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ment of geological and topographical surveys under the government. The national survey has an extremely efficient organization, and is allowed an annual appropriation of over $800,000. It co-operates with the surveys established in many of the states, which are also liberally supported. A botanical garden was begun in Philadelphia by John Bartram in 1728, and is still maintained somewhat as originally planned. A second garden was established in New York city at the beginning of the century by David Hosack, of Columbia university. It became at one time the property of the state, but was not continued. Nearly a hundred years later a great botanical garden has been established in New York city in affiliation with Columbia university. The city has set aside in Bronx park, 250 acres of land— about equal to the area of the Royal botanic gardens at Kew — and liberal sums for construction and equipment have been provided from public funds and by private gifts. The buildings are now being constructed and the grounds laid out under the supervision of the director, Dr. N. L. Britton. The Missouri botanical garden was established at St. Louis in 1889, through a large bequest from Henry Shaw. It possesses over 600 acres, only part of which is required by the garden, while the rest gives an ample endowment. Dr. William Trelease is the director. The garden, which is affiliated with Washington university, issues annual Reports and special Contributions. In addition to a botanical garden at Buffalo, established in 1897, several universities possess botanical gardens, of which by far the most important are the Botanic garden and Arnold aboretum of Harvard university. There are well-arranged gardens, especially for teaching purposes, at the University of Pennsylvania, at the University of California, at Smith college and at the Michigan agricultural college. Lastly the botanic gardens and the gardens of the U. S. department of agriculture at Washington may be mentioned. A vast amount of important scientific and economic work in botany, forestry and agriculture is carried out under the auspices of the department, and plans are being made for the establishment of great botanical gardens at Washington. The Zoological society of Philadelphia began the construction of a zoological garden in Fairmount park in 1872; the collection of animals has been the best in the United States, and scientific research has not been neglected. In 1874 a flourishing zoological garden was established in Cincinnati, and San Francisco, Pittsburg and other cities have recently secured similar foundations. But the most important advance in this direction has been the recent establishment of great zoological parks in Washington and in New York city. The National zoological park was established by act of congress in 1889, was provided with about 166 acres of land and placed under the direction of the Smithsonian institution. The collections are not very extensive, but the large area of the park allows the animals to live under conditions more nearly natural than is usual in zoological gardens. The park is under the scientific direction of Dr. Frank Baker. A menagerie has been maintained in Central park, New York city, since 1860, but one among the notable scientific advances of the city in recent years has been the establishment of a zoological society and the setting aside by the city in 1897 of 261 acres for a zoological park. It is in Bronx park, near the botanical gardens, and is being developed with resources almost unequalled, under the direction of Mr. W. T. Hornaday, with Professor H. F. Osborn of Columbia university as chairman of the executive committee. Biological laboratories, beginning with Louis Agassiz's school at Penikese have enjoyed an important development in the United States. These are maintained during the summer, usually in affiliation with a university, and like the university combine research with instruction. The Marine biological laboratory at Woods Holl, Mass., was incorporated in 1888, and under the direction of Dr. C. O. Whitman has grown continually in size and importance. In the laboratory and in the station of the fish commission at Woods Holl about 1oo investigators are engaged each summer, a larger number of students of biology, probably, than will be found elsewhere in the world. Courses of instruction are also given. There are well-organized marine laboratories at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, and on the Bay of Monterey, California. The former is administered by the Brooklyn institute of arts and sciences and is under the direction of Dr. Charles B. Davenport. The latter is part of Stanford university and is directed by members of its faculty. There are at least three important freshwater biological stations conducted, respectively, by the University of Indiana, the University of Illinois and the Ohio state university. Numerous special laboratories have also been established, including stations in Bermuda and the Bahamas. The establishment of a national board of health has often been recommended, but has not as yet been carried into effect. There are, however, numerous state and local boards which carry on important statistical and experimental investigations. We have as yet no well-endowed institutes of pathology or bacteriology, but special laboratories are being founded in connection with municipalities, hospitals and universities. A pathological laboratory has been established for New York state, and it may be expected that the near future will witness a great increase in institutes of experimental and preventative medicine. There is no previous publication covering the ground of this monograph and in its preparation I have been especially indebted to the officers of societies and institutions who have supplied the information needed. The most useful publications of a general character have been: “Preliminary list of American learned and educational societies,” in the report of the commissioner of education for 1893–94; “Catalogue of scientific and technical periodicals,” by Dr. H. Carrington

Bolton, published by the Smithsonian institution; and “Minerva, Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt,” published at Strasburg.

For The

UNITED STATES Commission to THE PARIs Exposition of 190o


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NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, Wew York





Principal of the Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama


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