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The Education of the World. By FREDERICK TEMPLE, D. D.,
Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen; Head Master of Rugby

School; Chaplain to the Earl of Denbigh . . . . .
Binsen's Biblical Researches. By ROWLAND WILLIAMS, D. D.,

Vice-Principal and Professor of Hebrew, St. David's College,

Lampeter; Vicar of Broad Chalke, Wilts . . . . .
On The Study of the Evidences of Christinnity. By BADEN POWELL,

M. A., F. R. S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the University

of Oxford . . . . . . . . . . . .
Séances Historiques de Genève. The National Church. By HENRY

BRISTOW Wilson, B. D., Vicar of Great Staughton, Hunts . .

On the Mosaic Cosmogony. By C. W. Goodwin, M. A. . . .

Tendencies of Religious Thought in England, 1688–1750. By MARK

Pattison, B. D., Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford . . .

On the Interpretation of Scripture. By BENJAMIN JOWETT, M. A.,

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford . . .

Note on Bunsen's Biblical Researches.

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In a world of mere phenomena, where all events are bound to one another by a rigid law of cause and effect, it is possible to imagine the course of a long period bringing all things at the end of it into exactly the same relations as they occupied at the beginning. We should, then, obviously have a succession of cycles rigidly similar to one another, both in events and in the sequence of them. The universe would eternally repeat the same changes in a fixed order of recurrence, though each cycle might be many millions of years in length. Moreover, the precise similarity of these cycles would render the very existence of each one of them entirely unnecessary. We can suppose, without any logical inconsequence, any one of them struck out, and the two which had been destined to precede and follow it brought into immediate contiguity.

This supposition transforms the universe into a dead machine. The lives and the souls of men become so indifferent, that the annihilation of a whole human race, or of many such races, is absolutely nothing. Every event passes away as it happens, filling its place in the sequence, but purposeless for the future. The order of all things becomes, not merely an iron rule, from which nothing can ever swerve, but an iron rule which guides to nothing and ends in nothing.

Such a supposition is possible to the logical understanding; it is not possible to the spirit. The human heart refuses to believe in a universe without a purpose. To the spirit, all things that exist must have a purpose, and nothing can pass away till that purpose be fulfilled. The lapse of time is no exception to this demand. Each moment of time, as it passes,

Essays and Reviews.

is taken up in the shape of permanent results into time that follows, and only perishes by being converted into something more substantial than itself. A. series of recurring cycles, however conceivable to the lcgical understanding, is inconceivable to the spirit; for every later cycle must be made different from every earlier by the mere fact of coming after it and embodying its results. The material world may possibly be subject to such a rule, and may, in successive epochs, be the cradle of successive races of spiritual beings. But the world of spirits cannot be a mere machine.

In accordance with this difference between the material and the spiritual worlds, we ought to be prepared to find progress in the latter, however much fixity there may be in the former. The earth may still be describing precisely the same orbit as that which was assigned to her at the creation. The seasons may be precisely the same. The planets, the moon, and the stars, may be unchanged both in appearance and in reality. But man is a spiritual as well as a material creature, must be subject to the laws of the spiritual as well as to those of the material world, and cannot stand still because things around him do. Now, that the individual man is capable of perpetual, or almost perpetual, development from the day of his birth to that of his death, is obvious of course. But we may well expect to find something more than this in a spiritual creature who does not stand alone, but forms a part of a whole world of creatures like himself. Man cannot be considered as an individual. He is, in reality, only man by virtue of his being a member of the human race. Any other animal that we know would probably not be very different in its nature if brought up from its very birth apart from all its kind. A child so brought up becomes, as instances could be adduced to prove, not a man in the full sense at all, but rather a beast in human shape, with human faculties, no doubt, hidden underneath, but with no hope in this life of ever developing those faculties into true humanity. If, then, the whole in this case, as in so many others, is prior to the parts, we may conclude, that we are to look for that progress

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