« PreviousContinue »
many years. These portraits were most of them drawn by Sir Godfrey Kneller, and were afterwards given to Jacob Tonson, the bookseller. The man who kept the tavern was called Christopher Cat; ' from whence it was called the Kit-Cat Club; and that size, in painting, KitCat also.
PUNISHMENT of Death IN PRUSSIĄ, NORWAY, AND BRUNSWICK.-(Extract of a Letter received by the Committee of the Capital Punishment Society, dated Berlin, March 10, 1835.) -" There are no printed returns of crime in Prussia, but the Minister of Justice, M. de Pampy, has, with great kindness and liberality, given me a written statement of the capital convictions and executions in each year from 1818 to 1834, specifying the nature of the crimes, and the provinces in which they were committed. * * * * *
"The paucity of executions is the first point. In the seventeen years from 1818 to 1834 (inclusive), there have been, in all, 123 executions ; and the crimes for which they took place are as follows:
Arson . . . . . . . . . . . 1)
Murder. .......... 100) “ The one execution for Arson took place in 1818, since which time, consequently, the punishment of death has been inflicted only for intentional homicide of different degrees. Even for murder the sentence is nearly as often commuted as executed. In the whole seventeen years there were sentenced to death for murder 187, of whom 100 only were executed.
“ I now come to another point-the great diminution in severity of late years :
In the first three years, 1818, 1819, 1820, there were executed—24; In the last three years, 1832, 1833, 1834, there were executed-6;
2 in each year. “ The mean population of Prussia, during the same period, may be taken at 12,303,535, that being the amount according to the official census in 1826, which year falls exactly in the middle of the same series of years.
“On receiving these documents, I immediately proceeded to examine whether the crimes which have actually been punished with death in the above period have increased or diminished, as the punishment of death has been more and more rarely inflicted. In doing so, I omitted the two first years 1818, and 1819, to get a number divisible into three equal parts, and then divided the fifteen years into three equal periods of five years each. The only crimes actually punished capitally in that period, have been, as I said before, murder, and voluntary manslaughter. You will observe that, for both of these crimes taken together, there were,
In the 1st period—most executions,—and most crime:
diminution of crime. “In the next table, I omit the crime of manslaughter. It forms, in my opinion, no correct test of the comparative efficacy of other
punishments and that of death; for as the crime is committed without premeditation, there is not room for reflection as to the nature of the punishment incurred. Murder is by far the better criterion for such a
5 years ending 1824, capitally convicted 69, executed 47 :-orio
5 years . . . 1834 . ...... 43 . . . . 16:-or 100 “ Here there is a diminution of executions in each of the two last periods, and at the same time a diminution of crime. If we compare the two extreme periods, we find one-third less crime in the last with sixteen executions, than in the first with forty-seven executions.
The entire number of Executions in each year.
In five years for murder. . . 26
In five years for murder. . . 16
100 123 “ A code of penal law has been prepared by a Commission in NorWAY: I do not know whether it is yet adopted. It was published in 1834, and has been translated into German. By it the only crimes punished capitally are murder, — high treason, -robbery, where the person robbed dies in consequence of the injuries he has received, -and arson, where some person has lost his life by the fire.
“ In the Duchy of BRUNSWICK there was no execution during the reign of Charles William, which lasted from 1780 to 1806: and in a criminal code which has been prepared for Brunswick by Strombeck, an eminent lawyer of that duchy, no capital punishment is retained. But whether this code has been adopted or not, I am unable to inform
• In the last three years twenty-two were sentenced to death for murder, of whom only four were executed.
· PỤNISHMENT OF DEATH IN Belgium. ' Abstract of Returns printed for the Chamber of Deputies.
From these Returns, it appears that the diminution and ultimately the discontinuance of capital punishments was attended with a diminution in the number of atrocious offences, and particularly that of murder, a result observed in Tuscany and other countries, where the effect of abolishing capital punishments, or greatly ameliorating the criminal laws, has been tried.
Popisu DIGNITARIES.- According to the Almanack of Cracow, the number of Cardinals now amounts to 55, the oldest of whom has reached the age of 83, the youngest that of 38. The Pope is 73 years of age. In addition to the above, we have 12 patriarchs. The entire Catholic Church counts 671 bishoprics, several of which have vacancies to be filled up. The present Pope has created six new bishoprics—one in Belgium, one in Westphalia, two in the United States, and two in the kingdom of Naples.
HUGUENOTS.-"The first occasion how the name of Huguenots, which our author every where useth, came first to be given to the French Protestants. There is ever some salt as well as gall in malice, and this temper makes it sometimes bitterly witty, as may appeare by this name of Huguenots, by which and no other doe the French Papists generally youchsafe to call the Protestants. It was taken up about the yeare 1559, which was some foure or five yeeres before Mr. Calvin's death. Till which time they were called Tourengeaux, of the citie of Tours, where the Protestants mostly used. But about that time, there having beene a foolish opinion of a night-spirit's walking up and downe the streets, which they called King Hugon, this fancie made one of the citie-gates to be called King Hugon's Gate ; and the Protestants being once observed in the night to goe thorow that gate unto their assemblies and holy exercises, were hereupon called Huguenots. He that will see more of this name, and the occasion of it, may finde a handsome discourse of it in Monsieur Pasquieur's Recherches, 7, 52, whither I refer you.”—The Catholic Moderator, or a Moderate Exami
• The laws remained the same for the whole time embraced by this table, but in consequence of the good effects of their practical amelioration, they are now undergoing a revision. VOL. XVII, NO. VII.
nation of the Doctrine of the Protestants. 2d Ed. London. 1623. 4to. (Advertisement.)
See a different account in the Selections from the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. I. p. 55.
CHURCH SOCIETIES... S. P. 0.—Report of the Foreign Translation language had been but little studied, Committee for the year 1835.
and no standard compositions in it
had been printed. The translation is, The Committee appointed for the therefore, necessarily defective in point purpose of superintending the pub- of style; and though generally faithful, lication and promoting the circulation it is stated to be such as no native of the Holy Scriptures in foreign lan scholar could read with pleasure. And guages, and also of versions of the Professor Wilson considers it very deEnglish Liturgy, beg to present to the sirable that a new Sanscrit version Board a report of their proceedings should be undertaken, not only on since their appointment.
account of the extensive circulation The Committee having taken into which might be expected, in conseconsideration the best means for car- quence of its being intelligible to Sanrying into effect the object for which scrit scholars from one end of India to they were appointed, deemed it requi the other, but because it might be site, in the first place, to make inquiries made a common standard to all the into the character and merits of exist- vernacular dialects of the country for ing versions, both of the Holy Scrip abstract and doctrinal terms. He tures and of the Liturgy, and to obtain observes that most, if not all, the the opinions of competent judges as to current forms of speech in India, are the expediency of republishing old ver- dependent on Sanscrit for words to sions, or the preparation of new ones, express metaphysical ideas: and that in any particular language.
if they had a fixed source from which One of the first objects of inquiry to derive them, equally available to was the state of the existing oriental all, and which it would be advisable versions of the Scriptures, especially in to indicate to all translators over whom those languages which are spoken in the societies at home have authority, the British dominions in India. On as the standard to refer to, an 'uniform this subject the Committee have had phraseology would be established in the advantage of being assisted in their India, as it has been in Europe, with inquiry by H. H. Wilson, Esq. Pro- the same advantages of convenience fessor of Sanscrit in the University of and ultimate precision. Oxford, who favoured them with a This view of the importance of an very valuable report on the trans- improved Sanscrit version, is strengthlations of the Holy Scriptures, accom- ened by the opinion expressed in plished or contemplated in Bengal. another valuable report on the same
Professor Wilson enumerates thirty- subject, which the Committee have reseven versions of the whole, or of ceived from one of their own body, portions of the Bible which have been Richard Clarke, Esq., formerly of accomplished, and fifteen of which are Madras; and both these gentlemen in progress : but as he considers many concur in opinion, that the combinaof them unnecessary, on account of tion of native and European talent, their having been made into mere dia- which would be required for the aclects, it will be useless to repeat their complishment of this work, could be names to the Board
most readily and most effectively obAt the head of the Bengal versions tained in Bishop's College, Calcutta. he places the Sanscrit. When the The Committee have, therefore, enpresent version was undertaken, the tered into communication with the
Bishop' of Calcutta, and with the Principal of Bishop's College ; and have authorized them to take such measures as they may deem proper for effecting a new version of the Holy Scriptures iuto Sanscrit, upon the principles recommended in the above report. The Sanscrit Glossary of Theological Terms, already published by Principal Mill, will afford great facilities for its accomplishment.
The other Indian versions which have been recommended by Professor Wilson, and to which the Committee have directed their attention, are Bengali, Uriya, Hinduwi, and Hindustani, for Upper Indiá; Mabratta, and Guzeratti, for the West; and Tamul and Telugu, with Kanara and Malayalam, for the South. These are considered by the Professor to be quite sufficient for those Indian fields in which the labours of christian zeal are most likely to be attended with success. Some of these versions will probably require but little improvement, to make them suitable for the purposes of the Society.
The old Tamul translation has been several times revised by the Society's missionaries, and printed at the Mission Press at Vepery.
With respect to oriental versions of the Liturgy, the Committee have entered into communication with the Bishop of Calcutta, respecting the plan which was formed by Bishop Turner for translating the Liturgy into the languages of India, and have empowered his Lordship, in conjunction with the Principal of Bishop's College, to proceed with such translations as they may deem requisite, upon the principles laid down in Professor Wilson's report, without waiting for further communications from England.
By this means it is hoped that, in due time, a provision will be made for the Christians of India, which will tend to unite them in the bonds of communion with the Church of England.
The Committee have bad prepared for them specimens of a new Arabic translation of the Liturgy, which has been made at Malta, bya learned native of Bagdad, under the inspection of the Rev. C. F. Schlienz. Of these specimens a very favourable report has been inade by Professor Lee; but the
Committee concur with the Professor in considering the work to be of very great importance in regard to theslogical terms. They have therefore determined, that the whole shall be transcribed and submitted to the cons sideration of Arabic scholars at home, before it is printed under the sanction of the Society.
It is hoped that this version will be found useful to the members of those oriental churches which use the Arabic language, to one of which the translator bimself belongs.
With regard to the European versions, the Committee had their attention first called to the state of the French translations, and to the importance of procuring or adopting a standard version of the Scriptures in that language. The decision of this question having been referred to the Lord Bishop of Winchester, in a part of whose diocese the Scriptures are used in the French language, his lordship kindly undertook to examine whether any of the existing versions could be adopted, or whether a new version was desirable; and to give the result of his examination to the Committee.
From a statement which he has submitted to them, it appears that there are not less than four different versions of the Holy Scriptures, indiscriminately used in the Channel Islands; and that there are altogether at least ten distinct versions in use among the French Protestants, occasioning much confusion, not to say positive evil, in their churches, schvols, and families; and examples are adduced which abundantly shew that it will be very unadvisable for the Committee to publish, with the Society's sauction, any of the existing versions in their present state. · The Bishop, therefore, recommends as a remedy for these inconveniences, that the Committee should publish a new or thoroughly revised edition of the Holy Scriptures in French, taking for the basis the Paris edition of Martin's translation, which approaches nearest to the English version.
This recommendation has been adopted by the Committee, and they are taking measures to carry it into effect.