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gay and Caxtou by Coninjrton, Lnngstanton, Cuttenham, and Upwarc. But the junction of the gait and red sand is covered up on the west of Cambridge by a large diluvial patch of brown clay, which is full of rounded nodules of chalk. This brown clay forms an upland which extends from Bourne, by Toft and Hardwicke, to Dry Drayton, where it drops intn the plain; but the junction of the strata in the plain is still covered up with ferruginous gravel, as at Oakington. Below the red sand occur other clays, easily confounded with the gait, but identified with the Kimmeridge and Oxford clays by their fossils. These are found at Gransdcn, Cottenham fen, and Ely. It was stated that the relations of the successive formations are very obscurely exhibited, in consequence of the strata and their junctions being masked by diluvial masses; and it was requested that all persons who might obtain any additional information from excavations, borings, or fossils, would communicate it.
At a subsequent meeting, Professor Miller read a memoir on the position of the optical axes of crystals. Professor Henslow noticed some newly observed localities of the (upper) green sand in the neighbourhood of Barton and Haslingfield. He then made some remarks on Decandolle's rules for determining the
age of trees; and mentioned some instances which he had noticed during the preceding summer, where they did not apply in the case of the Yew. lie conceived that these rules, when applied to several well-known Yew trees in Britain, must give the age considerably too greatProfessor Airy mentioned the echo which is returned by the open end of the tall chimney recently erected at Barnwell gas-works. Professor Gumming then gave a statement of Mclloni's discoveries on the transmission of heat by radiation, through glass and crystallized bodies, illustrated by apparatus and experiments.
Meetings of the Society for 1835.—Lent Term: Mondays, March 2, 16, and 30. —Easter Term: Mondays, May 4, 18, and June 1.—Michaelmas Terms: Friday (anniversary) Nov. 0, Monday, Nov. 16, 30, and Dec. 14.
The Lalande Medal, which is every year adjudged by the French Institute to the author of the most important advance in astronomy,hasjust been assigned to Professor Airy, for the service rendered to physical astronomy by his observations. It was last year given to Sir John Herschel for his discoveries respecting double stars.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Many thanks to " E. B."—the Psalm-tunes from Hertfordshire arrived safely, and will suit our purpose. We are equally obliged by the Melody from Herefordshire. Others, or a reference to others, from any of our Correspondents, will be equally acceptable.
We beg gratefully to acknowledge the many versions of the Psalms alluded to in our last number, with which we have been so readily favoured by "R. B. B." "R. L." "H. D." " W. W. S." and "T."; and also to " W. S." for his valuable manuscript volume.
The observations of " H. D." fully accord with our own.
A perusal of the versions of the Psalms mentioned by "W. W. S." will oblige us.
To the Psalms mentioned in our last number, p. 753, of which we requested versions, should have been added the 18th and 147th.
Our publisher will be happy to give double price for any numbers of our miscellany for January or July of 1834.
We have only just seen a sixth letter of a Sir Arthur Brooke Faulkner on the Affairs of the Church, from which we learn that the gentleman is out of England ; it would therefore only be a greater waste of paper to reply to his trash than If he were in. But should he on his return write any more nonsense, and oar Gloucestershire friends would take the trouble to forward his epistle, we promise to supply the said Sir Arthur with a more powerful bolus than ever he administered during his own medical practice.
The latter from " X." came too late for our present number.
We are so much pleased with "Norfolciensis," that we shall hope to draw still further upon his talent.
At p. Milner.
ERRATUM. 673, the tenth line from the bottom, of our last volume, for Hitman read
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Akt. I.—A Sermon on the Temper to be cultivated by Christians of different Denominations towards each other; to which is annexed, a Letter to the Rev. Samuel Lee, D.D. fyc. Regius Professor of Hebrew in the University of Cambridge. By John Pye Smith, D.D. London: Jackson & Walford. 1835. Pp. 92.
Foe a long time, and until within a recent period, a large proportion of the Clergy, and the greater part of the laity in communion with the Church, cultivated the most friendly relations with Dissent, and puhlicly joined with dissenters, in promoting various objects connected with religious and general instruction. In these unions the Church surrendered every thing, and took nothing. By meeting dissenting ministers on the same platform, and on equal terms, the Clergy were virtually sanctioning the pretensions of an intrusive and unauthorized ministry; and by consenting to compromise every church principle, in submission to the requirements or scruples of whatever party, they presented the great questions which are identified with the constitution of the Church in the light of unimportant and sectarian peculiarities. Thus raising Dissent by the respectability they conferred upon it, and descending from their own eminence to meet it on the same level, they gave it influence and power of which dissenters were not slow to avail themselves. The claims of the Church to any authority beyond that which she derived from the State protection, and from the learning and respectability of the Clergy, were treated as an antiquated fable; and against these secular advantages were placed the pretensions of Dissent to superior conformity with the gospel; superior sanctity, usefulness, and zeal. Such representations were not without effect even beyond the pale of Dissent; and while this false liberality prevailed, the Churchman who ventured to expose its mischievous tendency was sure to be regarded as a bigot.
VOL. XVII. NO. II. it
The praise of first giving an effectual and general check to a system which was undermining the influence of the Church is due to the National Society. Every national school was an appeal to the principles of Churchmen, to make christian truth the basis of education, and to communicate it in strict accordance with the principles of the Establishment. The Clergyman by whose exertions the school was founded and supported, was thus enabled to take once more firm and decided ground under his own standards. The prayerless nurseries for raising a generation of heathens, which before were fast spreading through the land, sunk, wherever they were left to the sole care of dissenters; while the first promoter of them, whose name they bore till it was changed for the more imposing title of British and Foreign Schools, was left by his party to proclaim in foreign countries his destitution and their ingratitude, as a public beggar. The last strong plea of the latitudinarian was struck down by the exposure of the extravagance and mismanagement of the Bible Society; contrasting as it did with the quiet effectiveness of the old Church institutions.
But while the Church was thus silently resuming her own ground, she displayed and felt no hostility towards the dissenter. Moderate, kind, and courteous to the last, she was liberal even beyond what duty would have sanctioned. The journals in connexion with Dissent might have shown that this kindly feeling was not reciprocal; but besides that the insignificance and dullness of most of these confine their circulation to their own sects, and indeed would only provoke a smile of pity for their enmity, it is the privilege of conscious dignity and strength to disregard feeble opponents. Whatever may be thought of the policy of her conduct, it is not now to be regretted, for it left those who have since assailed her wholly without provocation or excuse.
Such was the state of things when a great political struggle shook the country, and seemed to identify the Church with a fallen party. Immediately Dissent sprang to the foremost rank of the Destructives, and animated and cheered them on fo their expected victim. The benefits she had received from the Church awakened no recollections of gratitude. Orthodoxy, piety, and usefulness, found no sympathy in her bosom. Popery and Infidelity met no repelling principle when 8he joined them in close alliance. No feeling of disgust made her hesitate when she threw herself at the head of a party which enlisted every thing detestable in public and private character. Talk of the abominations of Popery—of her readiness to sanction and approve the crimes committed in her cause! when did Popery, in her worst ages, display a more reckless dereliction of principle than marks the conduct of Dissent for the last four years?
But the party miscalculated the firmness of the Peers, and the moral strength of the country. Above all, in exerting unhallowed means to accomplish their unhallowed purposes, they forgot who governs the nations of the earth, and controls the madness of the people. When they would have assailed the Church, she was found guarded as by a wall of fire. From that moment the Government of which dissenters boasted themselves, and truly, to be the chief supporters, sunk to contempt. The statesmen who had given it character, forsook it in disgust, or were driven from it by intrigue. The remnant of the expiring faction submitted weakly to be tools of a demagogue whom a little time before they had as weakly denounced; and the very day which made known their determination to crush the Irish Church by exacting from the Clergy a payment which their own measures had made impossible, announced their overthrow to the country.
Dissent stands identified with all the wickedness of this party, and with all the shame of their proceedings. At mob meetings, her ministers—the ministers of the gospel of peace—have stood foremost among the firebrands of sedition. Her journals have exerted themselves to support the Destructive party now so happily overthrown. Her name has been made, and with her full approval, the prominent watchword of that party. She has pleaded her own influence, and the importance of her support to them, to goad them on to measures which they would willingly have declined. Her recognized representatives have formally proclaimed hostility to the present Government, notoriously because it is known to be friendly to the Church, and have called upon all their friends to resist it. She has thrown off the cloak of religion, and now stands exposed in all the deformity of a turbulent political faction.
Amidst all this, the charity which hopeth all things could suggest a plea even for Dissent. She was supposed to include two classes of characters; the political and the religious dissenter. The first could be regarded only with disgust; for truly, his conduct was too gross and notorious to be palliated. But it was believed that a large section, including the chief part of her respectability and orthodoxy, regarded the proceedings of their associates with shame and sorrow. The chief, if not the only presumption that such a section exists, was founded on the character of Dr. Pye Smith. Set in a prominent and influential position, and distinguished as a scholar and a writer, he was naturally supposed to represent the opinions of a large party; and he had done himself honour by his protest against the unchristian violence of the Ecclesiastical Knowledge Society, and by expressing on different occasions a kindly feeling towards the Church. Thus he disarmed half the resentment which the conduct of Dissent provoked, and obtained for himself a consideration and regard which a Clergyman of superior pretensions might have sought in vain.
Nothing, indeed, could surpass the kindness which Dr. Smith
received from the Church. Often mentioned in her publications, as well as by her dignitaries and Clergy, he was never named but with respect; and her express patronage gave to his work an importance which it could not have derived from his own sect, and which was justly considered by his publisher and himself as a fact to be announced with complacency.
Dr. S. has thus enabled the Church to afford a proof that her conduct has been purely defensive; that she can be more than just to the merits of a dissenter; and that she has been unwillingly forced into a hostile position by the implacable enmity of those, who have long defamed, and would now destroy her. With heartfelt sorrow we must add, that Dr. S., in the publication before us, proves, that our belief in the existence of a liberal party among dissenters was a dream; that Dissent degrades whom she does not disgust; and in her best form disappoints those who trust her.
Whether Dr. S. was insincere in his former professions; whether he has been carried away by the example of his party; or, finally, whether he has found himself compelled to the alternative of quitting that party, or of going all lengths with them; are questions which perhaps he alone can answer. Certain it is that he has now attacked the Church, not indeed with vulgarity, for his taste and education forbid that, but with calumny enough to satisfy the most rancorous dissenter.
The Sermon, with the Letter to Dr. Lee, which forms an Appendix to it, displays the usual features of political anti-church Dissent—great self-complacency—much tenderness for Socinianism—enmity to the Church—a disposition to vilify the Clergy—and a liberalism in politics. The copious extracts we have to offer will establish every point; and we shall give them without comment, that Dr. Smith may be judged by his own words alone.
We cannot better head our extracts in support of the first charge, than with a passage at p. 47.
On the high and solemn ground of reference to the only christian RULE of faith and practice, that which will be the Test of our standing before the judgmentseat of Christ; (be not offended; I say it not with any indulgence to pride; God forbid! If we are thus happy, it is by grace, rich and unmerited mercy from on high ;) wc humbly claim a station Above all the established churclies thnt are or ever were in Christendom; for their distinctions, magnificent and splendid as they may be, are derived from the commandments and ordinances of men; ours are the results of a simple submission and a close adherence to the Sole Authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, declared in the scriptures of the New Testament. This is our honour, but it can subsist only with humility; "Christ All And In All."
Among a series of theses which he lays down, we find the following:—
V. That the most pure and successful efforts for the advancement of true religion, by its revival among those who had already embraced it, and its dissemination in heathen and unenlightened countries, have always been such