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TEXT. both in body and in spirit: but she that is married, careth for the

things of the world, how she may please her husband. 35 And this I speak for your own profit, not that I may cast a snare

upon you, but for that which is comely, and that you may attend

upon the Lord without distraction. 36 But if any man think he behaveth himself uncomely towards his

virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, let him

do what he will: he sinneth not: let them marry. 37 Nevertheless, he that standeth stedfast in his heart, having no ne

cessity, but hath power over his own will, and hath so decreed in his heart, that he will keep his virgin, doth well.


has opportunity to mind the things of religion, that she may be holy in mind and body; but the married woman is taken

up with the cares of the world, how to please her husband. 35 This I say to you, for your particular advantage, not to lay

any constraint upon you', but to put you in a way, wherein you may most suitably, and as best becomes Christianity, apply

yourselves to the study and duties of the Gospel, without dis36 traction. But, if any one thinks that he carries not himself

as becomes him to his virgin, if he lets her pass the flower

of her age unmarried, and need so requires, let him do as 37 he thinks fit; he sins not, if he marry her. But whoever is

settled in a firm resolution of mind, and finds himself under no necessity of marrying, and is master of his own will, or is at his own disposal, and has so determined in his thoughts, that he will keep his virginity P, he chooses the better

NOTES. 35 • Bpóxos, which we translate a snare, signifies a cord, which possibly the apostle

might, according to the language of the Hebrew school, nse here for binding; and then his discourse rups thus : Though I have declared my opivion, that it is best for a virgin to remain unmarried, yet I bind it not, i. e. I do not declare it

to be unlawful to marry. 37 ? Mapdèvoy seems used here for the virgin state, and not the person of a virgin;

whether there be examples of the like use of it, I know not; and therefore I propose it as my conjecture, upon these grounds : 1. Because the resolution of mind, here spoken of, must be in the person to be married, and not in the father, that has the power over the person concerned : for how will the firmvess of mind of the father hinder fornication in the child, who has not that firm. ness ? 2. The necessity of marriage can only be judged of by the persons themselves. A father cannot feel the child's flames, which make the need of marriage. The persons themselves only know whether they bury, or have the gift of continence. 3. Εξουσίαν έχει περί του ιδίου θελήματος, “ hath the power over his owo will,” must either signify, “ can govern his own desires, is master of his own will," but this cannot be meant here, because it is sufficiently expressed before, by ipasos xapdię, “ stedfast in heart;" and afterwards too, by xixgoxey in ph napię, “ decreed in heart :” or must siguify, “ has the disposal

TEXT. 38 So then he that giveth her in marriage doth well: but he that

giveth her not in marriage doth better. 39 The wife is bound by the law, as long as her husband liveth ; but if

her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she

will; only in the Lord. 40 But she is happier, if she so abide, after my judgment: and I think

also that I have the Spirit of God.

PARAPHRASE. 38 siden. So then he that marrieth doth well; but he that 39 marrieth' not doth better. It is unlawful for a woman to

leave her husband, as long as he lives: but when he is dead, she is at liberty to marry, or not to marry, as she pleases, and to whom she pleases; which virgins cannot do, being under the

disposal of their parents; only she must take care to marry, as 40 a Christian, fearing God. But, in my opinion, she is happier,

if she remain a widow; and permit me to say, that whatever any among you may think or say of me, “ I have the Spirit of God, so that I may be relied on in this my advice, that I do not mislead you."

NOTES. of bimself,” i. e. is free from the father's power, of disposing their children in marriage. For, I think, the words should be translated, “ hath a power concerning his own will," i. e. concerning what he willeth. For if, by it, St. Paul meant a power over his own will, one might think he would have expressed that thought as he does chap. ix. 12, and Rom. ix. 21, without nepi, or by the prepositiou énd, as it is Luke ix. l. 4. Because, if “ keep his virgin" had here sig. nified, keep his children from marrying, the expression had been more natural to have used the word téxva, which siguifies both sexes, than wapbévos, which belongs only to the female. If therefore waçdévos be taken abstractly for virginity, the precedent verse must be understood thus: “But if any one think it a shame to pass the flower of his age unmarried, and he finds it necessary to marry, let him do as he pleases; he sins not : let such marry." I confess it is hard to bring these two verses to the same sense, and both of them to the design of the apostle here, without taking the words in one or both of them very figuratively. St. Paul here seems to obviate an objection, that might be made against his dissuasion from marriage, viz. that it might be an indecency one should be guilty of, if one should live unmarried past one's prime, and afterwards be forced to marry. To which he answers, That nobody should abstain, upon the account of being a Christian, but those, who are of steady resolutions, are at their own disposal,

avd have fully determined it in their own minds. 37 Kanws here, as in ver. 1, 8, and 26, signifies not simply good, but preferable. 38 " llaçðáros being taken in the sense beforementioned, it is necessary, in this

verse, to follow the copies, which read yapítwr, “marrying," for éxyapiyor, "giving in marriage."




This section is concerning the eating things offered to idols; wherein one may guess, by St. Paul's answer, that they had writ to him, that they knew their Christian liberty herein, that they knew that an idol was nothing; and, therefore, that they did well to show their knowledge of the nullity of the heathen gods, and their disregard of them, by eating promiscuously, and without scruple, things offered to them. Upon which, the design of the apostle here seems to be, to take down their opinion of their knowledge, by showing them, that, notwithstanding all the knowledge they presumed on, and were puffed up with, yet the eating of those sacrifices did not recommend them to God; vid. ver. 8, and that they might sin in their want of charity, by offending their weak brother. This seems plainly, from ver. 1-3, and 11, 12, to be the design of the apostle's answer here, and not to resolve the case, of eating things offered to idols, in its full latitude. For then he would have prosecuted it more at large here, and not have deferred the doing of it to chap. X., where, under another head, he treats of it more particularly.

TEXT. 1 Now as touching things offered unto idols, we know that we all have

knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth. 2 (And if any man think, that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth

nothing yet, as he ought to know.


1 As for things offered up unto idols, it must not be questioned but that every one of you,

who stand so much upon your knowledge, know that the imaginary gods, to whom the Gentiles sacrifice, are not in reality gods, but mere fictions; but, with this, pray remember, that such a knowledge, or opinion of their knowledge, swells men with pride and vanity: But

charity it is, that improves and advances men in Christianity. 2 (But, if any one be conceited of his own knowledge, as if

Christianity were a science for speculation and dispute, he knows

NOTE. 1. To coutinue the thread of the apostle's discourse, the 7th verse must be road as

joined to the Ist, and all between looked on as a parenthesis.

TEXT. 3 But if any man love God, the same is known of him. 4 As concerning, therefore, the eating of those things that are offered

in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world,

and that there is none other God but one. 5 For, though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven, or in

earth, as there be gods many, and lords many, 6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things,

and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things,

and we by him.) 7 Howbeit there is not in every man that knowledge: for some, with

PARAPHRASE. 3 nothing yet of Christianity, as he ought to know it. But if

any one love God, and consequently his neighbour for God's

sake, such an one is made to knowb, or has got true knowledge 4 from God himself. To the question, then, of eating things

offered to idols, I know, as well as you, that an idol, i. e. that the fictitious gods, whose images are in the heathen temples,

are no real beings in the world; and there is in truth no other 5 but one God. For though there be many imaginary nominal

gods, both in heaven and earth', as are indeed all their many 6 gods, and many lords, which are merely titular; Yet to us

Christians there is but one God, the Father and the Author of all things, to whom alone we address all our worship and service; and but one Lord, viz. Jesus Christ, by whom all

things come from God to us, and by whom we have access to n the Father). For notwithstanding all the great pretences to

NOTES. 3 b "Eyvu'ças, " is made to know, or is taught." The apostle, though writing in

Greek, yet often uses the Greek verbs according to the Hebrew conjugations. So chap. xiii. 12, étryrocopos, which, according to the Greek propriety, signifies, I shall be known," is used for, “ I shall be made to know;" and so, Gal. iv.

9, yrwolévtos is put to signify, “ being taught.” 5 c“ In heaven and earth.” The heathens had supreme sovereign gods, whom

they supposed eternal, remaining always in the heavens ; those were called Geol, gods : they had besides another order of inferior gods, “ gods upon earth," who, by the will and direction of the heavenly gods, governed terrestrial things, and were the mediators between the supreme, heavenly gods and men, without whom there could be no communication between them. These were called in Scripture, Baalim, i. e. Lords : and by the Greeks, A abyoves. To this the apostle alludes here, saying, though there be, in the opinion of the heathens, “ gods many," i. e, many celestial, sovereign gods, in heaven : and “ lords many, i. e. many Baalim," or Lords-agent, and presidents over earthly things ; yet to us, Christians, there is but one sovereign God, the Father, of whom are all things, and to whom, as supreme, we are to direct all our services : and but one Lordagent, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, that come from the Father to us, aud through whom alone we find access unto him. Mede's Disc, on 2 Pet. ij. 1. or Disc. 43. p. 242.

TEXT. conscience of the idol, unto this hour, eat it as a thing offered unto

an idol; and their conscience, being weak, is defiled. 8 But meat commendeth us not to God: for neither, if we eat, are

we the better; neither, if we eat not, are we the worse. 9 But take heed, lest, by any means, this liberty of yours become a

stumbling-block to them that are weak. 10 For, if any man see thee, which hast knowledge, sit at meat in the

idol's temple, shall not the conscience of him, which is weak, be

emboldened to eat those things which are offered to idols ? 11 And, through thy knowledge, shall the weak brother perish, for

wbom Christ died? 12 But, when ye sin so against the brethren, and wound their weak

conscience, ye sin against Christ.

PARAPHRASE. knowledge, that are amongst you, every one doth not know, that the gods of the heathens are but imaginations of the fancy, mere nothing. Some to this day, conscious to themselves that they think those idols to be real deities, eat things sacrificed to them, as sacrificed to real deities; whereby doing that which they, in their consciences, not yet suffici

ently enlightened, think to be unlawful, are guilty of sin. 8 Food, of what kind soever, makes not God regard usd. For

neither, if in knowledge, and full persuasion, that an idol is nothing, we eat things offered to idols, do we thereby add any thing to Christianity: or if, not being so well informed,

we are scrupulous, and forbear, are we the worse Christians, 9 or are lessened by it. But this you knowing men ought to

take especial care of: that the power of freedom you have to eat, be not made such an use of, as to become a stumbling

block to weaker Christians, who are not convinced of that 10 liberty. For if such an one shall see thee, who hast this

knowledge of thy liberty, sit feasting in an idol-temple, shall not his weak conscience, not thoroughly instructed in the matter of idols, be drawn in by thy example to eat what

is offered to idols, though he, in his conscience, doubt of 11 its lawfulness? And thus thy weak brother, for whom Christ

died, is destroyed by thy knowledge, wherewith thou justifiest 12 thy eating. But when you sin thus against your brethren,

and wound their weak consciences, you sin against Christ.

NOTES. 8 d Oi wapísnou, sets us not before God, i. e. to be taken potice of by him.

e It cannot be supposed, that St. Paul, in answer to a letter of the Corinthians, should tell them, that, if they eat things offered to idols, they were pot the better; or, if they eat not, were not the worse, unless they had expressed some opinion of good in eating.

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