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exceedingly attached to their pastor, while the parish are dissatisfied on account of his spirituality, and christian ardour. Hence arises a contest between the church and the parish. These contests have, of late years, been very frequent in Massachusetts. They have generally resulted in a separation—the parish retaining, by virtue of numbers, the meeting-house;—the church, with a few associated individuals, retaining and sustaining the pastor. Under these circumstances, the church erects a new meeting-house, and the parish obtains a new minister. This has been the nature and the result of the Unitarian contest in the vicinity of Boston. The old house is occupied by the Unitarian parish, with their new minister; the new house is occupied by the church, with their Orthodox minister. I think that no one will contradict the fact, however it may be accounted for, that in almost every such case, a few years has shewn the marked decrease, if not total decay, of the Unitarian parish, and the signal prosperity and increase of the ejected church. There are, undoubtedly, exceptions, where in consequence of peculiar circumstances, or individual popularity, the reverse has been the case; but in not a few of the towns, in which the separation has taken place, the old house is deserted and shut up, while the new house is filled with attentive worshippers.

Ministers are generally settled ostensibly for life, but the connexion, in fact, exists only so long as is mutually agreeable to the parties. Notunfrequently, a church important in influence will invite an able pastor from a church where his influence must be less extensive. Thus there are many removals. There are, however, many churches who deem it robbery thus to call from another church a highly-valued pastor. This subject is at the present time exciting some feeling in the churches. A young man enters the ministry in a retired parish. By diligent application to study, and active efforts in the parish, in a few years, he becomes eminent for pulpit eloquence, and pastoral skill. He is the friend and the confidant of all his people. They love his virtues, and are proud of his abilities.

The pastor of a church in the metropolis of the state dies. A young man has not the experience requisite for so important a situation. The eyes of the church are directed to this faithful pastor in some distant and peaceful valley. A committee are sent to invite him to remove. He feels it to be his duty to exert as wide an influence in the world as he can. And after a painful struggle in tearing away from the affections of his people, he is transplanted from the vale where he has obtained his strength, to the more couspicuous and arduous duties of a city pastor. Almost every pastor in the city has been previously settled over some country parish, or in retirement has been disciplined for his more extended field of influence. Common as are the removals, it is a continual source of excitement to the public mind. And though there are very mauy and powerful reasons in favour of such occasional transfers, it may be doubted whether, on the whole, more is not lost than gained. It not unfrequently happens, that a minister, who in one sphere met with great acceptance, and was exerting a very salutary influence, by removal, finds himself situated with a people with whose customs he is not familiar. A few months satisfies both himself and the people of his new charge, that it would have been far wiser for their pastor to have remained in the situation he previously occupied. But the people with whom he was first settled have engaged the services of another pastor; or if they have not, they have withdrawn from him their confidence and affection, in consequence of his leaving them. His failure in the new enterprise has injured his reputation in the community. He is soon again dismissed, and never regains the standing which he once held. Such cases are not rare.—Pp. 34—36.

We would casually observe, that the whole process of ordination, &c.

is a farce upon the face of the thing; for the pastors who ordain are

themselves, in their respective parishes, exactly in the same situation as

the neophyte, viz. under the spiritual government of their flocks! And

VOL. XVII. NO. IX. 4 A

so, instead of the institution of God, that " the Priest's lips should keep

knowledge, and they, i. e. the people, should seek the law at his mouth;

for he is the messenger of the Lord Of Hosts," (Matt. ii. 7,) there is the

determination of man, that the "people's lips shall keep knowledge, and

the Priest shall seek the law at their mouth; for he is the sworn hireling

of the flock." This is really and truly the state of the case. And so

considered, the preaching of such ministers so elected must be only an

exhibition for display on the one part, and amusement on the other.

I doubt (says our author) whether there is a body of harder-working men in the world, than the New England Clergy. They preach two written sermons every Sabbath; and on Sabbath evening, they generally preach an extempore sermon in the meeting-house. During the week, they hold two or three evening lectures. They are expected to visit, not unfrequently, every family in the parish—and these visits are generally made strictly religious visits, and closed with prayer. In addition to this, in all the country places, the general superintendence of the school devolves upon them. They examine the instructors, and visit the schools. Should a New England Clergyman venture to preach a sermon which he had not written himself, he would entirely forfeit his reputation. It may well be supposed, that with all these duties, and receiving but a small salary, few of the worldly and the ambitious would be enticed to enter the desk.—Pp. 32, 33.

We totally dissent from the opinion expressed in the last sentence:

for it is at least certain, according to the way in which they are paid,

that a person who pleases most will receive most; and that, therefore,

there is a field open to the worldly and ambitious.

The salary of the pastor is raised by voluntary contribution. The individuals wishing to belong to the parish, place their names upon the clerk's book, and the sums they are willing to pay. Sometimes they vote to assess a tax npou property; sometimes a tax upon pews. Those, and those only, pay who wish to do so, and they pay just what they choose.—Pp. 33.

We are by no means willing to deny, that it is possible, nay probable,

that what the author says about the zeal and sincerity of the pastors

may be true in its fullest extent. What we mean to say is, that the

system opens a door to every evil, which Christians should deprecate;

for though, as stated, "the moral influence of the churches upon each

other is strong;" and unsound doctrine, or doubtful piety, would ruin a

church, through the want of sympathy on the part of other churches;

still there is nothing in their constitution to prevent either one or the

other, should a general defection ensue, since the whole test of sound

doctrine, the whole criterion of piety, rests with the people.

The Clergymen of New England have generally formed themselves

into voluntary associations. Let us hear how they are conducted.

The association to which the writer of this chapter belongs, consists of twelve ministers. We all live within a few miles of each other, and meet once in three months, at ten o'clock in the morning, and adjourn at ten o'clock the next morning. The time is passed in listening to the performances which were assigned at the previous meeting. One preaches a sermon; another presents an explanation of some difficult passage of Scripture; another reads a dissertation: plans of sermons are presented, and all the exercises are made the subject of free and friendly criticism; questions are also frequently presented for the advice of the association.

Besides these numerous minor associations, there is, in each of the New England states, a General Association, composed of two delegates from each of these smaller bodies. The General Association meets once a year, and hears from its members a report of the state of religion within their respective limits. Suggestions which are deemed of general importance, are here presented and recommended to the churches. This body, composed of Clergymen from every section of the state, has deservedly great influence over the public mind. The measures which are proposed to the churches, sanctioned by their recommendation, are pretty generally adopted.

This is in general the ecclesiastical organization of the New England states. There are several other convocations of the Clergy, to consult respecting the general interests of the cause of religion. It is, however, unnecessary to be more particular.

As the churches are all sustained upon the principle of voluntary contributions, it is to voluntary aid alone that application can be made to plant and sustain the new churches which are so rapidly springing up throughout the length and breadth of our land.—Pp. 37, 38.

Now, it is not invidiously that we call the notice of our readers to the word "performances:" for it shows distinctly, that this apparently free system admits of a prescribed routine of display, even in its purest method of working. We also object to the example of New England being considered as a fitting one for Old England to follow, in this respect; yet,* we dare say, there are hundreds who in reading the extract below, will begin to quote it, as an argument for the measures which are in contemplation nearer home.

An appeal to the feelings of the Christian is almost invariably successful. And these appeals have been so successful in our churches, that the societies of christian benevolence, numerous as they are in our country, are in a state of high and increasing prosperity. The habit of contributing money—of making pecuniary sacrifices to sustain the cause of Christ, exerts so beneficial an influence upon the hearts of Christians, that in almost all cases, permanent funds are considered a curse, rather than a blessing. There is hardly an intelligent Christian to be found in the New England states, who does not feel that almost the greatest possible calamity which could befal the church, would be the patronage of the government.

A few ignorant and unprincipled men, as they see the unwearied activity of Christians, and the triumphant success which is crowning their cause, endeavour lo excite odium against religion, by raising the cry of "church and state." And some are so easily duped, as really to believe that Christians desire to make converts by law; and to build up churches by penal Btatutes. But the fact is, that almost every intelligent Christian in the land says to the government, *' Protect us in our rights, as men and citizens, but as Christians let us alone." Whether the christian community is correct in these views or not, it is not for me to decide. My object is, to state facts, without eulogy or censure.

It may also be stated that the result of every year's experience confirms Christians in these views. They are more and more convinced that there is no mode of operation so energetic and effectual, as that of voluntary association. It is this which has rolled back the tide of intemperance, which was heaving its surges over our land. It is this which is planting churches in every little village in our western wilderness, and supplying those churches witli pastors. It is this which is placing a Bible in every dwelling, and establishing Sabbath schools within the reach of all the children of the laud. It is this which has converted Hawaii, dark and dismal as she once was, to a christian place, and has gathered her roaming children to the school and the church. It is this which is now instructing the rangers of our own western wilds, and which is spreading out an increasing influence to all quarters of the globe.—Pp. 42, 43.

All this is special pleading. The case of New England, under a republican government, which shelters Deism as well as Christianity, (see our article on the Defence of Dr. Cooper, Vol. XVI. p. 389,) under the broad aegis of American independence ; and the case of Hawaii, scarcely yet delivered from the bondage of atheism and idolatry, may be well cited as far as their own circumstances are concerned; but as to Great Britain, under a monarchy of ten centuries old, and where the government has not only been baptized in Christianity, but actually besponsored by Protestantism, (woe to the men who shall unchurch her !) such reasoning as this is utterly inapplicable. It may be, that there are Christians unprotected by the state in America, because the patronage of the state would demoralize them; but they are Christians, despite their system; our system is utterly different, and therefore does not justly deserve to be condemned, in comparison of that which is but the infancy and trial of society. Nay, we have the opinion of Mr. Latrobe above, that all that is goo d in New England, comes from the leaven of the old country; and now, forsooth, our modern Daniels come to judgment, are for sweeping away all this with a new Brougham, to set up in its place a copy of the old heresy, or the new convenience, merely because they suit the persons who suit nothing but America.

(To be concluded in our next Number.)

LITERARY REPORT.

Baptism doth Save. A Sermon preached all times ready to admit. It is, at the

in the Parish Church of St-Andrew's, same time, more essentially the notion

Phjmouth, on Sunday, May 31,1835. of a spiritual change of principle and

By Rev.C A. I. Smith,Af.A. Curate. character, than those consider it, who

Plymouth: Row. London: Hat- suppose that there may be the original

chards. 1835. Pp. 23. grace of regeneration, where there is

never afterwards the characteristic of An exposition of 1 Pet. iii. 21,22, in one." Still all this leaves the great which the objections to the rite of controversy amongst those who do Baptism, as administered and received receive baptism as saving, just where in the Church of England, are briefly it was. Are, or are not, baptism and considered. The author, however, regeneration one and the same thing? does not enter so fully as he might If they are not, are they always found have done into the great doctrine of together? If not, why not? Where regeneration as connected with bap- does the responsibility of reconciletism, though his definition of it, so far ment of these positions rest? Till as it goes, is good.—"The scriptural these questions are clearly solved, doctrine of regeneration is more the sermons may be written on the subnotion of relative condition than the ject, but they will not answer their advocates of a contrary opinion Qtc at end.

Part 1. of the Holy Bible; containing the Old and Nerc Testaments, revised from Corrected Texts of the Original Tongues, and -with former Translations diligently compared. With Critical and Explanatory Notes. By B. Boothroyd, D.D. Editor of the "Biblia Hebraica," and Author of the " Family Bible" and "Improved Version," Sec. SfC. London: Duncan. 1835. Pp. ISO.

Thk works of Dr. Boothroyd are already well known and appreciated by the biblical public: we need not, therefore, state more, than that the present edition is in a cheap form, clear type, on good paper, and convenient size—of royal octavo; that it will be completed in ten parts, to be published monthly, at three shillings each.

Analecla Theological a Digested and Arranged Compendium of the most approved Commentators upon the Ntvo Testament. By the Rev. W. Trollope, M.A. Vol.11. London Cadell. 1835.

We have much pleasure in announcing the completion of the valuable and comprehensive body of exegetical and philological annotations on the New Testament. Having devoted a considerable space to the examination of the first volume, in the Christian Remembrancer for January, 1830, (pp. 15, et seq.) we have only to state, that the author has evinced the same industry in the compilation of his second volume. VY e consider the entire work to be an important and very useful accession to the library of the biblical student: and if any additional commendation of Mr.Trollope's labours were wanting, it will be found in the fact, that his work has been adopted as

a CLASS-BOOK AT TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN.

A Paraphrastic Translation of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. By Laicus. London: Simpkin & Marshall. Abingdon: Evans. 1831. Pp. 210. We arc informed, that the printing of this work is paid for by the author, and that the proceeds of the sale will

be given to the British and Foreign Bible Society. To the translation are appended a number of notes, chiefly taken from Professor Stuart, whose work on the Romans has been lately published by Dr. J. Pye Smith and Dr. Henderson. The translator holds the doctrines of" predestination " and the "free will of man," not thinking them capable of being reconciled by man, though fully reconcileable by God. On this point there is, and can, we think, be, no doubt;—and as long as men are willing to load the words of Scripture with no more meaning than they will carry, there is no great fear for consequences. Whether, however, any number offresh translations, or any number of notes upon the Epistle to the Romans, will ever lead men to think alike upon certain points alluded to in that epistle, and open to inquiry, is what we do not profess to believe. Let us all endeavour to derive from doctrines their intended result, sound practice, and holiness, and leave discussions alone about conclusions to which the Scriptures do not come. In saying this, we give no opinion whatever of this work.

Mary and Florence; or Grave and Gay. By A. F. T. London: Uatchards. 1835. Pp. 268.

An endeavour to convey, by the assistance of a pleasing tale, the great doctrine of redemption to children. The great risk run by such works is, that light reading is encouraged, and that the "grave" is apt to suffer by , connexion with the "gay." How far familiarizing the Scriptures in this way may lead to serious practical views of divine truth, when it is conveyed in fiction, is in our idea worth consideration. We cannot, therefore, express a decided opinion of this little book, beyond what we have often expressed of similar prod uctions.

A Protestant Memorial, for the Commemoration, on the Fourth day of October, 1835,ofthe Third Centenary of the Reformation, and of the Publication of the first entire Protestant English Version of the Bible, Oct. 4, 1635. By Thomas Hartwell

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