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that the composer of these melodies was one Guillaume Franc; and to this fact, Beza himself testifies, in a kind of certificate, signed with his own hand, dated November 2,1552. Bayle's correspondent farther adds, that he had in his possession a copy of the Geneva Psalms, printed in 1564, with the name Guillaume Franc to it; whereto is prefixed the license of the magistrate, signed Gallatin, and sealed with red wax, declaring Guillaume Franc to be the author of the musical notes to which the Psalms in that impression are set. The Old Hundredth Psalm is one of them.
It seems that Bourgeois composed music (that is, harmonized only) to only eighty-three of the Psalms, which music was in four, five, and six parts. These Psalms were printed at Lyons in 1561. As to Goudimel, it is certain that he set the whole in four or five parts; for the book was printed at Paris, in 1565, by Adrian Le Roy and Robert Ballard. Nevertheless, there is reason to think, that this or some other collection of Marot's Psalms, with the music, had made its appearance earlier than 1565; and, indeed, express mention is made of fifty of Marot's Psalms, with the music printed at Strasburg, with the Liturgy, in 1545 ;* and there is extant a Preface to Marot's Psalms, written by Calvin himself, and dated June 10, 1543, wherein is the following passage :—" All the Psalms, with their music, were printed the first time at Geneva, with a Preface concerning an agreement of the printer's thereof, whereby they had engaged to appropriate a part of the profits raising from that and future impressions for the relief of the poor refugees at Geneva."
The name of Guillaume Franc is hardly known among musicians. As the original melodies, however, have never been ascribed to any other author, credit may be given to the above-mentioned anecdbte, communicated to Bayle concerning them. What those original melodies were will hereafter be considered. It is certain that the honour of first composing (harmonizing) music in parts to the Geneva Psalms is due to Bourgeois and Goudimel. Of the former very little is to be learned, but the character and unfortunate history of the latter remain on record.f
The Psalms of Marot and Beza were also set by another very eminent musician, Claude le Jeune. These two musicians, Goudimel and Claude le Jeune, are the most celebrated composers of music to the French Psalms.
But here it is necessary to remark, that although the common opinion is, that they each composed the four parts, yet the tenor part, which at that time was of the most consequence, as it carried in it the air, or melody, of the whole composition, was common both to the tunes of Goudimel and Claude le Jeune, and was composed by another person, J so that neither of them have done any thing more than given the harmony to a certain melody, which melody is in both authors one and the same.
It is very difficult to assign a reason for this conduct, unless wc sup
* Twenty years before the one printed at Paris, in which is found the Hnndredth Psalm, but ranked as the hundredth and twenty-fifth.
f Thrown out of a two pair of stairs window, dragged along the streets, and cast into the river.
t Guillaume Franc.
pose that these melodies, to which the studies and labours of both these eminent men were but subservient, were, on the score of their antiquity or excellence, in such estimation with the people, as to subject a modern musician that should reject them to the imputation of envy or vanity. In either case, our curiosity leads us to inquire,—Who was the author of those melodies, which two of the most eminent musicians of France condescended thus to honour ?—In short, recollecting what Bayle has related about the original French Psalm-tunes of one part, and laying the above circumstances together, there is little reason to doubt but that those original melodies, which constitute the tenor part, and are therefore the ground-work of Goudimel and Claude le Jeune's Psalmtunes, were those very original tunes which the above-cited author has ascribed to Guillaume Franc.
Thus much may suffice for the general account of the introduction and setting of the Psalms to music.
In 1549, Sternhold's Psalms were first printed, and, in 1562, the whole version, as completed by Hopkins and others, with this title, "The whole Book of Psalmes, collected into English Metre, by T. Sternhold, J. Hopkins, and others, conferred with the Ebrue; with apt Notes to sing them withall." By these apt notes we are to understand the tunes, to the number of about forty or fifty, which are to be found in that and many subsequent impressions of one part only, and in general suited to the pitch and compass of a tenor voice, but most excellent indeed for the sweetness and gravity of their melody. And because the number of tunes thus printed or published was less than that of the Psalms, directions were given, in cases where the metre and general import of the words allowed it, to sing sundry of them to one tune, thereby making them applicable to the 150 Psalms. These tunes were used or sung until the reign of King Charles I.; when others were composed, or harmonized, by the following authors :—
The naming of the tunes after different cities or towns is as follows :—
ENGLISH TUNES. i Chichester. 2*. 53. 110. Bath and Wells, or Glastonbury. Christ's Hospital. 78. 107.
Ps. 19. 63. HO. Ely. 21. 2d Part of the 51st Psalm.
Bristol. 16.64. Exeter. 15. 65.
Cambridge. 2.73. 106. 117. 128. [ Gloucester. 10. 48. 143.
Canterbury. 25. 'Hereford. 11.49.144.
Lincoln. 7. 56. 142.
Litchfield and Coventry. 9. 58.
Norwich. 5. 55. 102
Oxford. 4. 74. 109. 129.
Peterborough. 8. 57.
Rochester. 24. 82. 139.
Salisbury. 17. 54.
Winchester. 23. 84. 98. 101. 116.
York. Ps. 27.66. 115. 138.
Durham. 28. 76.
Chester. 31. 80. 129. 146.
Carlisle. 29. 79.
Southwel. 2d Part of the 50th Psalm.
70. 134. Manchester. 147.
Kings. Ps. 32. 86.
Low Dutch Tones. Ps. 12. 60. 114. 131.
High Dutch Tones. 112. 125. 127.
Italian Tones. 120.
French Tones. 50. 100. 111. 113; 121. 122. 121. 126. ISO. the Ten Commandments.
English Tunes, imitating the HighDutch, Italian, French, and Netherlandish Tones. 1. 3. 6. 14. 18. 21. 30. 38. 41. 44. 51. 52. 59. 61. 68. 69. 71. 77. 78. 103. 104. 119. 132. 136. 137. 141.
Here we have the origin of a practice respecting the names of our common church tunes, i. e. the distinguishing them by the names of cathedral or collegiate towns. It was also about this time that King Charles I. was prevailed upon by the Clergy to attempt the establishment of the Liturgy in Scotland; and perhaps it was with a view to humour the people of that kingdom that some of the new tunes should be called by the names of Dumferling, Dundee, Glasgow, &c, so that the antiquity of these new compositions may be traced back to about the year 1626, and are the composition of those whose name they bear.
It has always been imagined that the tune or melody of the hundredth Psalm was composed by Martin Luther. However this may be, the same melody is to be found in those tunes composed by Guillaume Franc about 1553, and is the twenty-eighth tune in that set; and also in the old black-letter Prayer Books, printed about nine years after they were composed, with Sternhold and Hopkins's version; and is the twentyeighth tune also in both the books of that date, and those printed in the early part of the reign of James I., 1604.
I think that it will plainly appear, that instead of the tune or melody having been composed by Martin Luther, he only versified the hundredth Psalm; for the same melody is to be found in the works of Goudimel, Claude le Jeune, and Lewis Bourgeois. It may also be seen in the Geneva Psalms, composed by Guillaume Franc, 1553, which was about seven years after the version by Marot and Beza had been completed; and seven years after the death of Martin Luther, in Goudimel's Psalms, this said tune is the thirty-fourth, and also in Claude le Jeune's, the 134th.
The following, however, may serve to throw some light upon what is called Luther's tunes :—
Dr. M. Luther was born at Isleben, in Saxony, 1483, died 1546. The following are the titles of some of the many which he either composed or corrected. These titles are taken from the " Pstichten eines Organisten," i. e. "The Duties of an Organist," by the Music Direct. Turk, p. 42:—
1. Wir glauben all an einen Gott.
2. Jesaia dem Propheten das.
8. Ein veste Burgist unser Gott.
4. Erhalt uns Herr bey deinem Wort.
5. Es wolt uns Gott genadig seyn.
6. Ach Gott vom Himmel sich darein.
7. Es ist gewisslich an der Zeit.
8. Deis sind die heilgen zehn Gebot.
9. Nun bitten wir den heilgen Geist.
10. Gelobet seyst du Jesu Christ.
11. Vom Himmel hoch da kom ich her.
12. Komm, heiliger Geist Herre Gott.
13. Mitten wir im Leben sind.
14. Gott der Vater wohn uns bey.
15. Vater unser im Himmetreich.
16. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan.
The music of some of these is with much probability attributed to Luther, especially the hymns called, " Das grosse glauben," Nos. 1 & 2, concerning which Johann Walther, in his Epistle, speaks with particular praise, especially as to the manner in which Luther has adapted the notes to the text. On the other hand, the Melodies, Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, were known long before Luther. To these ancient melodies may also be added, " Ein Kindelein so Itibelich," " In dulci Jubilo," "Christ fuhr gen Himmel," and " Erstanden ist der heilge." Luther preferred these beautiful melodies to all the translations and adaptations from the Latin Church.
Gerber is not certain whether the Old Litany to God and all the Saints (No. 14) was not originally a Catholic hymn; what however is certain is, that the melody was known before Luther.
The Reformation in Germany produced little change in the solemn musical services of the church. Luther was devotedly fond of music; and, in conjunction with his friend Melancthon, he framed a ritual, in which the choral service was retained in as much splendour and magnificence as the times would allow. Several hymns are yet extant composed by this eminent Reformer; and, although it is doubtful whether that admirable piece of sacred music, " Great God," &c. was written by him, it is certain that his proficiency in the science was far from contemptible.
The High Dutch Version of the Psalms was made soon after Luther's death by some of the Dutch Clergy.
Calvin was as much opposed to the discipline as to the doctrines of the Church of Rome. He introduced, in lieu of the impressive chorus, and the simple yet magnificent plain-song, the Metrical Psalmody, which is at present in general use in the reformed churches of the continent, and was till lately uniformly practised in our parochial churches.
Plain congregational singing was practised by the Wickliffites in the fourteenth, and by John Huss and his followers in the fifteenth centuries. The United Brethren had published, in 1538, at Ulm, what they termed, "A fine new Hymn Book."
(Here terminate the MS. observations of Mr. Clark.)
For the following testimony, that the tune usually sung to the Hundredth Psalm, was not composed by Martin Luther, we are indebted to Mr. G. Cooper, sub-organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, and which we quote from his publication containing the "Responses, Anthems, Psalms, &c, as performed at the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, on the day of the anniversary meeting of the charity children educated in London."
"This melody has long been erroneously attributed to Martin Luther; and although it so much reminds us of his style, yet we have every reason to believe that it was not composed by him. I have in my possession the first and subsequent editions of his Choral Gesang Book, printed at Wittenberg, and other places, by Rhane, Walther, Olearius, &c, in A. D. 1524, 1525. 1528, 1529, 1532, 1533, 1538, 1539, 1542, 1543, 1544, and 1557; in all which editions the melody of the Hundredth Psalm never once occurs. There is a Chorale of Luther's, beginning like the Hundredth Psalm,—the canto fermo of the first line being composed of the same intervals,—which probably will account for the general misapplication.
"Ravenscroft, in his Psalm Book, printed in A. D. 1621, classes it in the list of French tunes; he having copied it from Calvin's Psalm Book, printed at Geneva, A. D. 1543, under the following title: 'Les Pseaumes, mis en rime Francoise, par Clement Marot, et Theodore de Beza, a Geneve. Par Thomas Courtean.'"
Mr. Cooper, therefore, gives the authorship of the Hundredth Psalm to Claude Goudimel, chapel master at Lyons. It was first printed at Geneva, A. D. 1543.