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defiance of the length and the dangers of the journey, to visit this principal residence of the fine arts, which they admire like a brilliant prodigy, for the magnificence of its buildings, and the majesty of the place, and the beauty of its monuments, —it would indeed be base, and most foreign to the desire of never-ending happiness, to pretend the difficulty or dangers of the journey, and similar excuses, to decline the pilgrimage to Rome. There is, beloved brethren, there is in reserve what will most amply remunerate you for every inconvenience and hardship: yes, these sufferings, if any such occur, are not fit to be compared to the weight of glory to come, which, with God's assistance, will be secured to you by the means prepared for the sanctification of your souls. For you will here reap the most abundant fruits of penance, by which you may offer to God the sacrifice of your bodies, chastised by continued acts of self-denial; may religiously perform the works of piety prescribed by the conditions of the indulgence; and may add a new force to your fixed and persevering resolution to satisfy for your past crimes by penitential austerities, and to avoid all sin for the time to come. Therefore ascend with loins girt up to this holy Jerusalem, this priestly and royal city, which, by the sacred chair of the blessed Peter, become the capital of the world, is seen to maintain more extensive dominion by the divine influence of religion than by earthly authority. “For this is the city,” said St. Charles, exhorting his people to visit Rome in the holy year, “this is the city whose soil, walls, altars, churches, tombs of the martyrs, and every visible object, suggest something religious to the mind, as they experience and feel, who approach these sacred abodes with proper dispositions.” Consider how much it conduces to excite faith and charity, to pro

ceed round those ancient places, by which the majesty of reli

gion is wonderfully recommended; then to place before one's eyes so many thousand martyrs, who have consecrated this very soil with their blood—to enter their churches, to witness their honours, and venerate their shrines. Now, “if heaven is not so resplendent, when the sun darts forth its rays, as is the city of the Romans, possessing those two luminaries, Peter and Paul, diffusing their light through the universe,” as St. John Chrysostome said, who will dare, without the affection of the tenderest devotion, to approach their conFESSIONs, to prostrate before their tombs, and kiss their chains, more precious than gold and gems ? Who, in fine, can refrain from tears, when, perceiving the cradle of Christ, he shall recollect the infant Jesus crying in the manger; or, saluting the most sacred instruments of our Lord's passion, shall meditate on the Redeemer of the world hanging on the cross? Since these venerable monuments of religion, by the singular bounty of divine Providence, are collected in this city alone, they are truly the sweetest pledges of love, that the Lord loveth the gates of Sion above all the tents of Jacob; and they affectionately invite you all, dearest children, without delay, to ascend the mountain, where it has pleased the Lord to dwell. But here our solicitude demands that we especially address all ranks in this holy city; reminding them that the eyes of the faithful, arriving from every part of the world, are fixed upon them; that, therefore, nothing but what is grave, moderate, and becoming the Christian, ought to appear in them; so that all may seek from their conduct an example of modesty, innocence, and of every kind of virtue. Hence, from this chosen people, among whom the Prince of pastors has pleased that the chair of the most blessed Peter should be fixed, let the rest of mankind learn how to reverence the Catholic church and ecclesiastical authority, to obey its precepts, and always to render great honour to ecclesiastical things and persons. Let the respect that is due to churches be conspicuous in them, so that nothing may be observed by strangers of a nature to bring the sacred rights of religion or holy places into contempt or disrepute; nothing that can offend decency, purity, or modesty; nothing but what will excite admiration and edification. Let all be correct and regular in their conduct; let them show by their external behaviour that they attend the duties of religion, not merely by their corporeal presence, but in the true spirit of piety and devotion. We also press on their attention, not to appear engaged, on the days appointed for sacred offices and the honour of God and his saints, in the celebration of feasting, and amusements, and unseasonable mirth, and wanton licentiousness. In fine, “whatever things are true, whatever are modest, whatever are just, whatever are holy, whatever are lovely, whatever are of good fame,”—let these shine forth in the Roman people, so that we may congratulate them that the glory of faith and piety, for which they were recommended as an example by the apostle Paul, and which have been transmitted to them by their ancestors as their best inheritance, has received no tarnish, but has even been illustrated in their zeal and edifying conduct. We are indeed refreshed with this consoling hope, that each one will be zealous for the better gifts, that the sheep of the Lord's flock will run to the embraces of the Shepherd, and that all will be as an army in battle array, having charity for their banner. Therefore, “Jerusalem, lift up thine eyes round about, and see: thy sons from far shall come to thee, and thy heart shall wonder and be enlarged.” But would to God “ that the children of them that afflicted thee would come

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bowing down to thee, and all that slander thee would worship the steps of thy feet.” To you, to you we address ourselves with the entire affection of our apostolic heart, whom we bewail as separated from the true church of Christ and the road of salvation. In this common exultation, this alone is wanted : grant it to your most loving parent, that at length, called by the inspiration of the Spirit from above into his admirable light, and bursting asunder every snare of division, you may have one consentient mind with this church, the mother and mistress of all others, out of which there is no salvation. Enlarging our heart, we will joyfully receive you into our fatherly bosom, and will bless the God of all consolation, who, in this greatest triumph of Catholic faith, shall enrich us with these riches of his mercy. But you, venerable brethren, patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops, co-operate with these our cares and desires; call a solemn assembly, gather the people, that your children may be prompted to receive those gifts which the Father of mercies has entrusted for distribution amongst the children of his love, through the ministry of our humility; remind them, that short are the days of this our pilgrimage; and since we know not at what hour the Father of the household may come, that we must therefore be on the watch, and bear in our hands burning lamps full of the oil of charity, so that we may readily and cheerfully meet the Lord's arrival. To you it belongs to explain with perspicuity the power of indulgences; what is their efficacy, not only in the remission of the canonical penance, but also of the temporal punishment due to the divine justice for past sin; and what succour is afforded out of this heavenly treasure, from the merits of Christ and his saints, to such as have departed real penitents in God's love, yet before they had duly satisfied by fruits worthy of penance for sin of

commission and omission, and are now purifying in the fire of purgatory, that an entrance may be opened for them into their eternal country, where nothing defiled is admitted. Courage and attention, venerable brethren for some there are, following that wisdom which is not from God, and covering themselves with the clothing of sheep, under the usual pretence of a more refined piety, are now sowing amongst the people erroneous comments on this subject. Do you teach the flock their several duties; in what deeds of piety and charity they ought to employ themselves; with what diligence, with what sense of sorrow, they ought to examine themselves and their past life; that they should remove and correct what is pernicious in their conduct, so that they may obtain the most abundant and proper fruit of this most sacred indulgence. But it becomes you, venerable brethren, principally to attend to this, that the members of your respective flocks, who undertake the pilgrimage, may perform it with a religious spirit; that they should avoid every thing on the journey which can disturb their pious purpose, or withdraw them from their holy resolutions; and that they should diligently follow up whatever is conducive to animate and inflame devotion. If, taking into consideration your persons and places, you be at liberty to visit this capital of religion, much splendour will be reflected by your presence on this solemnity; you will accumulate the most abundant riches of the divine mercy, and on your return will delightfully share the same, as most valuable . treasures, amongst your people. Nor can we doubt but that all our dearest children in Christ, the Catholic princes, will assist us on this great occasion with their powerful concurrence; that these our views, so beneficial to souls, may have the desired effect. For this purpose, we entreat and exhort them, by their commendable zeal for

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