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in Western Europe. The period covered by forecasts was considerably extended, and large additions were made to the number and efficiency of weather observers.
Under the special appropriation for the purpose, nutrition investigations were undertaken in connection with the Office of Experiment Stations under the direct supervision of W. 0. Atwater.
Incidentally to these investigations large profits were disclosed in the baking and supply of bread. It was shown that while flour had fallen much in price bread had not changed, and for a time in many cities a reduction was secured in the price of the loaf.
A valuable discovery was made in the Forestry Division, viz, that boxing the pine tree for turpentine does not injure the lumber. The knowledge of this fact is estimated to be worth $2,000,000 to the timber interests. During the course of the timber-test work the longleaf pine was found to be much stronger than had been previously supposed.
Civil Service-Savings.-Secretary Morton greatly encouraged the extension of civil-service regulations throughout the Department, and in two notable cases adopted the method of competitive examinations to fill important places which were expressly excepted. The number of persons in the classified service increased notably under him.
In his last report Secretary Morton makes the following summary, showing the amounts saved by him from the appropriation bills:
"Thus there will have been covered back into the Treasury since March 7, 1893, two million sixty-six thousand six hundred and sixtyone dollars and nineteen cents ($2,066,661.19) out of a total amount of eleven million one hundred and seventy-nine thousand four hundred and fifty-five dollars and forty-five cents ($11,179,455.45) on hand and appropriated.”
Mr. Morton strongly recommended that the amount so saved be applied to the erection of a new and suitable Department building.
Secretary Morton was strongly opposed to the distribution of seeds, and recommended that the practice be abandoned. He succeeded in changing the method of distribution, so that the packages were no longer sent out from Washington by a force of Department employees, but from the warerooms of the seedsmen holding the contracts.
Yearbook—Expositions.—Beginning with that of 1894, the form of the Annual Report of the Department was radically changed in accordance with the act governing the public printing and binding, approved January 12, 1895, so as to appear in two parts. The second and most important part is known as the Yearbook, and the first and two succeeding Yearbooks were edited by Doctor Dabney, who, like his predecessor, Mr. Willits, was specially charged with the supervision of the scientific work. Succeeding Yearbooks have been issued under the supervision of the Department Editor, Geo. Wm. Hill.
To the Columbian Exposition in Chicago succeeded an Interstate Exposition at Atlanta, Ga., in 1895, and an Exposition at Nashville, Tenn., in 1897. At both of these Doctor Dabney was the representative of the Department of Agriculture and was also appointed chairman of the Government Board.
SECRETARY WILSON’S ADMINISTRATION.
James Wilson, of Traer, Iowa, became Secretary on March 5, 1897, by appointment of President McKinley, and has held the position nearly four years longer than any of his predecessors. Congress has shown its appreciation of his services by constantly increasing appropriations which have encouraged a large and well-ordered extension of the Department activities. The appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, is $9,932,940, against $2,448,332 for that ended June 30, 1897, while the number of employees on July 1, 1906,a was 6,242, against 2,043 on July 1, 1897.
Col. J. H. Brigham, of Delta, Ohio, was appointed Assistant Secretary on March 22, 1897, and continued in office till his death on June 29, 1904.
Joseph Henry Brigham was born at Lodi, Ohio, on December 12, 1838. He was educated in the common schools of the State with one term each at Berea University near Cleveland and at the normal school at Lebanon, Ohio. He served through the civil war, rising from a private to be colonel of the Twelfth and Sixty-ninth Ohio regiments. After the war he engaged continuously in farming until his death. He held several county offices and was in the State senate. He was for six years a member of the Ohio State board of agriculture and one year its president, and he was appointed by William McKinley when governor of Ohio to be president of the State board of managers of the penitentiary. He was an early member of the Patrons of Husbandry and for nine years master of the National Grange.
Colonel Brigham was the Department representative at many public meetings in the interest of agriculture and was chairman of the Government board at the national expositions occurring during his term of office. These were the Pan-American at Buffalo in 1901, the Louisiana at St. Louis in 1904, and the Lewis and Clark at Portland, Oreg., for which preparations were actively progressing at the time of his death.
Prof. W. M. Hays, of the University of Minnesota, was appointed Assistant Secretary of Agriculture by President Roosevelt on December 19, 1904.
Willet Martin Hays was born in Hardin County, Iowa, on October 19, 1859. In boyhood he attended a country school near Gifford in
a Appointments since that date number nearly 1,283, making the total about 7,525 on December 31, 1906. Many of the new appointees are meat inspectors.
his native county. He was in Oskaloosa College, 1878–1880; Drake University, 1882–83; and Iowa Agricultural College, 1883–1886. He received the degrees of bachelor and master of agriculture from the Iowa school in 1885 and 1895. He was assistant professor of agriculture in Iowa Agricultural College in 1886; assistant editor of the Prairie Farmer, 1887; 1888–1891, professor of agriculture, University of Minnesota, and agriculturist, Minnesota Experiment Station; held the same positions in North Dakota Agricultural College and Experiment Station in 1892–93; and in 1894 returned to his former place in Minnesota, where he remained till selected for Assistant Secretary by the President. Part of this time he was resident director of the Experiment Station.
Professor Hays devised methods of breeding wheat, corn, flax, alfalfa, and other field crops now widely used by breeders throughout the world; he also devised methods of studying and teaching the subject of farm management; and aided in the establishment of education in dairying and live stock husbandry. He has been a pioneer in urging the introduction of the elements of agricultural science early in the courses of study in the rural schools, and was one of the first to move for the establishment of the Minnesota system of agricultural high schools.
He is a member of the American Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is on the industrial education committee of the National Education Association. In 1900 he organized the American Breeders' Association, of which he is secretary.
Changes in organization.-Very notable changes have been made within the Department of Agriculture since 1897. The naturally allied services of plant-disease and plant-breeding investigations, botanical investigations, pomological investigations, horticultural investigations, and seed and plant testing and distribution were brought into a well-proportioned unity in 1900 as the Bureau of Plant Industry, and to these lines several kindred branches of work have since been added. Important among these latter are the branches of farm management and drug and poison plant investigations.
The Bureau of Forestry was about the same time organized from the division of the same name, and under a new chief put itself in communication with owners of wooded lands, large and small, all over the country. More recently this service has been greatly augmented by the transfer of the national forest reserves and other forested lands to its control. With these enlarged duties the Forester's corps of workers under the new name of the Forest Service has spread over the entire country, and he has an income from the reserves which is
expected eventually to pay for the entire service under his direction. In 1905–6 it amounted to about $700,000, of which 10 per cent goes to the States where the reserves lie. This office has also been called to aid in an advisory way in the management of the important forest interests of Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands..
Other branches of the Department which have been changed within the period indicated from a divisional to a bureau organization with large increase of activities are the Bureau of Chemistry, Bureau of Soils, Bureau of Entomology, Bureau of Statistics, and Bureau of Biological Survey. The present organization and lines of work of these and other divisions of the Department may be found on page 47.
The work of the Bureau of Animal Industry has been much enlarged by the addition of a butter-inspection service, and that of the chemist by putting in his charge the inspection of imported food products.
The Office of Fiber Investigations was discontinued in 1898 and the work was transferred to the Division of Botany.
The Division of Foreign Markets was organized separately from the Division of Statistics in 1898, with Frank H. Hitchcock as chief, and in 1904 was joined with that division to form the Bureau of Statistics.
A Solicitor for the Department was first provided for in the appropriation bill approved on March 3, 1905.
The museum was put in storage in 1904, when the house in which it was kept was torn down to make room for the new Department building
New industries.-Secretary Wilson in his first report announced it as his policy “to encourage the introduction of what will enable our people to diversify their crops and keep at home money that is now sent abroad to buy what the United States should produce.” His attention was early called to the large purchases of sugar from regions no better adapted to sugar production than are parts of the United States. He at once imported a supply of beet seed and set the chemist, with the aid of a special agent, to determine what sections of the country will grow beets of a high sugar content. This was followed by the systematic encouragement of sugar-beet growing. From this beginning beet-sugar production in the United States has increased from 37,536 tons in 1897 in only four States to 312,920 tons in 1905 in twelve States. This, of course, means the eightfold increase of the manufacturing industry hand in hand with the growth of beet farming.
Also from the beginning renewed interest was taken in the teaculture experiments in South Carolina which had been abandoned by Commissioner Loring early in his term, but had been continued by private efforts of Dr. Charles U. Shepard at Summerville, S. C. In a like manner in 1903 the silk investigations, which had been discontinued under Secretary Rusk in 1891, were again begun with the hope that new developments in the production of the cocoons and in reeling the silk with the aid of French experts might open a profitable field for American enterprise. In both these cases the great popular interest continuously manifested furnished a warrant for Government activity.
New crops.-Agricultural explorations for the purpose of discovering new crops, new varieties of old crops, new methods of cultivation and farm management, new species of desirable domestic animals, and new means of combating diseases of animals and plants and injurious insects, formed an important feature of the period from 1897 to 1905. Early in this was the examination of Russian fields for new kinds of wheat suited to the arid west. As a result durum wheats were introduced in the Northwest and now yield 25 million bushels a year for macaroni making and other special uses. In the South, Egyptian cottons were introduced and have proved valuable, especially in crossing for superior new breeds; while in Arizona and California date growing and fig production were placed on a commercial basis. In the latter the problem was solved by the importation of the fig fertilizing insect to which the Smyrna fig industry largely owes its success. Rice production was established in the tide lands of Louisiana and Texas by the importation of Kiushu rice from Japan and the use of irrigation in growing it. In Arkansas, rice growing has since been made successful on the upland prairies by use of wells for irrigation. In addition many other successful innovations have been spread among progressive farming communities all over the country. Such are alfalfa, emmer, millet, new varieties of oats and barley, new fruits, and new breeds of animals, such as Angora and milch goats. Special work has just begun looking to the establishment of a breed of carriage horses of a high grade of excellence, with the stallion Carmon as the founder of the line. The growing of alfalfa has been actively encouraged and very wide interest awakened east of the Mississippi, where this important forage plant had been neglected for many years.
Plant breeding.–At no time in the history of this country probably has there been such activity both in the Department and in private hands in the production and improvement of economic plants of special value by selection of seed and scion and by hybridization. The citrus fruits have received particular attention in the Bureau of Plant Industry. Among the new productions in that line are three citranges, originated by crossing the sweet orange and the trifoliate orange; two new tangerines, and a tangelo, the latter a hybrid of the pomelo and the tangerine; a large blood orange, and two seedling