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stopping, when if they had had access to such a place as this, they would soon have learnt byinspecting good, correct, highly finished working models, that no such thing as perpetual motion can ever exist. And yet, perhaps, some of the most important mechanical improvements that have been made, have been discovered by chance, by individuals who have been perseveringly engaged in pursuit of perpetual motion. And this is not the only idle pursuit that has been beneficial to mankind, some two centuries since, very many of the cleverest of men had an idea that there was a way of making gold, and that certain chemical compounds would produce a substance to be called the philosopher's stone, and that this when found, would enable the possessor to produce gold at will. This idea induced people to go to very great expenses to endeavour to discover a thing that had no existence, but in trying to discover what was not, they made some of the most important and grand discoveries in chemistry. Again, from a very early period of society, there were persons who pretended to judge of the influence of the stars, and to foretell coming events from the motion of them, and of the star's aspects to each other; these people were called astrologers, and if they were told the moment precisely that an individual was born, they produced what they called his horoscope, and thus by their science, called astrology, they pretended to decide what his

propensities were to be, and what his future destiny. Ridiculous as this may appear, it was believed by the learned, the great, the good, and the wise. And what was the fact, whilst persons were devoting their whole time to an idle pursuit, they were doing very great good, for whilst they were themselves in the idlest of all idle chaces, they were making rapid strides in improving the most beautiful of all studies, the science of astronomy. And thus we see how the great and good God produces from the follies of mankind, improvements to benefit the whole world. For what can be more beautiful than the idea, that poor man is enabled for three or four years before hand, to calculate to the very moment that such a star will be visible above the horizon, if the telescope is placed in such a direction.

MECHANICS' INSTITUTION.-We should not forget to mention, that for the improvement of the working classes in almost every large town in the kingdom, there are mechanics institutions, where a large proportion of the respectable inhabitants unite with the day-labouring and subscribe sums not exceeding ten shillings a year, more usually two shillings per quarter, and hire or build a large room where lectures upon those subjects connected with mechanics, or the principles of nature, are delivered, very frequently, either by clever gentlemen in their neighbourhoods, or by professional lecturers hired from London. Geology, Electricity, Hydraulics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, and the powers of the microscope thus become familiar to them all. Persons in the first instance present books, and as their funds allow, they make purchases, until in a very short time, they get extensive collections of first rate books. We have heard our friend John Fincham, Esq., who is a great encourager of these institutions, lecture to the Chatham Mechanics’ Institution, and we are perfectly satisfied that these institutions are calculated to do much good, as working men here become acquainted with correct data, as regards moving powers, the steam engine, &c., and many, very many will be enabled to carry out any little experimental improvements from hints which they may hear at mechanics' institutions. At all events, it will afford to such as wish to become clever men an opportunity to do so, as the books which they can get at these places could not be procured by them unless such institutions were in existence, and many a young working man is kept out of bad company by having the lecture room and the library of a mechanics' institution to resort to, instead of being the visitor of the drinking room of a public house. We heard there was much prejudice against their being established, but the advantages of them have at last become so apparent and obvious, that nearly every one now thinks they are a blessing to the class of people for whom they were intended.

CHAPTER XII.

BAZAARS.—LAYCOCK'S DAIRY.-MARKETS.

There are in London several bazaars for the sale of trinkets, cutlery, artificial flowers, &c., there is an extensive one in Soho Square, King Street Bazaar, Portman Square, and the Pantheon in Oxford Street, they are very well conducted, and as we consider the Pantheon in Oxford Street, to be superior to all the rest, we shall endeavour to describe it. You enter first a hall where there is sculpture and a great many vases for sale, and you then go up a wide stair case to a most extensive valuable and beautiful collection of oil painting ; here are to be found some very magnificent pictures occupying three spacious rooms, and in a very large gallery, as well as upon the ground floor, are to be purchased at stalls kept by well dressed and most orderly behaved young ladies, almost every fancy article that is to be procured in any of the shops in London. Here is to be found jewellery, music, china work boxes, tastefully made children's frocks, all sorts of children's toys, and waxen flowers, so natural, you cannot tell them from nature-you are not importuned to purchase -you walk about as long as you please—look at every thing, and if you ask the prices, have a civil answer. Many of the young women who keep these stalls are very handsome. We should think there are nearly two hundred of them. There is here also a magnificent conservatory, where beautiful plants and nosegays of flowers may be purchased, and here flower seeds and flower roots may be obtained, and a person may be quite satisfied from the respectability of the proprietor, that all the things are good of their sorts. There is no charge made for admission.

We spoke of the Adelaide Gallery being in the Lowther Arcade. It is a very beautiful erection. It is two hundred and forty-five feet long. It is twenty feet wide, and is thirty-five feet high. It is a covered paved promenade lighted by skylights in the roof, and the shops on either side, which are all uniform as to size, are well stocked with jewellery, millinery, cutlery, perfumery, toys and fancy articles. It is a very nice place to walk in in the heat of the day, and next to the bazaars, one of the prettiest sights of the sort in London; when it is not much thronged with people, the perspective from one end of the Arcade to the other is very beautiful. There is also an Arcade of a

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