperor of the Creeks, and declared that Mary, his sister, was confided in by the whole nation, who had resolved to abide by her determinations. To Malatchee, Bosomworth suggested the importance of having himself crowned by those who were with him ; and accordingly a paper was drawn up, vesting Malatchee with the authority suggested by Bosomworth. After this, Bosomworth obtained from Malatchee a deed of conveyance to Thomas and Mary Bosomworth of the islands of Ossaba, Sapelo, and St. Catherines, for and in consideration of 10 pieces of stroud, 12 pieces of duffles, 200 cwt, of powder, 200 pounds of lead, 20 guns, 12 pair of pistols, 100 pounds of vermilion.

To stock these islands, Mr. Bosomworth had purchased, on credit, from planters in Carolina, a large quantity of cattle; but his stock not proving so productive as he anticipated, he found himself entangled in debt. To extricate himself, he encouraged his wife to assume the title of an independent Empress. A meeting of the Creeks was summoned, to whom she made a speech, in which she insisted upon the justice of her pretensions. The Indians became excited, and pledged themselves to stand by her to the last drop of their blood. What follows, the compiler is indebted to a work published in London, 1979, by the Rev. Dr. Hewitt.*


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In consequence of which, Mary, with a large body of savages at her back, set out for Savannah to demand' a formal surrender of them from the President of the Province. A messenger was despatched beforehand to acquaint him that Mary had assumed her right of sovereignty over the whole territories of the upper and lower Creeks, and to demand that all land belonging to them be instantly relinquished, for as she was the hereditary and rightful Queen of both nations, and could command every man of them to follow her, in case of refusal she had determined to extirpate the settlement.

The president and council, alarmed at her high pretensions and bold threats, and sensible of her great power and influence with the savages, were not a little embarrassed what steps to take for the public safety. They determined to use soft and healing measures until an opportunity might offer of privately laying hold of her, and shipping her off to England. But in the mean time orders were sent to all the captains of the militia to hold themselves in readiness to march to Savannah at an hour's warning,

The town was put in the best posture of defence, but the whole militia in it amounted to no more than one hundred and seventy men able to bear arms. A. messenger was sent to Mary at the head of the Creeks, while several miles distant from town, to know whether she was serious in such wild pretensions, and to try to persuade her to dismiss her followers and drop her audacious design. But finding her inflexible and resolute, the president resolved to put on a bold countenance, and receive the savages with firmness and resolution. The militia was ordered

* The whole of this work has been published in the Historical Collections of South Carolina, by Mr. Carroll.

+ William Stephens,




under arms, to overawe them, as much as possible; and as the Indians entered the town, Capt. Jones, at the head of his company of horse, stopped them, and demanded whether they came with hostile or friendly intentions ? But receiving no satisfactory answer, he told them they must there ground their arms, for he had orders not to suffer a man of them armed to set his foot within the town. The savages with great reluctance submitted, and accordingly Thomas Bosomworth, in his canonical robes, with his queen by his side, followed by the various chiefs according to their rank, marched into town, making a formidable appearance--all the inhabitants being struck with terror at the sight of the fierce and mighty host. When they advanced to the parade, they found the militia drawn up under arms to receive them, who saluted them with fifteen cannon and conducted them to the president's house. There Thomas and Adam Bosomworth being ordered to withdraw, the Indian chiefs, in a friendly manner, were called upon to declare their intention of visiting the town in so large a body without being sent for by any person in lawful authority.

The warriors, as they had been previously instructed, answered, that Mary was to speak for them, and they would abide by her words.

They had heard they said that she was to be sent like a captive over the great waters, and they were come to know on what account they were to lose their queen. They assured the president they intended no harm, and begged their arms might be restored; and after consulting with Bosomworth and his wife, they would return and settle all public affairs. : To please them their muskets were accordingly given back, but strict orders were issued to allow them no ammunition until the council should see more clearly into their dark designs.

On the day following the Indians having had some private conferences with their queen, began to be very surly, and to run in a mad and tumultuous manner up and down the streets, seemingly bent on mischief. All the men being obliged to mount guard, the women were terrified to remain by themselves in their houses, expecting every moment to be murdered or scalped. During this confusion a false rumour was spread, that they had cut off the president's head with a tomahawk, which so exasperated the inhabitants, that it was with difficulty the officers could prevent them from firing on the savages. To save a town from destruction never was greater prudence requisite. Orders were given to the militia to lay hold of Bosomworth and carry him out of the way into close confinement. Upon which Mary became outrageous and frantic, and insolently threatened vengeance against the magistrates and the whole colony. She ordered every man of them to depart from her territories, and at their peril to refuse. She cursed General Oglethorpe and his fraudulent treaties, and furiously stamping with her feet upon the ground, swore by her Maker, that the whole earth on which she trode was her own. Tó prevent bribery, which she knew to have great weight with her warriors, she kept the leading men constantly in her eye, and would not suffer them to speak a word respecting public affairs, but in her presence.

The president finding that no peaceable agreement could be made with the Indians while under the baleful eye and influence of their pretended queen, private. ly laid hold of her, and put her under confinement with her husband. This step was necessary before any terms of negotiation could be proposed. Having secu. red the chief promoters of the conspiracy, he then employed men acquainted with the Indian tongue to entertain the warriors in the most friendly and hospitable manner, and explained to them the wicked designs of Bosomworth and his wife. Accordingly a feast was prepared for all the chief leaders, at which they were informed that Mr. Bosomworth had involved himself in a debt, and wanted not only their lands, but also a large share of their royal bounty, to satisfy his creditors in Carolina: that the king's presents were intended only for the Indianis on account of their useful services, and firm attachment to him during the former wars; that the lands adjoining the town were reserved for them to encamp upon when they should come to visit their beloved friends at Savannah, and the three maritime is. lands to hunt upon, when they should come to bathe in the salt waters; that neither Mary nor her husband had any right to those lands, which were the common property of the Creek nations; that the great king had ordered the president to defend their right to them, and expected that all his subjects, both white and red,

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